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Questions tagged [optics]

Optics is the study of light, and its interaction with matter. It includes topics such as imaging systems, fiber optics, lasers, quantum optics, and more.

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Material that Increases Angle of Incoming Light

Snell's law states that light refracts when entering a substance and refracts back to its original angle upon exit. This is shown in the diagram below from this webpage. I was wondering if there are ...
user109474's user avatar
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3 answers
22 views

Convergence of rays at focal plane after reflection from concave mirror

My teacher taught us that rays parallel to each other(but not necessarily parallel to the principal axis), after reflection from a concave mirror,get converged at a sharp point somewhere on the focal ...
NPC's user avatar
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1 answer
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Moving laser beam passing over stationary circular opening

I am in need of help with the following situation. I appreciate any insight. Imagine a circular laser beam of diameter d1 moving at velocity v passing over a stationary circular opening of diameter d2 ...
pankun's user avatar
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1 answer
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Dipole term in light-matter interaction

I have a question regarding the description of the term “dipole” in light-matter interactions. If I understand it correctly, there are 3 different things that one can declare as a dipole during light-...
Python_Coder's user avatar
1 vote
1 answer
34 views

Calculating mirror size for a teleprompter

I'm trying to calculate the required size of a mirror for a teleprompter application. The goal is to use the smallest possible mirror while still capturing the full image. It's a straightforward setup,...
Sohil Sathe's user avatar
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35 views

Diffraction when the wavefront is not parallel to the plane

I am studying Feynman's chapter on the origin of the index of the refractive index (see this link). If I am not mistaken, what he does is to prove that when a wave enters a medium (modelled as a ...
Plop's user avatar
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1 answer
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Field propagation in metamaterial based optical fibres?

We have an optical fibre having HMM cladding ( $\mu=1$ and have a permittivity tensor with one component different in sign than others) and a core having permittivity equal to one. How will light ...
MARYAM BIBI's user avatar
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Calculating focal length for wide angle conversion lens [closed]

How do you calculate the focal length for a wide-angle conversion lens, say with a factor of 0.7, that would convert a 50 mm lens to a 35 mm lens, e.g. for photography. Such a lens should be a concave ...
StanW's user avatar
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1 vote
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Snell's law in materials having negative permittivity only?

We have reverse Snell's law in negative index materials (having negative permittivity and permeability). If we have a material with only negative permittivity , then can we also have reverse Snell's ...
MARYAM BIBI's user avatar
1 vote
1 answer
38 views

According to Huygens' Princple, what happens to secondary wavelets when the sphere encircling the secondary source intersects a mirror?

A parallel light beam travelling towards a convex mirror. Wavefronts are shown with dotted lines. Consider the wavefront at the instant when the rays are just about to touch the mirror. Say, we have ...
brainfreeze's user avatar
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1 answer
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What is the relation between the Faraday effect and the Zeeman effect?

The Faraday Effect basically says that certain materials under a magnetic field have different indexes of refraction for right and circular polarized light. Linear light which is a superposition of ...
Aravind Karthigeyan's user avatar
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1 answer
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When building a fiber optic interferometer what methods are used to reduce microphonic effects?

When building a fiber optic interferometer what methods are used to reduce microphonic effects? I'm familiar with a few methods such as: enclosing the interferometer under a sound dampening cover, ...
Jimski's user avatar
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0 answers
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How do I calculate the absorption of single layers of a multilayer stack using the electric field in each layer?

I'm trying to calculate the absorbance of individual layers using the transfer matrix method but I'm stuck on how to do it. The code I am using can give the total absorbance of the system, and the ...
MOC's user avatar
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1 vote
1 answer
50 views

Permittivity real and imaginary parts with similar value possible?

Here's the context; I'm studying biological tissues that are supposed to behave like dielectrics. Using the modified cole-cole equation for theoretical predictions: $$\tilde{\varepsilon}_r (\omega )= \...
Laurier's user avatar
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Are there any commercially made optical fibers which are made specifically to have very low microphonic properties for application in interferometry

Are there any commercially made optical fibers which are made specifically to have very low microphonic properties for applications in interferometry. While building a fiber optic interferometer I ...
Jimski's user avatar
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Scattering into an edge state

In the optical context, a photon can excite an electron from the valence band to the conduction band if the photon energy is higher than the gap. I would like to know is it possible to photoexcite an ...
H. Khani's user avatar
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Principal plane of the lens [closed]

I want to set up an optical system as shown in the figure. A laser beam passes through a diffraction grating, then a beam splitter, through a 35mm focal length lens to the object, and then is ...
Yuu's user avatar
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2 votes
0 answers
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Direction of propagation of extraordinary wave inside a birefringent medium

I am reading Optics by Ajoy Ghatak, in which the author explains the phenomenon of double refraction in a calcite crystal using Huygens' principle. My query is in the analysis of the case of normal ...
Enigma's user avatar
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1 vote
0 answers
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3x3 beam transfer matrix tilt angle transformation [closed]

I'm trying to use the formalism from 'Generalized beam matrices. III. Application to diffraction analysis' and 'Generalized beam matrices: Gaussian beam propagation in misaligned complex optical ...
JoeMama's user avatar
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1 vote
1 answer
65 views

Why laser output power fluctuates after passing through two 1x2 fiber optic couplers?

