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# Questions tagged [potential]

Scalar and vector potentials in electromagnetism. The scalar potential is potential energy per unit charge. For potential energy, use the potential-energy tag.

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### When the potential difference between two points in a circuit is zero, why is there no electric field between them?

I'm an electrical engineering student that's trying to become a bit more versed in the physics of electronics since so much of it is abstracted for us in our engineering classes. Anyways, I'm ...
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### What are intuitive definitions of the 4 thermodynamic potentials?

So out of the 4 thermodynamic potentials only the internal energy seem to make intuitive sense to me. My understanding of enthalpy is that it is a state function which represents the total heat ...
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### Distribution of potential within a capped cylinder

I need some help with calculating something. Lets say I have a hollow cylinder of length $2L$ and diameter $2R$. The electric charge density is given by $\sigma$. The potential going through the axis ...
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### Conducting wire swinging in magnetic field

Imagine a situation where a conducting wire is swinging around one of its ends, in a uniform magnetic field that is perpendicular to the plane of rotation, and i want to find the potential that is ...
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### Time-Independent Schrodinger Equation solution formulation (2nd-Order ODE)

Can someone explain the following for me please: $\bullet$ TISE, insider barrier: $(\hat T+V)u(x)=Eu(x)$ $-\frac{\hbar^{2}}{2m}\frac{d^{2}}{dx^{2}}=(E-V)u(x)$ Solution: $u(x)=Ae^{-\mathcal{ Hx}}$, ...
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### how to calculate work done in moving a charge, when the path and point charge don't lie on one line?

Problem: A charge Q in point O=(0,0) and a test charge q in point A=(4,1) lie in a plane. How much work W needs to be done to move q to point B=(2,2). Q always stays at (0,0). Q=q= 2*10^-4. One ...
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### Current through a resistor

My question refers to the image below: From what I have previously thought, in order to calculate current through a resistor you would use Ohm's Law, meaning you get the voltage across the resistor ...
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### Superposition scalar and vector potential and change Maxwell equations

I read some topic about the superposition of electric field and ... but do not mention about scalar and victor potential and superposition. I have a question If I have three electromagnetic fields ...
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### Energy of Ground State of Quantum Well

I struggle with the following concept. Consider the finite square well potential in the figure below. Consider the case where the electron energy is below the potential ($V(x) = V_0$) outside the ...
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### How is potential difference greatest when battery is not in a circuit?

I was just studying physics and came across this in the textbook that “A cell produces its highest p.d. when not in a circuit and not supplying current.” Could you please explain this? If the cell is ...
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### Electron volt to volt question

An $\rm{eV}$ (electron volt) is equal to a volt. So that volt it is equal to, is it based on 1 volt rms or one volt peak to peak or one volt average, or some other calculation of a volt?
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### Velocity potential of an irrotational vortex

I would like to investigate the isolines of a two-dimensional velocity potential of an irrotational vortex defined using polar coordinates as $v=\frac{K}{r}$. I understand that the velocity ...
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### What is a 'potential' in the context of physics and gauge symmetry?

I heard someone say that the definition of a gauge transformation is any formal, systematic transformation of the potentials that leaves the fields invariant. What is the definition of a potential in ...
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### Verify that the electrostatic potential satisfies the Poisson equation [closed]

I'm reading Sect1.7 of Jackson's classical electrodynamics but I have trouble following his argument. Could someone help explain how exactly the Laplacian is evaluated in 1.30? Is it calculated with ...
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### Gravitational potential energy defined as the work done on a mass

Our physics sir made us write that gravitational potential energy is the work done in bringing a mass from infinity to a point without acceleration, but I am confused because if acceleration is $0$ it ...
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### Conceptual electric potential question

The diagram below represents two metal spheres, and one of them is connected to the earth so is at $0 \; \text V$: The answer says that the charge of the earthed sphere is negative, and less than the ...
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### Induced electric field inside an inductor [closed]

Okay so I was recently taught about inductors and how they generate an emf which opposes the increasing magnetic flux due to an increasing current. In an LR circuit, the current flows through the ...
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### Energy conservation in motional emf

If a rod enters a region of uniform electric field, a potential difference arises between the ends of the rod. The work required to create this potential difference comes from the magnetic field. If ...
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### Direction of current when there are 2+ batteries on circuit

By the conventional direction, current points from + to -. But what happens when there are more than one batteries on the circuit,with the battery poles connected to each other with any combination? ...
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### Does the electric potential depend on particle velocity?

The energy $E$ of a charged particle with rest mass $m$ and charge $q$, which moves with velocity $v$ in electrostatic field with scalar potential $F$ is $$E=\frac{mc^2}{\sqrt{1-\frac{v^2}{c^2}}}+qF$$ ...
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### What is the term for neutral electric field density?

What is the word or way of referring to a neutral electrical potential. For example let's say you have a 10 cm sphere of electrically neutral mass that is 1 Kg mass and you separately have a different ...
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### Charge on hollow spherical surface

Let a point charge $+Q$ is placed in center of hollow spherical conductor of inner radius $a$ and outer surface $b$. Then the charge on the inner surface of radius $a$ is $-Q$ and outermost surface ...
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### How can a potential be non-central?

I'm studying nucleon-nucleon interactions and I'm reading that the potential for said interaction has a non-central (or tensor) component. Now, I understand that, when describing a 2-bodies problem, ...
If I have a metal sphere (a conductor) of radius $R$, carrying charge $Q_1$ with potential $V_1$, surrounded by a thick concentric metal shell (a conductor with inner radius $a$, outer radius $b$, as ...
In Ronald Wangsness' "Electromagnetic Fields" book, he states that $\textbf{E}$ generally depends on both a scalar and vector potential in the form, \textbf{E} = -{\bf \nabla}\Phi -\frac{\partial \...