Questions tagged [diffraction]

Diffraction is defined as the bending or flaring of light around the corners of an obstacle or aperture into the region of geometrical shadow of the obstacle. This flaring is consistent with the spreading of wavelets in the Huygens construction. Diffraction occurs for waves of all types, not just light.

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Diffraction of sound - long versus short wavelengths

I am having some problems finding an explanation why long sound wavelengths travel around objects easier than short ones, hence making lower frequencies audible across longer distances. Most online ...
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On particle diffraction and its relation to the statistical interpretation of the wave function

Particles can be diffracted due to their quantum nature and that is understood by their wave-like behavior. Clearly seen in e.g. plane wave solutions of the Schrodinger equation or a superposition of ...
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Is there a maximum limit on the distance beyond which we can't resolve an image using a reflector telescope in the visible light spectrum

Through Rayleigh's Criterion, it is implied that there is a maximum distance beyond which we cannot resolute an object. This limitation is due to the limitation in the size of the aperture of the ...
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Why alternate maxima and minima are not observable in water waves diffraction?

Below is the result of a single-slit experiment of light. Alternate bright and dark fringes can be observed, where they represent the maxima and minima caused by constructive and destructive ...
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Thickness-dependence of diffraction intensity in single-scattering regime?

Is the thickness of a sample related to the intensity of x-ray diffraction? seems to ask about the thickness-scaling of diffraction intensity in crystallography, but in the body it refers only to ...
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Why is the formula for diffraction gratings not the same as for a double-slit diffraction formula?

I understand how to derive the formula for diffraction gratings as you just have to compare the light rays approaching at a maxima point. The formula for diffraction grating formula is shown below : $$...
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Diffraction of wave on an edge

I'm recently taught that the angle of diffraction of waves depends on the barrier width relative to the wavelength. For example, if you have a plane wave of shorter wavelength, and if it hits a gap of ...
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Diffraction of already diffracted light

What will happen if diffracted light encounters another aperture in its path and gets diffracted once again? What will be the final result? How it will be different from the one-time diffraction ...
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DIffraction Grating vs Single slit diffraction

Why doesnt single slit diffraction ressemble to diffraction grating from multiple slits? In multiple slits we have the number of hygens sources as the number of slits N.In single slit diffraction,cant ...
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Why does light behave like a wave?

When discussing a single or double slit experiment, where light is shined through a very small slit, it is often compared to a water wave going through a similar, if larger, slit. It's my ...
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Expression for differential solid angle in terms of wave vector?

I have been reading this book " High resolution x-ray scattering from thin films to lateral nano structures " by Pietsch et.al. In the last line of page number $63$ the author replaces the ...
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Can we measure the norm square of a wave function from a single atom using ultra short - ultra bright x-ray pulses

X-ray light sources at x-ray free electron laser labs have $\approx 10^{13}$ photons in a single pulse. Assuming one could make the pulse extremely short (100 Atto seconds or less) and very focused. ...
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Will the Airy pattern be preserved for high numerical aperture lens?

All we know that a lens focuses a plane wave into an Airy pattern distribution. However, what if the numerical aperture ($NA$) will be very high, like more than $0.99$ (in the air) or with focusing ...
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Intuitively explained, how are lattice planes defined?

I understand that the symmetry in a diffraction pattern is used to define the unit cell parameters (i.e. the unit cell), and the miller indices are reciprocal of the lattice planes that intersect with ...
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How coherent light is created for single slit experiment?

This is a diagram showing the single slit interference set up: The pinhole (or 'peep hole') is said to 'produce a parallel beam of coherent light, because the time interval between light passing ...
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Does a reflective diffraction grating change the polarization of the light?

