Questions tagged [diffraction]

Diffraction is defined as the bending or flaring of light around the corners of an obstacle or aperture into the region of geometrical shadow of the obstacle. This flaring is consistent with the spreading of wavelets in the Huygens construction. Diffraction occurs for waves of all types, not just light.

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Resolving boundary at the edge of a steel plate using 10 micron precession and imaged with a phone camera? [closed]

Resolve the edge of the steel plate by correcting diffraction at the edge. Raw image has enough pixel resolution Imaging is done with a phone camera.
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Uncertainty principle and multiple-slit diffraction

Most of the quantum mechanics textbooks mention the single-slit diffraction phenomenon and explain it with uncertainty principle to obtain the $b\sin(\theta)=n\lambda$ law. But how does one explain ...
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How can you find the number of HPZ in a zone plate?

If you know what the primary focal length, and the wavelength of the light how can you find the total number of half period zones ?
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What are the arbitrary assumptions made in the Huygens-Fresnel principle which Kirchoff's diffraction formula accounts for?

From Wikipedia: "Kirchhoff's diffraction formula provides a rigorous mathematical foundation for diffraction, based on the wave equation. The arbitrary assumptions made by Fresnel to arrive at ...
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Why does the kinematic theory of diffraction for crystals predict the reflectivity will grow larger than 1?

Kinematic diffraction for perfect crystals is based on a few assumptions (neglecting multiple scattering, far field, etc.) some of which become less valid as the crystal thickness is increased. ...
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How can you show that there is destructive interference if Bragg‘s law is not fulfilled?

How can you show that there is destructive interference if Bragg‘s law is not fulfilled? For a given angle $\phi$, spacing $d$ and wavelength $\lambda$: suppose that the path difference between the ...
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Can diffraction phenomenon (e.g. from grating) be viewed as a resonance phenomenon?

In resonance, we deal with oscillation in time. And we require the driven frequency $\omega$ equal to the natural frequency $\omega_0$. Then every cycle the driven force is in-phase with the velocity ...
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Problem regarding diffraction

In the case of single slit diffraction, is it necessary that the distance between slits must be less or equal than the wavelength of light in order to calculate angular width of dark fringes? I got ...
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How to find the path difference in case of diffraction from circular aperture?

I want to know how I can find the path difference between diffracted waves from circular aperture where they produce first minimum intensity of airy pattern in my book it is given as $1.22 \lambda$, ...
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A quantum mechanical interpretation of the diffraction formula, $d \sin \theta = n \lambda$

In the single slit diffraction pattern there exists the following formula: $$d \sin \theta = n \lambda$$ I was looking at and thinking about the quantisation condition of energy, $E = nh\nu$, and saw ...
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Can Bragg's spectrometer be used to determine wavelength of EM wave other than X-rays?

I have read that Bragg's spectrometer is used to study crystals using X rays. It is also used to determine the wavelength of X-rays . My question is that can it be used to determine wavelength of any ...
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Full discription of wave behaviour of particles (e.g. electron diffraction) by wavefunctions

For example, according to the result of electron diffraction experiment, particles show wave characteristics. I also heard that according to Copenhagen interpretation and decoherence theory, before ...
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How to derive spectral resolution from the grating equation?

Assuming the incident beam is perpendicular, the grating equation is as follows: $$n\lambda = d \sin \theta$$ where $n$ is the order, lambda is the wavelength, $d$ is the spacing, and $\theta$ is the ...
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Can telescopes go beyond the diffraction limit by having a better image sensor?

I read the wiki article about angular resolution, but I struggle to understand the image sensors' role in telescopes. Will better image sensors can help go beyond the diffraction point? If not, how to ...
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What is the theoretical limit for image sensors

Telescopes are principaly limited by a diffraction-limit. Does this limit affect the image sensor? The Rubin Observatory LSST Camera, the biggest camera in the world with 3.2 gigapixels is having a ...
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How to evaluate the parallax error in the measure of diffraction rings' diameter?

I have to estimate with an image analysis the diameter of the rings generated by the diffraction of an electron beam with a polycrystalline graphite target. The pattern is made visible by a ...
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Diffraction and Fresnel zones

I am learning about diffraction and I am trying to do this exercise that involves Fresnel zones but I just cant figure out where even to start or what formulas to use. A diffraction scene is being ...
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Should a vertical laser beam placed in front of a single slit affect the vertical position of the electron diffraction pattern on the screen?

Aftr watching this video I have to ask something...For a better understanding of the wave-particle property of the electron I need this answer to grasp about wave function combined with particle ...
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Electrons and Positrons: What happens when a positron beam in-phase with diffracted electrons is used to make a hologram with the anti-electrons?