When laser source is launched into two 1x2 50/50 fiber optic couplers connected as below the output power constantly fluctuates in range of 70 uW. The fluctuation happen roughly one to two times per ...
Jimski's user avatar
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0 answers
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Solarization Spectrum

I'm looking to better understand the relation between the spectrum of the light which induces solarization in glass and the spectrum of the induced absorption. More specifically, I'm interested in ...
Yuval Weissler's user avatar
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1 answer
46 views

Most generic form of refractive index tensors

The refractive index of a material is in general a $3x3$ tensor (as in the case of birefringent crystals). From literature, it seems that in the case of transparent crystals, this tensor is in general ...
Victor Liu's user avatar
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0 answers
43 views

Radiation energy and momentum relation [duplicate]

Why is $\rho = 3p$ for radiation? What is the intuition behind this? If we had only 2 spatial dimentions, would it be $\rho = 2p$? (I came across this relation while studying the state of the universe,...
Nayeem1's user avatar
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-3 votes
1 answer
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Why aren't all objects and their images same in size?

Suppose there is an object in front of a convex lens and we know that the light rays from each point on the surface of object will converge at a different point and form an image. So that means that ...
Virender Bhardwaj's user avatar
3 votes
0 answers
46 views

Relating Brachistochrone problem to Fermat's principle of least time [closed]

When I came across the Brachistochrone problem, my teacher said we could relate it to Fermat's principle of least time. So, we could make many glass slabs of high $\mathrm dx$, and every slab has a ...
AANT's user avatar
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0 answers
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How to compute the diffraction efficiency of a thin phase grating with arbitrary groove shape?

From Magnusson and Gaylord (1978), the wave amplitudes, $S_i(z)$, of $p$-polarized light for a thin, arbitrary phase grating are given by the equation $$ \frac{\partial S_i}{\partial z} + \gamma \sum_{...
Roy Smart's user avatar
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1 answer
49 views

"Extraordinary polarization" in a birefringent optical medium

In Nonlinear Optics by R. W. Boyd, I came across the following sentences about light polarization in an uniaxial birefringent medium: Light polarized perpendicular to the plane containing the ...
apadana's user avatar
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1 vote
1 answer
52 views

Confusion regarding phase

As far as I know about phase if the phase difference between two waves is positive, the former is leading..and the latter is lagging. Then why has D J Grifith stated this? If the phase of the magnetic ...
Suhail Sarwar's user avatar
4 votes
2 answers
229 views

Huygens' principle and the laws of reflection/refraction

As I understand the Huygens principle, all points on the wavefront are sources of secondary spherical wavelets and the tangent to these wavelets will form new wavefront. This is used to prove the ...
Yevgeniy P's user avatar
-1 votes
0 answers
46 views

Is there a good quantum explanation of refraction? [duplicate]

I'm aware of the classical explanation of refraction which deals with light being a wave that gets "slowed" down while passing from a medium to another. One problem that I have with this ...
PicPuc's user avatar
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2 votes
1 answer
71 views

At which wavelengths do photons behave like X-ray?

Hard X-rays of wavelengths of about an angstrom are very different than regular lights in a way that they can’t be reflected or refracted, which means their refractive index is always close to 1 ...
哲煜黄's user avatar
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0 votes
1 answer
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Directionality of laser light in vacuum [duplicate]

It is well-known that laser light is directional because of coherence from stimulated emission. This means that the light is emitted ONLY in the direction of propagation, and not in any type of ...
Prakash_S's user avatar
15 votes
2 answers
2k views

Eye Floaters Optics

Eye floaters are these annoying objects floating in someones eye, usually seen by someone experiencing them as squiggly lines and dots buzzing around, either dark or partially transparent (I ...
TomY's user avatar
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0 answers
50 views

Michelson interferometer but with 1 arm (Part 2)

I designed a setup similar to Michelson Interferometer but with one mirror only. So, there is an angle between the 2 rays to the detector: In order to understand the result on screen, I used (Zemax/...
Wael Khatib's user avatar
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0 answers
39 views

Absorption and emission spectrum terminology

Hi everyone recently i was looking for laser crystals and since I am an autodidact i was confused by the terminology and units of the optics domain. And specialy by the absorption and emission ...
Tintin's user avatar
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0 votes
1 answer
32 views

Can a collimated laser have curved wavefronts?

