# Questions tagged [huygens-principle]

Also known as the **Huygens-Fresnel principle**, this is a method of analysis used in problems of wave propagation in far-field and near-field diffraction. Use the diffraction tag for general diffraction questions.

75 questions
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### Radius of wavelet using Huygen's principle

I was trying problem 1.6 and couldn't solve it. Any help is appreciated. My effort : I considered a point $P_1$ at distance y from the x-axis and another point $P_2$at a distance $y-\delta y$ from ...
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### Does Huygens Principle of reflection take polarization into account?

There are many applets on the internet which demonstrate Huygens Principle or reflection/refraction geometrically. This is one such example: https://www.olympus-lifescience.com/zh/microscope-resource/...
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### Does light only mimic water waves, or also the properties of water?

Huygen's Principle compares diffraction to ripples in water. Do the similarities translate to surface tension? The hydrophobic effect?
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### What is the reason behind diffraction of light?

What is the actual reason behind diffraction of light? I want to know how is the phenomenon diffraction explained theoretically in physics (best if the discussion limits itself to classical physics). ...
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### How does the green function for the wave equation in three dimensions preserve the ordering of noises between a speaker and a listener

I was provided with the following equation in class for the Green's function of a three dimensional wave equation: However, I am confused as to how this form of the Greens function preserves the ...
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### Huygens’s principle [closed]

On the application of Huygens’s principle with an incident wavefront on the mirror, we see that wavelets are emitted at each point as shown. My question is how can the direction of propagation of the ...
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### Why do lens (convex) not introduce any path difference to light incident on it?

My understanding is that the top rays spend less time inside the lens where the speed of light is slow and the middle rays spend more time inside the lens so the time is kind of compensated . But I'm ...
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### Are Huygens wavelets just a geometric method for understanding how a wave moves forward or are they an actual thing?

Wavelets are emitted from every point on a wave towards all directions is what I read on a book but on another book I read Wavelets are emitted towards the same direction of the wave. And They create ...
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### Why exactly does diffraction occur?

Why do waves that were traveling in a straight direction change direction when passing through an opening? I thought that the waves (red arrow) when colliding with the wall bounce in the opposite ...
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### Huygens Principle and Interference

If Huygens Principle states that every point on a wave acts as a source of secondary wavelets, then: Is the new wavefront formed by the interference of these secondary wavelets? If so, then how can ...
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### Huygens' principle

How do we know that the angle ADC is right angle here?
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### Huygen's Principle, Snell's law and velocity of light

Can you deduce Snell's law from Huygen's Principle without knowing in which medium the velocity is going to less? Of all the derivations I have seen of Snell's law using Huygen's Principle (light ...
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### Practical Example of Huygen's Principle

Huygen's Principle is the idea that a plane wave traveling through a slit will expand outwards after passing through a slit. http://hyperphysics.phy-astr.gsu.edu/hbase/phyopt/huygen.html I was ...
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### Holographic principle and Huygens principle

I have recently read about the information paradox of black holes and how it lead eventually to the formulation of the holographic principle. Quoting Wikipedia: "the description of a volume of space ...
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### Nature of Huygens' principle

Is Huygens' principle true or is it a geometrical construction to figure out path of light wave? And how does it explain diffraction? I am asking in reference to physical optics. What I want to know ...
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### How to best describe wave behavior on even dimensions?

Main source: http://www.mathpages.com/home/kmath242/kmath242.htm On this article, as far as I understand, the author claims that wave behavior on even dimensions would give rise to many waves with ...
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### Construction of a Propagating Plane Wave using Huygens' Principle

I would like to know how to simply construct a plane wave using Huygens' Principle, that each point on a wavefront can be regarded as a source of waves emanating from that point in every direction. I ...
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### Path integral in even number of spatial dimensions: does it exist?

The path integral formulation of Quantum Mechanics is related to Huygens principle, as stated by Feynman in his seminal article [1] and widely commented since then. However Huygens principle does not ...
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### A conceptual question about elementary optics

My question is about a little piece of information about the basic notion of Huygens Principle. Consider the following excerpt (Nussenzveig; Curso de Física Básica Vol 4; Brazil;Publisher Blücher) ...
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### How does the Huygens–Fresnel principle apply to diffraction?

I'm currently trying to understand the mechanics behind diffraction and gain a better understanding of the Huygens–Fresnel principle, but I've reached a hurdle that is making me question my ...
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### Destructive interference in single slit diffraction

I understand that the Huygens principle states that wavefront can be treated as infinite point sources of circular waves, and that the first destructive interference requires the phase difference ...
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### What is meant by secondary wavelets?

According to Huygens' principle: Every point on a wave-front may be considered a source of secondary spherical wavelets which spread out in the forward direction at the speed of light. The new ...
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### Huygens Principle, what's the benefit to this interpretation?

I don't understand what's the point in interpreting a wavefront as point sources emitting spherical waves. You then need to use magnetic and electric currents to explain away how there are not ...
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### What happens to the diffraction pattern of light as an aperture becomes infinitely small?

Will the point source according to Huygens principle start radiating backwards with nothing to cancel it out? Will it be a complete sphere if light passes through an infinitely small aperture?
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### Why does the DFT of a diffraction pattern gives the corners of the aperture?

