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Questions tagged [optics]

Optics is the study of light, and its interaction with matter. It includes topics such as imaging systems, fiber optics, lasers, quantum optics, and more.

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How isthe transparency of glass explained in physics?

I would like a rigorous explanation: a theory and model which describes glass as well as iron, and see why one of them is transparent; a detailed mathematical computation or a detailed reference. And,...
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0answers
9 views

How does photoluminescence spectroscopy work and how can it apply to quantum dots?

Does anyone have a clear explanation of how photoluminescence works? I know some of the basics, for example, that electrons are excited by photons to create excitons and when the excitons recombine, ...
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10 views

what is bolch optical mode?

I have read some papers(https://arxiv.org/ftp/arxiv/papers/1206/1206.4342.pdf) where the word ''bolch mode'' used. Now I want to know what kind of optical mode this is and how or why it is generated?
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1answer
24 views

Anti-reflection thin films

When you put an anti-reflective thin film on a lens of sunglasses for example, how do they account for all of the wavelengths within the visible spectrum? In order to counter reflection, you would ...
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6 views

Can I build up a profilometry set up, to study the surface roughness of polymer fibres?

I need to study the surface roughness of some fibres, I was told that the best way is the profilometer, but can I design and build up a set up of a profilometer?
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1answer
28 views

Intensity pattern in a single-slit diffraction

In a single-slit diffraction, what happens to the intensity pattern if the slit width becomes narrower and narrower?
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1answer
23 views

What is the relation between Reflectance and Intensity?

I am just reviewing Fresnel's equations where Reflectance $R$ is equal to $$R=|r|^2$$ where $r$ is the complex reflection coefficient. Is there an equation that relates $R$ to intensity or is there ...
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20 views

The ideal shape of a plano-convex lens

What's the type of the ideal shape of a surface of a plano-convex lens to focus a parallel beam at the point? Considering the lens turned its flat side to a beam. Surely it must be aspheric: ...
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9 views

How interferometric techniques can be used to investigate the topology of polymers?

I need to study the topography of a specific polymer, knowing that my lab is an optics lab with many interferometric techniques, how can I use these techniques to investigate the topology?
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2answers
74 views

Prove that a converging lens has 2 object distances for which there exists an image

I've been struggling with this for a while now. I feel that proving this is actually way easier than what I think it is. I'm just going to copy paste the question here: A light bulb (the object) is ...
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3answers
78 views

Can this be considered the Newton's rings?

It can be made by pointing a laser pointer directly to a mirror at low angle and observing the reflection behind the laser pointer. No convex or concave lens needed unlike the Newton's ring experiment ...
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1answer
20 views

How many degrees Celsius/Fahrenheit can be reached in 1 square meter area using magnifying glasses?

The magnifying glasses are each 10 meters in diameter, their collected light is concentrated via mirrors into a 1 square meter spot. Is it possible to get a temperature higher than 2000 degrees ...
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20 views

Which device to measure UV lamp wavelength with high precision

Which techniques and devices are able to measure the wavelength/frequency of a UV lamp within the wavelength range of 50nm - 300nm? Is a VUV Optical spectrometer the right device for this?
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3answers
53 views

How does a single photon behave propagating through glass?

Take a normal pane of window glass and a photon somewhere within the visible range. My limited understanding is that when light passes through glass one shouldn't think of little spheres travelling ...
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4answers
76 views

Laser beam focus

Why isn't it possible to focus a laser beam to an infinitely small point in space? I am familiar with the shape of a gaussian beam, but why can't my $w_0$ be equal to zero?
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0answers
19 views

Question regarding reflection in a curved mirror

Given the mirror equation, it's stated that in order to contruct the image of an object we must launch a light beam parallel to $x$ axis and that it will reflect back at the focus of the circle. This ...
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0answers
25 views

Solving simple lens problem with matrix formalism [on hold]

I tried to solve the following problem with the matrix formalism, but I keep getting the wrong answer. I have an object $A$ in some medium with index of refraction $n$, a distance $L$ away from some ...
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0answers
25 views

Fourier transforms and convolution for finding Fraunhofer diffraction of compound objects: how does it work?

