Questions tagged [diffraction]

Diffraction is defined as the bending or flaring of light around the corners of an obstacle or aperture into the region of geometrical shadow of the obstacle. This flaring is consistent with the spreading of wavelets in the Huygens construction. Diffraction occurs for waves of all types, not just light.

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Why in the experiment of double slits, in case of radiation of wavelength of red light, we can observe an envelop of the minimum?

I have made an experiment in which i have to measure the intensity of the light generated by an $\text{He-Ne}$ laser, in the case of two slits, I pretend to observe an interference lattice. I have to ...
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Lasers as weapons , diffraction as a defence? [closed]

can changing density of air somehow be used to defend against laser weapons? This is not some much a question I am just curious how defense against a laser might be approached?
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Fraunhofer diffraction from composite apertures

I'm trying to calculate the fraunhofer diffraction pattern from a aperture composed of multiple simple shapes, but I've ran into some trouble when trying to simulate the results and I really dont ...
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What physical processes are involved in causing the Voigt profile in X-ray diffraction

I understand qualitatively that a Voigt profile combines both Gaussian and Lorentzian profiles which is a suitable method for plotting an X-ray diffraction pattern. Which physical processes lead to ...
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Is refraction a special case of diffraction according to the book by Charles Kittel?

Wikipedia defines diffraction as - Diffraction is the interference or bending of waves around the corners of an obstacle or through an aperture into the region of geometrical shadow of the obstacle/...
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Applying Fermat's principle in Fraunhofer's diffraction

The following set up with a source, 2 convex lenses, a slit and a screen is of that of Fraunhofer's diffraction: *Correction S is not on the common optical axis, but above it. $\theta$ = Angle ...
soccerer's user avatar
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What is the upper limit of size for diffracting an object?

All items in the universe can be said to have a De Broglie wavelength which is significant if that wavelength is comparable to the object's size (I don't have to worry about my wavelength diffracting ...
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Using the Bloch Ansatz in the Stationary Schrödinger Equation to Derive Dynamical Diffraction Intensity Equations

I am working on deriving the intensity equations for the dynamical diffraction of neutrons following along with a paper by Hartmut Lemmel (Hartmut Lemmel. Dynamical diffraction of neutrons and ...
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Diffraction grating from reflection

We had an experiment in our physics lab where we used two grating materials one with 2500 lpi(say A) and the other with 15000lpi(say B). Now when we shine white light on both of them we didn't get any ...
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Diffraction proof

I am talking about the way we generally explain the occurence of bright and dark fringes during diffraction. When we want to show a dark fringe we consider a pair of secondary light sources who have a ...
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Polarization of electric field and its effect on the Poynting vector

To preface, I've little experience with optics. This is a very use-case specific project I'm undertaking. So, if there are any improvements in my method, I'd appreciate it! I'm working with the vector ...
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In the diffraction of EM waves, what kind of objects do the obstacles need to be?

In the diffraction phenomenon, when I search for layman examples in youtube, I see an image of an obstacle with a tiny hole (aperture) in it, so that light goes through the aperture and scatter around ...
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How is the Huygens-Fresnel principle of diffraction modified when light is confined to a planar dielectric waveguide?

The Huygens-Fresnel principle essentially states that in order to propagate an electromagnetic wavefront in free-space, one must superimpose the so-called "secondary wavelets", which are ...
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Modeling hair strand diffraction?

It's well known that a human hair can diffract light (plenty of demos out there, all you need is a laser pointer and a strand of hair). I've been thinking, however: how can one model this process? The ...
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Why do we only consider two points in Young’s double slit experiment?

Say we have two slits in the xy-plane. The x distance between them is d. Why do we, when calculating the resulting amplitude of the wave, consider only the phase difference of two secondary radial ...
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Total flux is bigger than radiation flux, error?