I know that the diffraction efficiency is different if the incident light has a linear polarization parallel or perpendicular to the grating grooves, but regardless of the efficiency, is the ...
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Confusion about the derivation of the first order minima of single slit diffraction [closed]

I have a problem with the derivation of the first order minima of single slit diffraction. If the top ray cancels with the central ray which is $a/2$ below it, it means that the central ray should ...
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Effect of stacking diffraction gratings

I have a basic question about the effect of transmitting a laser beam through multiple diffraction gratings. Suppose a diffraction grating was used to produce many spots as follows: Would adding a ...
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What is the plane of polarisation of light in YDSE?

I have heard that only polarised light give the interference fringes which are observable. But while doing Young's double slit experiment (YDSE) there is no polariser used, so how the light coming out ...
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Can a slab with a set of IR torches on it help to prevent blossom freeze in early spring?

Every year there are lot's of problems with blossom freeze caused by sudden drop in temperature of the envirement and cold winds. Can a set of parallel infrared torches have a low drop of intensity ...
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Why there is a division of amplitude in single slit diffraction and not in N slit diffraction?

I was going through derivation of intensity in diffraction there it was written at each point a new wavelet will be genrated(that is clear to me huygen's theory) of amplitude $(E_o)/N$ where $E_o$ is ...
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Does Huygens Principle, by itself, explain diffraction?

The Wikipedia article on Huygens–Fresnel principle says that even with the addition of Fresnel, the Huygens/Fresnel principle does not explain diffraction. ...but could not explain the deviations ...
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Single Slit Diffraction issue with derivation

When deriving the minima, the classical approach is to say $$ \frac d 2 \sin(\theta) = \frac{\lambda}2$$ therefore, $$d \sin(\theta) = \lambda$$ It can then be shown for any integer value of $\...
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Why does separation of different colours increase in higher order maxima?

In a question on the difference between the 1st and 2nd order maxima formed when light of 2 different Wavelengths is incident on a diffraction grating, the marking scheme mentions that separation of ...
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Why does wave diffraction occur in vacuums?

EM waves don't encounter any obstacles/apertures in a vacuum, so why would diffraction occur in the first place in a vacuum? If diffraction does occur, then it would decrease an EM wave signal's ...
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Why do some kind of black bands or lines appear when I'm just about to touch two fingers ?There is a second question too [duplicate]

I don't know if I can explain this well. The effect is best visible when you keep your hand in front of a light source. When I'm almost about to touch any 2 fingers (assume between your thumb and ...
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Amplitude of the electric field due to Fraunhofer's diffraction through a slit

In Hetch's Optics book, the irradiance $I$ due to Fraunhofer's diffraction in the case of a slit of height $l$ in the $y$ axis and width $b$ in the $z$ axis is given by $$I(\theta)=I(0)\left(\frac{\...
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How can diffraction occur in a reflecting telescope?

It's understandable how diffraction occurs in refracting telescopes, because the lens itself is a small aperture for light to pass through. But what about reflecting telescopes? Since light is ...
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What is happening on the screen as you reduce the slit width? How can you demonstrate that mathematically? [closed]

I think in the case of a single slit, as you reduce the slit width the central peak decreases. The width decreases the amount of light entering the slit actually decreases,so when the area under the ...
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Intuitive explanation for why central fringe in twice the width of others in single slit experiment?

I've seen other answers on stack exchange for this question, but none of them seem to give an intuitive explanation. Is there an explanation that takes a more intuitive approach (if possible, not ...
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What is Scattering of light?

Scattering of light is a Diffraction or Reflection? I mean if a wave of light collide with a particle it just goes in a different pass in respect the angle of crash or it Diffract in different pass ...
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Does diffraction of a coherent laser beam affect its polarization state?

Suppose I have a collimated laser beam with an arbitrary polarization state - linear, circular, or elliptical. The beam encounters an obstacle, such as a pinhole. Diffraction occurs as photons ...
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Intuition of inclination factor in Kirchhoff's diffraction law

Kirchhoff's diffraction law (optics), \begin{align} U(P_0) &= \int_\Sigma U^{\prime}(P_1) \frac{\exp(i kr_{01})}{r_{01}} dS \\ U^{\prime}(P_1) &=\frac{1}{i\lambda} \cdot A\frac{\exp(i kr_{02}...
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How to calculate the width of the dark fringes?