I've been exposed to this notion in multiple classes (namely math and physics) but can't find any details about how one would actually calculate something using this principle: Diffraction in optics ...
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3answers
76 views

Why do prism split light at angle instead of curving it?

I assume that when light goes through matter, it doesnt really slow down, but the waveform is pushed back due to some resonance with the atoms. EDIT: Interference is probably a better word than ...
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2answers
41 views

Optics of thick soap bubbles

There was some discussion in a previous thread ( Why are thin soap bubbles colorless? ) that talked about thin soap bubbles. My question is, what if we go the opposite way? Why are thick bubbles ...
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1answer
30 views

One question on light and coherence [duplicate]

Can two lasers produce light which is coherent. Are the light have same frequency and wavelength
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0answers
39 views

Seeing virtual image in convex lens of object kept beyond focal point

Beyond the focal point, $f$, a convex lens only forms real image. However, I see an inverted virtual image of a distant object when looking at the lens from a distance. If the image of the distant ...
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1answer
66 views

Which colour comes out first from a prism?

When a narrow beam of white light is incident on a triangular prism. The speed of red light is maximum and violet is of minimum, red light bends less and travels less distance as compared to violet ...
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0answers
13 views

Derivation of the relationship between snellen rows and diopters

Here's an incorrect derivation of the conversion from rows of a Snellen chart to diopters -- this derivation results in the correct sign but too small a value: Interpret ...
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3answers
47 views

Why do we see an object with more clarity if more light rays from it enter our eye?

When I ask people what is the difference between more light rays diverging from a point and entering our eye and less rays diverging from a point and entering our eye.They say that more the light rays,...
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0answers
18 views

How to find the fringe width of an interference pattern created by a spherical and a plane wave?

If we have two equations of a spherical and a plane wave (given that the plane wave is propagating along the $z$ direction), how do we find the fringe width of the interference pattern that would be ...
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3answers
44 views

Virtual images - Work of a brain or work of a lens?

I am just a high school student trying to self study, so please excuse me if this question sounds silly to you. Many people tell me that virtual images are formed when two rays that are diverging ...
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1answer
46 views

Is it possible to make a source of light such that it only emits one ray of light?

I am just a high school student trying to self study, so please excuse me if you find the question silly. I don't really need to explain my question.I am just asking if we can make a source of light ...
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2answers
170 views

Can we see a point with only one ray or do we need two rays?

I am just a high school student trying to self study, so please excuse me if you find the question silly. My teacher says that we can see a point when a ray of light from the point is reflected into ...
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1answer
19 views

Can solar mirrors be used for amateur telescopes?

Recently I have been fascinated by astronomy and telescopes. I have a small refactor telescope, but it cannot see very far, so I was interested in buying a larger telescope. Unfortunately, I cannot ...
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0answers
55 views

The hypotenuse of the triangle in the Michelson and Morley experiment

In Michelson and Morley experiment, light is travelling from light source to partially silvered glass plate. The plate splits an incoming beam of light, and the two resulting beams continue in ...
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0answers
51 views

Apparent height for a fish [closed]

I know that when an object is placed inside a liquid of Refractive index $n$, the object as seen by us gets shifted. And its formula is $$n=\frac{\text{real depth}}{\text{apparent depth}}.$$ I was ...
3
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1answer
39 views

Which of these 2 methods for calculating the focal length of a concave mirror is more accurate?

I have done an experiment to measure $f$ the focal length of a concave mirror. I have a list of 8 values for $u$ the object distance and 8 values for $v$ the corresponding image distance. I ...
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5answers
80 views

Does glass emit ultraviolet light?

