Questions tagged [optics]

Optics is the study of light, and its interaction with matter. It includes topics such as imaging systems, fiber optics, lasers, quantum optics, and more.

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29 views

How does Mie theory work? When particles scatter light forward, does the light pass through the particle?

I'm trying to understand what Mie scattering means. In spherical particles that are larger than the wavelength of the light, the direction of scattering depends on the size of the particle. To me, ...
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How do I compute a Mueller matrix for a refracted ray?

When I consult most resources, I get a set of equations for Fresnel reflection and transmission which look like this: $$ r_\text{s} = \frac{n_1 \cos \theta_\text{i} - n_2 \cos \theta_\text{t}} ...
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What is YIQ color model?

As we know that RGB monitors requires separates signals for red, green, and blue components of the image but television monitors uses single composite signals. For this composite signal use YIQ color ...
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Optical Tweezers: Trap Stiffness for Calculating External Force

I've been reading this article about calibrating optical tweezers (finding the trap stiffness $\kappa$). Around the end of section 2.2 it says Once an optical tweezers is calibrated, a constant and ...
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1answer
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What happens to other states of polarized light than $s$ or $p$ when encountering a filter/surface?

I'm trying to understand Brewster's angle and am stuck on what the different types of polarization actually mean (I'm a total beginner in physics so I might have misunderstood some very basic concepts)...
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Intensity in function of distance of a flashlight

any of you may be familiar with the inverse square law for a spherical wave. The thing is that I did the experimental measurements and I was shocked to find out that the data doesn't behave that way. ...
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Is rainbow formed in front or behind of a water droplets?

Single water droplet gives rise to formation of only a small part of rainbow. Is that part formed in between observer and droplet or behind the droplet and not between them?
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What's the relationship between the emission spectrum and the material properties (refractive index, thickness)?

I'm currently working on the thermophotovoltaic problem. I have known that the emission spectrum of a single-layer structure is associated with the material properties, but I'm confused that the ...
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1answer
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Small crack in bottom corner of a beam splitter

I'm working with a Sagnac interferometer. To split a laser beam (He-Ne), we are using a cubical, non-polarizing beam splitter from Thor Labs (BS031). The beam splitter is fastened to a stand that is ...
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23 views

Interference and conservation of energy in a resonator

It is known that constructive interference in one place must be compensated for by destructive interference in another. Take a simple Fabry Perot resonator for example. The interference occurring at ...
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59 views

Understanding radiation pressure

I've been told that the radiation pressure of light can be understood(?) by considering a charged particle as a damped driven harmonic oscillator where the forcing term is the electromagnetic field, ...
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Multiple images of a car over hot road

I am wondering about this image of three cars on a hot road, which is from Wikipedia: I am seeing two images of the white car in the center of the image. One regular image and one which seems to be ...
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Which area of physics is mostly related to these courses? [closed]

I intend to apply to Master's programs in theoretical physics, and I've got my bachelor's degree. I'm interested most in the courses below ,also I've taken them & got "A"s; Quantum ...
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On what physical principles the measurement of intensity of light is based?

As far as I understand, theoretically intensity of light is defined using the Poynting vector of the corresponding EM field. How is the intensity of light measured in practice? On what physical ...
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Number of Images Formed by 2 Plane Mirrors Inclined to Each Other [closed]

Based on my research on the topic, I've found the following information: If $360/\theta$ is even, the number of images formed (say, $n$) is $360/\theta -1$. If it is odd, $n = 360/\theta$. If the ...
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What is the difference between MOKE hysteresis loop and VSM Hysteresis loop?