The topic of this question is the collection of radiation from the sun. (renewable energy course) The total radiation flux is $$I_\text{total} = I_\text{direct}+I_\text{diffracted}+I_\text{reflected} ....
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Why diffraction works at sharp edges?

While introducing Diffraction, physics textbooks say that this effect (Diffraction) is observed distinctively when the light is passed through a very small opening, the length or diameter of which is ...
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Calculating net phase in single slit diffraction

I want to calculate the net phase at a point on the screen in Fresnel diffraction. Attached below is a rough diagram if needed. For this I considered hypothetical $n+1 $ small slits acting as sources ...
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Where does the diffraction equations work and why?

w = fringe spacing $\lambda$ = wavelength D = horizontal distance between slits and screen s = slit spacing d = slit spacing $\theta$ = angle between central maximum and the ray at the nth maximum $\...
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Second-order variation of an integral

I was reading the paper SISAR Imaging for Space Debris based on Nanosatellites, in which the Fresnel-Kirchoff diffraction formula is applied for a scenario in which the receiver, transmitter and ...
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How is the interference pattern of the double slit experiment quantitatively measured? [closed]

The single photon / single electron double slit experiment shows particles appearing as dots on the screen. This is explained as being due to the collapse of their wavefunctions. However, if they were ...
Blacklight MG's user avatar
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Can you have diffraction without a slit, simply by reducing the size of light source?

Since the diffraction pattern only depends on the width of the slit and the wavelength of light, could we see a diffraction pattern if we use an extremely small (to the order of micrometers) light ...
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Why Do Harmonic Components Define Wavelength in Diffraction and Interference Phenomena?

I'm exploring the physical principles underlying diffraction and interference, specifically how these phenomena depend on the wavelength of harmonic (sinusoidal) components of a wave. My question ...
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Need clarity behind the theory of diffraction for a black-body source

Attempting to model the diffraction for a black-body source, I have stumbled upon a bit of a conundrum with the mathematics. I am not asking WHY the light is diffracted, but instead looking for a ...
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Interference in single slit

In my point of understanding, interference is produced when waves from two sources of light (may be coherent or non-coherent) overlap resulting in consecutive bright and dark fringes on a screen. But, ...
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Determining the specific diffraction lines when 2 monochromatic beams are incident on a diffraction grating [closed]

I am wondering whether it is possible to determine the exact colour permutation for the diffraction lines from only the following given information: "When monochromatic red and monochromatic ...
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In single-slit interference, why don't we consider all combinations of points and their contribution to the diffraction pattern?

The explanation I was taught back in college was that we take points $a/2$ spaced apart where $a$ is the width of the slit, and at certain angles the difference in distance traveled will be half a ...
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How to explain interference pattern in our eye?

Suppose we got a Lamp L that emits some light. The light afterwards hits a diffraction Grating G at a distance a. Now if you were to look through the grating with your Eye E, you were to see the ...
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Double slit diffraction integral?

In our physics class, the professor went over a so-called "diffraction integral" for single slit diffraction: $$E = E_0\cos(kx - kct)\qquad\text{then we ignore time dependence}:$$ $$E = E_0\...
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Visualizing diffraction with Huygens' principle

I understand (both intuitively and mathematically) Huygens' principle -- that a wave front can be thought of as a sum of infinitely many spherical wavelets, which are each themselves a source of the ...
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Minimum intensity fringes are not perfectly dark in diffraction pattern?

I am studying Interference and Diffraction and everywhere I look it is written that "In an interference pattern,the minima are usually perfectly dark while in a diffraction pattern they are not ...
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Why doesn't a lens after a diffraction grating affect the optical path difference?

When observing interference fringes one often uses a lens after the diffraction grating to focus the fringes on a screen like this: At first sight, one might think that after the lens the path ...
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Finding the Bremsstrahlung in diffraction patterns of NaCl

I recently got the chance to measure the diffraction pattern of a NaCl crystal using the Bragg-Brentano method. I can see the peaks caused by the characteristic lines of the used X-ray tube (in this ...
Space junk's user avatar
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How does a Circular Light Source create Shadows with Darker Edges Sometimes?