I am comparing diffraction pattern images and their discrete Fourier transform (DFT). I know that since Fraunhofer diffraction is essentially a Fourier transform, the DFT of the resulting pattern ...
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### Making a lense using an array?

Would it be possible to build a lense out of array elements with a higher refractive index inter spaced with void elements eg a matrix of glass with air. I imagine that the spacing would have to be ...
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### Does Hyugens principle apply in three dimensions?

Does Hyugens principle apply in three dimensions ? If a surface wave (for simplicity an ocean wave) is propagating along the x axis we know that this wave ray is a point source for wavelets on the y ...
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Consider the following Diagram : By Huygen's Principle, we know every point on a Wavefront acts as a Secondary point source and emits light (wavelets in all direction). Let us consider a Wavefront ...
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### Problem based on Huygens principle [closed]

I think tubelight is a linear source. So it's wavefront should be a cylinder. Since we should see the light through the cylinder which has a specific radii but has the same length of the tubelight. So ...
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### How to determine the wavefront

In case of symmetry around a point we can consider a sphere on whose surface points the waves are equidistant. But how to determine the wavefront around a linear source or a cylinder or triangle or of ...
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### What is the pseudomomentum of a wavefront in Huygen's construction?

Please refer to R. K. Luneburg, Mathematical Theory of Optics (U. California Press, Berkeley, Calif., 1966), Chap. 14, p. 64 for this question. Consider a set of wavefronts described by a ...
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### How does Fermat's principle of least time follow from Huygen's principle?

When I was first introduced to Snell's Law, I was shown a derivation using Fermat's principle of least time. Using this same principle you can show that the angle of incidence must be equal to the ...
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### How does Huygens' Principle follow from the fact that the Green's function for the wave equation is a spherically expanding disturbance?

In simple words, the statement that the Green's function for the wave equation is a spherically expanding wave means that waves radiate spherically outwards from an impulsive disturbance. This much is ...
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### Does every leading edge of a wave travel at the speed of light?

I know this question may look like it doesn’t make sense. But at the end of the second paragraph of this article http://www.mathpages.com/home/kmath242/kmath242.htm it looks like the author says every ...
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### Isn’t this correction to Huygens Principle a little arbitrary? [closed]

The article I’m talking about: https://www-ee.stanford.edu/~dabm/146.pdf In this article, the author solves the main problem with Huygens Principle, which is that you have to ignore the backward ...
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### Doubt in derivation of Snell's law using Huygen's principle

When we derive Snell's law using Huygen's principle, after refraction, we draw a perpendicular line from the point of intersection of the second light ray with the refracting surface to the first, ...
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### Huygens' principle under the wind

I am wondering if the Huygens' principle is valid for the waves under the presence of wind? That is we say that if we drop a stone in a calm pond, then the wavefronts satisfy in the principle. Now ...
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### Huygens principle

Is there any law that says that the envelope coincides with the wavefront for any spatial dimension $n$? If I am not wrong, Huygens principle is valid just for even spatial dimensions. Is there some ...
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### Double slit - higher dimensions

The double slit experiment is a real-life manifestation of the Huygens principle. As is well-known, this principle depends on whether the number of dimensions is ever or odd; as Evans1 puts it, ...
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### Obliquity factor in Huygens principle

What is the derivation of the obliquity factor (intensity proportional to 1+cosø,where ø is the angle between direction of wave propagation and wavefront tangent at some point on the envelop) used in ...
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### Can diffraction be explained without the help of huygens' principle?

Is there any way other than huygens' principle to rationalize/explaine huygens' principle?
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### Why didn't huygens use hemispherical secondary wavelets instead of spherical secondary wavelets?

According to huygen's principle, every point on a wavefront maybe considered the source of secondary wavelets that spread out in all directions with a speed equal to the speed of propagation of the ...
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### How does Huygens' principle deny the possibility of diffraction?

In The Fundamental of Optics 4th edition by F Jenkins,H white there is a paragraph -"Huygens' supposed the secondary waves to be effective only at the point of tangency to their common envelope ,thus ...
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### Why are diffracted wave fronts drawn with curved edges in textbook diagrams, when according to Huygen's principle they should be straight lines?

Each wave front is comprised of an infinite number of point sources, each of which produce wavelets with the same wavelength as the wave itself. The superposition of the wavelets produce a new wave ...
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### Diffraction according to Huygens principle - struggling with the concept of diffraction being caused by small point source wavelets

Huygen's principle states that every plane wave is made up of an infinite number of point sources, and that the constructive interference between each wavelet forms the next wave front, and so the ...
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### Does bringing slits closer together increase or decrease intensity of interference pattern

Does bringing the slits together affect the intensity of maxima for double slit experiment and also the diffraction grating? Does decreasing slit width affect the intensity of the maxima for a single ...
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### Can the Huygens principle be justified rigorously mathematically?

Can the Huygens principle be justified rigorously mathematically? To what extent and what purpose is it still relevant today? Is it made obsolete by the Maxwell equations? If not, do the Maxwell ...
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### Where does Huygens–Fresnel principle follow from?

It was rather strange for me that I used Huygens–Fresnel principle in optics a lot, still not knowing anything about its origin. So I tried to look it up in some books, including Born-Wolf, and did ...