I need to understand what is the difference between Magneto-optical Kerr effect (MOKE) hysteresis loop and vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM) hysteresis loop? And the use of each one of them?
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Phase shifts in different beam splitter designs

I am trying to understand how a Mach-Zehnder interferometer works. It seems that it will work whether we use two beam splitters that consist of either glass prisms glued together a sheet of glass ...
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Calculating the refractive index of water with the Ewald-Oseen formula

The Ewald-Oseen theorem gives the expression $$n=\sqrt{1+\frac{i\sigma}{\epsilon_0\omega}}$$ for the refractive index of a material of conductivity $\sigma$ for an electromagnetic wave with angular ...
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1answer
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Time evolution of $\pi/2$ pulses

This is the topic Ramsey interferometry. I want to do this without referencing the Bloch sphere, just with the Hamiltonian (given on Wikipedia and below) and Time-Dependent Schrodinger Equation. A $\...
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1answer
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Photon energy and transmit power of an optical transmitter

I have a big doubt. I have found an answer of other community a question about a relation between wavelength and transmit power. My doubt is according to the reply If you have a low wavelength and ...
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1answer
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What do the subindices $jkl...$ represent in the nonlinear polarization equation?

After studying this article on non-linear polarization, I have two main questions: The first was which is the origin of $n$th order susceptibilities; this was mainly already answered by a previous ...
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Minimizing, or correcting for, beam divergence for long-range LIDAR applications

I'm performing a literature review centred around LIDAR for space-debris detection. One issue that I've been unable to find any information on is what factors limit the range and resolution of such ...
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Extreme sensitivity to the input scale of a Continuous Fourier Transform approximation from Discrete Fourier Transform

Is there a way to 'bypass' the condition $\Delta k=\frac{1}{x_{max}-x_{min}}$, which requires the range of $x$ to be very large when approximating the CFT encountered in Michealson Interometery as a ...
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1answer
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Is a linearly polarized plane wave a scalar wave?

A linearly polarized plane wave, say polarized along the x-axis, in a homogeneous medium has its electric field given by $$\mathbf E(x,y,z) = (A e^{ik(ay+bz)}, \ 0 \ , \ 0)$$ where $A,a,b$ are real ...
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Why only the wavelength and speed of refracted light traveling inside a transparent material changes and not its frequency? [duplicate]

When monochromatic light waves travel from one medium to another the frequency never changes. A transition to a denser medium will result of a slow down of the propagation speed v of the light wave ...
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Why is the number of light rays refracted from a transparent media more than the number of reflected rays?

I came across a question related to the multiple image formation from a thick mirror due to partial refraction and reflection. It was asked that which image would be the most intense? In the solution ...
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Fresnel equations and conservation of energy

Quantum mechanically speaking when we split a wave in two the resulting waves must have a 90 degrees phase difference for energy to be conserved. Take the beamsplitter depicted in [1] for example. But ...
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1answer
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In Compton effect, why is there a continuous distribution of wavelengths (including $\lambda$)instead of just $\lambda'$ for every fixed angle?

I was explained Compton effect as a collision between a photon and an electron that can be considered free. The equation is $\lambda' = \lambda + \lambda_c(1-\cos\phi)$ I've been reading more on the ...
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Spatial Resolution and pixel smear and camera devices

Can anyone recommend a good source (video, textbook, online course) that I can use to learn more about spatial frequency, exposure, pixel smear, how cameras work. I only have some basic optical ...
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Can apparent depth be equal to real depth in any case?

Also does the depth of a tank decrease or remain same when viewed normally from above
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Experimental detection of Anderson localization of light in 3D vs 2D

I have a question about the experimental realization of Anderson localization of light. I am a theorist, and have not worked much in optics, so please bear with me. Anderson localization of light in ...
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1answer
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Lorentz model imaginary and real parts

I'm having some problems with the definition of the real and imaginary parts of the Lorentz model, we start from the definition of the permitivity $$\chi=\chi'+i\chi''=\frac{\omega_p^2}{\omega^2-\...
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LO vs. TO phonons in a quasi-2D polar crystal at $Gamma$ point