Problem: There is a room where the light fixture is circular*. Shadows of objects in this room are darkest in the center and brighter toward the edges, except for my phone charger. Its shadow is ...
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The impulse response of the Rayleigh-Sommerfeld formulation of diffraction

What is the impulse response for the Rayleigh-Sommerfeld formulation of diffraction? In Goodman's Fourier Optics, two formulations for Rayleigh-Sommerfeld are given, and both of them seem to be ...
requiemman's user avatar
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Explanation of diffraction of a single light ray by Huygens' principle

Huygens' principle is a great way to explain diffraction when light rays are incident on a slit, but how would one explain the diffraction of a single light ray crossing a slit?
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Can we explain certain light phenomenon like refraction using particle nature of light?

Using Hugyen's principle and wave nature of light, refraction, diffraction are relatively simple to explain but I have been visualing a mental model for a couple of days where the photons on reach the ...
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Is Kirchhoff's scalar theory of diffraction mathematically inconsistent?

I've heard that Kirchhoff's scalar diffraction theory is mathematically inconsistent. Is this true? If so, where in the formulation does this inconsistency arise and are there ways to remedy it?
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Abbe diffraction limit and Fourier

I am trying to understand the diffraction limited spot calculation. If my understanding is correct, the calculation uses the idea of Huygens wavelet where there are multiple point emitters on the lens....
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Equating scalar summation of electric field to electric field at maxima in single slit diffraction

I was going through the standard derivation of intensity distribution in case of single slit diffraction I don't understand why we equate the scalar summation of electric field phasors(or the length ...
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How do I compute the diffraction efficiency of the orders of an arbitrary grating in the Fraunhofer regime?

Suppose I have an arbitrary grating and it has some transmission profile $t(x)$. I want to compute the diffraction efficiency of the grating's $n^{th}$ order in the Fraunhofer regime. Let the spatial ...
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How to solve Fresnel diffraction integral of vortex beam

Solving Fresnel integral for vortex beam diffraction is necessary and difficult. Without the necessary integral formula, this isn't easy to derive. Therefore, I need some means to calculate it ...
Matthias's user avatar
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1 answer
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Physical meaning of Laue's condition for diffraction from crystals

The Laue's condition for diffraction is that scattering vector is equal to reciprocal lattice vectors $\mathbf{G}$. But how can a 'particular vector' equal a set of vectors? The reciprocal lattice ...
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Decomposing circular diffraction patterns

I have the following diffraction pattern produced by a fabry-perot etalon The red represents the center of that pattern. Taking the mean intensity of the pattern as a function of the radius from the ...
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Diffraction and phase jumps

I have been researching diffraction for the purposes of implementation into a ray tracer (based on the geometrical theory of diffraction). However, I found a few statements that seem conflicting to me ...
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Diffraction Grating Formula

Consider the following diffraction grating formula, explained from my physics textbook. Here the angle is described as between $n=0$ and $n=1$. However, this is slightly confusing. Couldn't the angle ...
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How to calculate losses due to diffraction?

Assume a transmitter with a laser source generating gaussian beams and is transmitted using a telescope with radius of aperture $a_T$. The light is collected at the reciever end using a telescope of ...
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Interference between two beams of unpolarized light

Interference is explained by showing a diagram of two parallel waves of light that are in phase or out of phase and showing the result of the fields constructively or destructively interfering. ...
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Geometrical and wave physical effects

Is it right to say diffraction is a geometrical optics phenomena and scattering a wave physical effect? I am considering a finite-length conducting plane and supposing a wave hitting the surface and ...
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Maximum numerical aperture and diffraction limit of a lens

In this thesis, you can read page 62/63 the following: "The lens is designed for λ = 780 nm and works diffraction limited up to NA= 0.55. However the diffraction-limited numerical aperture for λ =...
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