I'm fully aware that glass absorbs light in the ultraviolet band. Moreover, glass does not absorb any light which has a longer wavelength than that of the UV light, making it transparent. This ...
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2answers
14 views

What is the theory behind Fresnel's half period zones?

I was not convinced by exactly how does this work,why do we need to take concentric spheres around point P and how do those spheres cast circular areas on the wavefront? Why is the radius OM1 and the ...
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0answers
37 views

Electromagnetic wave in a prism

Imagine an electromagnetic plane wave entering perpendicular to one of the faces of a prism with the form of a triangle rectangle, which is made of a certain material of refraction index $n$. The wave ...
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1answer
20 views

plane vs diverging waves michelson itnerferometer

I'm wondering if there's a difference in the interference pattern achieved in the michelson interferometer if the source of light is sending plane waves vs sending diverging waves (for example by ...
2
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2answers
89 views

How is mass defined by special relativity?

I am eagerly interested in all kinds of areas of physics. As the question of mass has been around for a pretty long time, I am interested about what modern physics namely special relativity says about ...
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3answers
96 views

What are the Basic Properties of a Photon?

I want to grasp the idea of a photon. While researching, I have come upon many different ways of describing a photon, but have found "quantum of the electromagnetic field" to be most satisfying. ...
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0answers
39 views

Why is absorbance calculated as $\log_{10}(1/R)$ and not $1-R$?

According to Lambert Beers law, the absorbance ($A$) of a sample at a given wavelength can be described in terms of its transmittance ($T$) according to: $A = \log_{10}(1/T)$ In near-infrared ...
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1answer
28 views

What is Snell's window?

How an underwater observer can see only a circular "window" and also can't see anything above the seperating surface ? Does the "window" depends on the depth ?
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2answers
3k views

Why do we see a rainbow of colors reflected off a CD or DVD?

So, we all know if you shine some light on CD (compact disc) or DVD, you can see all the colors from red to violet. What is bothering me is what is the reason of why do we see the colors on compact ...
2
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1answer
25 views

Is the spatial coherence of light a requirement for creating a well-collimated light beam?

I was wondering if, for creating a well collimated light beam, the spatial coherence play a role. In particular, I understand that a laser beam can be well-collimated with respect to light coming from ...
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2answers
49 views

Calculating total number of fringes in Young's Double Slit Experiment

I know that the $n^{th}$ order maxima can be given by $\frac{n\lambda D}{d}$. But theoretically n can go up to infinity and the intensity will go down. However, is there any way to approximate the ...
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4answers
30 views

determining focal length of converging lens

the focal length is the distance between the center of the convex lens and the focal point. in the image illustrated above, we obtain focused image at the (position of image, inverted yellow arrow) ...
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0answers
36 views

Exercise in Loudon's Quantum Theory of Light

This is problem 3.3 in Loudon's Quantum Theory of Light. A prerequisite for this is problem 3.2. I will state both of them here. 3.2 : Consider the beam of light produced by excitation of two ...
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0answers
15 views

Effect of complex refractive index on reflectivity in a periodic structure?

I'm studying the effects of absorption in a 1D photonic structure with repeating alternate layers (a Distributed Bragg Reflector). To include absoprtion effects, the refractive index is defined as $...
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1answer
14 views

How position of source affects YDSE interference? [closed]

I was wondering that how position of source of light affects YDSE experiment? I know that path Difference of light after the slits is the reason for YDSE interference pattern observed, but how path ...
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0answers
22 views

Why is difference between the Jones matrices and the passing of a beam splitter? [closed]

In the case of this phase shift that occurs in the transmission wave and reflection of a beam splitter crystal cube, what we say? Jones matrix for transmitted and reflected beam is look like. What is ...
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0answers
37 views

Cavity optomechanics Hamiltonian

In cavity optomechanics the radiation pressure exerted by light moves a mirror in a cavity. Because of that the resonance frequency of the cavity changes due to change in length of the cavity (cavity ...