In a polar quasi-2D crystal like hexagonal boron nitride, there seems to be a finite energy/frequency difference between the in-plane LO and TO phonon modes at the center of the Brillion zone (the $\...
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How to derive the transfer function (point spread function) of the Spectral domain optical coherence tomography system with given center wavelength

For the standard SD-OCT system, assuming the center wavelength, $λ_0$ of $850$ nm, if $∆λ$ is $50$ nm, how to derive the point spread function and plot the figure like the one below?
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1answer
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Home lab double slit "where to get lab quality slits?" :)

I purchased a small light table demo kit from thorlabs and I would like to setup a double slit demo. Thorlabs does not sell any double slits, and I am having a hard time finding a vendor that might ...
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Coherent Drive with a Jaynes-Cummings Hamiltonian

Consider the Jaynes-Cummings (JC) Hamiltonian at resonance, subject to a constant coherent drive. The full Hamiltonian reads \begin{equation} H = g ( a\sigma_+ + a^\dagger \sigma_-) + \varepsilon(a+a^...
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Mirrors/optics and physical adaptation of the eye

Is it possible to use a clever combination of lenses and mirrors placed between your eye and a screen 1m away from you to make the eye react to the screen as if it were 20m away from you? Note that I'...
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Confused about path difference question

This question really stumped me. For question 2d (images of the entire question attached below), I used the path difference in part c), because they should be the same distance, right? So why is it ...
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3answers
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Do sunrises and sunsets look the same in a still image?

A question that popped into my head: if I see a picture of the sun close to the horizon, in an unknown place, can I know if it was taken at sunset or sunrise? Do sunrises and sunsets look the same in ...
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Consider 4 cases of water droplet, ie when water droplet is in sea, in glass, in air after rain, as humidity?

When water droplet is in air as water vapours it scatters blue light, after rain by refraction dispersion and TIR it forms rainbow , in sea it scatters blue light while water in glass ( drinking ...
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What is the maximum virtual depth achievable in a printed hologram?

I remember a few years ago printed holograms were quite fashionable. Even though they still had different colors from reality, I found them quite impressing. I wonder if there has been any progress in ...
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1answer
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How observable is the "macroscopic" dark matter candidate?

I was recently introduced to the dark matter candidate known as "macros," which are theoretically made up of macroscopic clumps of matter rather than of an elementary particle. These ...
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In Young's double slit experiment, do we observe fringes to a limit? [closed]

As fringes are observed due to diffraction at two sources and diffraction has a particular area to cover. So we should be getting fringes only upto certain distance?
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Hi everyone, could anyone help me understand how two cylindrical lens can be used to form a laser sheet?

If you look at the below link under 'Laser Sheet', https://www.edmundoptics.com/campaigns/cylinder-lens/ the equation is much easier for a single line generator. I am stuck at the point where I use a ...
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2answers
63 views

Proof that angle of incidence is equal to angle of reflection, geometrically

Angle of incidence = Angle of reflection is true experimentally. I just started highschool. Don't mind if this is a low level question. But I was just curious.
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Why it isnt possible to project images through wall? [duplicate]

Why it isnt possible to project images through brick wall or solids?Any theories or explanation
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Why frequency doesn't change while refraction of light? [duplicate]

During refraction speed of light and wavelength change. Why frequency doesn't change. Pls answer in simple words.
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Why is the sample interferogram given by the following integral of the intensity pattern?

I am trying to understand equation (2) in the paper by J. E. Greivenkamp with the title Generalized data reduction for heterodyne interferometry from year 1984. If you dont have acces to the article, ...
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1answer
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What is galvano mirror? [closed]

What is galvano mirror? For what purposes is it used? Is it same with galvanometer? In the internet, galvano mirror is defined as "Scanning laser systems, whether for marking, engraving, or for ...
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Reduction Ratio in Michaelson Interferometer

I am trying to work out the relation between a $\mu$step and the distance moved by the moveable mirror in the Michaelson Interferometer: The mirror on the stage is moved by a stepper motor. Inside ...

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