I know that a plane wave's collimation is affected by the curvature of its wavefronts. But since laser beam is composed of many plane waves, does it still apply ? Although there is always some ...
Meet Chaudhari's user avatar
1 vote
2 answers
107 views

How is light interference explained with photons?

In the classical model of light as an EM wave, interference is a trivial consequence of the linearity of the wave equation. Now, if we model light as collections of photons, how is light interference ...
agaminon's user avatar
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1 vote
1 answer
39 views

Can an optical medium be lossless and dispersive?

Occasionally, I come across the phrase "lossless dispersive linear optical medium". How can such a medium be possible mathematically? I mean the real and imaginary parts of the electric ...
apadana's user avatar
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1 vote
2 answers
66 views

Modified two slit diffraction experiment

I thought up a slight modification to the classic two-slit experiment that would be fun to try, but I am certain that I am not the only person to consider it, and would like to know if it has already ...
niels nielsen's user avatar
0 votes
1 answer
26 views

Why is vertically polarized light preferentially refracted at the surface and horizontally polarized light preferentially reflected?

I was reading OpenStax Physics on the topic of polarisation and Brewster's angle but there was no clear explanation as to why vertically polarised light generally refracts while horizontally polarised ...
adviteeya krishna's user avatar
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0 answers
20 views

Would the use of LIPC's for Lasers avoid eye damage for bystanders?

Laser Induced Plasma Channels (LIPC) can create a tunnel of plasma in the air for a brief moment (milliseconds). But the formation of a LIPC is a process and not something instantaneous when it comes ...
Fulano's user avatar
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2 votes
2 answers
133 views

What does the optical Hamiltonian mean?

So I was trying to demonstrate Snell's law with Hamilton's equations, and when I got the Hamiltonian: $$H = -\sqrt{n^2-p_{1}^2-p_{2}^2}.$$ I had a question about what this Hamiltonian indicates. I ...
gordunox's user avatar
0 votes
1 answer
23 views

Exit Pupil, Objective Aperture, Magnification, and Brightness

Why is it that for two pairs of binoculars, with equal aperture, the one with smaller magnification has larger exit pupil and results in brighter images? If I understand correctly, the aperture ...
guilhermemp's user avatar
0 votes
1 answer
29 views

Using multiple sources in Zemax mixed mode

In Ansys Zemax OpticStudio [I'm using 2023 R1.00 Pro (11)] sequential mode, the Multi-Configuration Editor can be used to make multiple paths for rays to trace through after the rays depart from a ...
Jason's user avatar
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11 votes
4 answers
2k views

Can the laser light, in principle, take any wavelength in the EM spectrum?

Can the laser light, in principle, take any wavelength in the EM spectrum? I don't think there is what prevent this in principle, right?
Jack's user avatar
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1 vote
1 answer
35 views

Assessing the quality of wavefront correction in adaptive optics systems: the case of single and multiple radiation sources

Generalized diagram of an adaptive optical system is as follows: Wavefront from the observation object passes through the atmosphere and is distorted. It is then reflected from the deformable mirror ...
ayr's user avatar
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1 answer
33 views

When light hits an interface between air and glass, different refraction results ensue if it is a prism or a window. Why? [duplicate]

If light hits a window it bends and comes out parallel, but if it hits a prism it breaks into a rainbow. How does it know the shape of the glass it is entering?
Ron Forth's user avatar
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0 answers
33 views

Average polarization of photons and lasers

Sunlight is made up of photons polarized in many directions, so it is derived that sunlight has a 50% chance of passing through a polarizing filter at any angle. My question is, if you know 50% of ...
Vinicius Araujo Ritzmann's user avatar
6 votes
4 answers
236 views

Is there an actual difference between the scattering and absorption/emission of a photon?

Consider a photon incident upon a atom. Dependent on the electronic makeup of the atom, the frequency of the light, and/or group velocity of incident photon, we might see: Various elastic/inelastic ...
DLRune's user avatar
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1 vote
1 answer
38 views

Generalized Hong-Ou-Mandel effect for multi-photon states

The Hong-Ou-Mandel (HOM) effect in quantum optics consists, in a nutshell, in sending two identical photons through different input ports of a beam-splitter, to see that they bunch together at one of ...
m137's user avatar
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