I am talking about the single slit diffraction experiment. The width of the central bright fringe is twice as wide as that of the others bright fringes. It can be calculated easily as follows. \...
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Fourier Optics - application of the 4f correlator experiment

I am in high-school and planning on basing a research essay on the topic of Fourier Optics. I was looking at the derivations behind the Fourier transform and the fact that the Fourier transform of the ...
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Diffraction pattern from a controlled single-slit experiment

I'm returning to the old thought experiemnt of a controlled electron beam pointing at one or two slits. By controlled I mean that the electrons are released with sufficient time between firings that ...
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Does diffraction (prism) conserve photon number?

I have read these questions: Why do prisms work (why is refraction frequency dependent)? Single Photon though prism Does a single white photon exist? There are lasers that emit "supercontinuum" ...
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Does diffraction limit on light divergence apply to all beams?

The diffraction limit $\theta = {\lambda \over\pi w}$ is generally referenced as a theoretical lower limit on light beam divergence. However this limit seems to be based on the assumption that a ...
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Double slit experiment in water: A simple demonstration of refractive wavelength?

The speed and wavelength of light both reduce in media with high refractive index. However, it is perhaps not intuitively clear how frequency and wavelength behave in refractive media. A very simple ...
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Why are diffraction rings closer together when electrons travel at a greater speed in electron diffraction?

I know that at higher speeds the de Broglie wavelength decreases so the electrons diffract less, but does the fact electrons repel affect it in any other way? What I was thinking was that since ...
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Why is the intensity function of $N$-slits interference symmetric?

I'm taking a course of quantum physics and we were asked to plot the intensity function of interference between the waves which exit 20 slits, when the distance between the slits is given by $$ d+A\...
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Why do we demand that $\lambda \ll \text{size of slit}$

I'd appreciate it if anyone could explain to me why do we demand that the wavelength will be much smaller than the distances between the slits in order to see wave diffraction when performing Young's ...
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What causes a double peak for a single wavelength when using an optical spectrometer system?

I am doing an experiment to determine the Rydberg constant for the Balmer series using an optical spectrometer system (consisting of a monochromator with a photomultiplier detector and pulse counting ...
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Why are diffraction rings closer together when electrons travel at higher speeds in electron diffraction?

Is it because they reach the screen in less time so they have less time to repel or is it because the higher speed means a shorter de Broglie wavelength so they diffract less? Do these 2 reasons link ...
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Does the angle between adjacent maxima remain the same?

Is the angle between adjacent maxima, in this case adjacent rainbows, the same. That is, is the angle made by the First-order rainbow and Central white the same as the angle made by the First-order ...
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Do reflection and diffraction occur at the same time?

When waves pass through a gap as the above, diffraction occurs. As the upper and lower part of the plane wave (indicated by yellow colour) are striking the barriers, does reflection occur at the ...
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Spacing between primary maxima of $N$-slit diffraction pattern and single-slit envelope

As far as I know, in the double-slit diffraction pattern, the spacing between primary maxima is determined by the equation of double-slit interference pattern, and the intensities of primary maxima ...
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Order of coloured bands of light: red, blue, green, orange, red, violet, green, and violet

I am currently studying the textbook Modern Optical Engineering, fourth edition, by Warren Smith. Chapter 1 presents the following diagram and explanation when discussion interference and diffraction: ...
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If the illuminating source is monochromatic, will result in a series of alternating light and dark bands of gradually changing intensity on the screen

I am currently studying Modern Optical Engineering, fourth edition, by Warren Smith. Chapter 1 presents the following diagram and explanation when discussing interference and diffraction: If the ...
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What would happen in a single slit diffraction experiment if the slit ends are made of photo sensitive material?

In a single slit diffraction experiment if the slit ends are made of a photosensitive material, And if a light wave falls on the ends of the slit, will it get diffracted or will it lead to ejection of ...

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