Suppose two independent beams of positrons and electrons are filtered such that each is in phase with the other (correction: this probably isn't possible, although terminology to this effect is out ...
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Diffracted Electrons vs Particulate Electrons (Collapsed): Is there an experimental difference in terms of Double Slits and/or Which Way information? [closed]

In this community, it has been accepted that electrons can self-interfere. Can an electron interact with itself to create interference? This video is a good lecture on diffraction gratings and plane ...
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Is the Standing Wave of a particle Hologram “interactive”?

In other words, suppose one creates a particle hologram -- no photo reaction, just a standing waveform in space. Suppose the particle is something we are skilled at manipulating, like an electron. ...
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What is the cause of diffraction? [duplicate]

All waves have the property, diffraction. Why exactly does this happen? Why do waves interact in this manner?
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Reflection and transmission coefficient in Fresnel equations

If I have a look at the Fresnel equations on Wikipedia, I get the following expressions for reflection and transmission at perpendicular light incidence $$ R = \left|\frac{\hat n_1 - \hat n_2}{\hat ...
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Complex intensity in electric field (transfer matrix)

Currently I'm coding a transfer matrix approach in C#. Hence, I come up with certain electric fields $E$. At each position I have a propagating field to the right $E_{\text{right}}$ and one to the ...
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On the relationship between slit width and light diffraction

In a light diffraction experiment, using a laser and a diffraction grid we can observe that the slits produce a diffraction pattern when the light from the laser goes through it. I have the hypothesis ...
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How double slit diffraction with unequal slit width affects the pattern of Diffraction? [closed]

If one slit is twice as large as the other in double slit then how does the spacing of fringes and Intensity of fringes change? Does this arrangement have two central maxima (each slit producing one ...
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How Small a Slit can Light Pass through?

If you imagine light source passing through a single slit of variable thickness, as you lower the thickness of the slit the light will diffract more and more until the slit is small enough that no ...
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Can inelastic scattering still give rise to diffraction?

I am having a conceptual difficulty reconciling inelastic events and diffraction, particularly whether or not you can have inelastic diffraction. Here is my thought experiment that I am working ...
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Light shining on a straight edge

When monochromatic light shines on a semi-infinite, opaque wall bounded by a straight edge, it flares out past that edge. In fact, it forms a series of fringes, whose locations can be determined using ...
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Fraunhofer Diffraction - Multiple Square Apertures

I'm stuck for some days trying to get the diffraction pattern from a binary grating / square period grating / multi-aperture square screen... whatever you want to call it. Imagine I have a 8 * 5 ...
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Optical signal/noise effects while driving

When I was driving I made an observation depending on two conditions Condition 1: If my eyes are in sunlight but just in front of me there is shade of trees or anything else Condition 2: There is dust ...
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How to understand Bragg rods?

From reading this PRL, I came across the idea of the reciprocal lattice of crystals being spread out in diffraction to "Bragg rods". Is there a good intuitive explanation of this? I'm ...
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Diffraction due to a long slit

I know the equation of net electric field at any point from a rectangular aperture in Fraunhofer diffraction. But I have come to know that if the length of the slit is finite than there is no ...
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Young slit conundrum - Finding positions of maxima when one of the slits emanates light with phase difference

Second guessing myself a bit here, but I've run into a bit of an issue. The problem I'm trying to solve is this: Coherent light of $532nm$ is passing through a double slit, which are separated by $25\...
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Intensity of a grating pattern in the limit of infinite slits

$$I\propto \frac{\sin^2(N\delta)}{\sin^2(\delta)}$$ Where $N$ is the number of slits and $\delta$ contains the angle, wavelength and slit spacing dependence. In the limit as $\delta \to 0, I \to N^2$. ...
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Diffraction & Width of slit

I was told that diffraction through a slit occurs as follows- When the 'point sources' of the planar wavefront at the location of the slit emit secondary wavelets we find bright and dark spots at ...
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X-Ray Diffraction: Calculate the phase difference at the detector between waves scattered by 2 different points in a sample

I have very little idea what I'm doing here, but my goal is to calculate the difference in phase of the waves scattered by 2 points in some sample. The figure below shows my interpretation of the ...
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Fourier Optics: Far Field Image

I have a question about computing the far field diffraction pattern of a laser beam: If $L_{1}$ is large enough, then at $z=L_{1}$ we see the Fourier transform of the input $f(x, y)$. If $L_{2}$ is ...
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Single Slit Diffraction : Problem with the condition of diffraction [closed]

The condition for diffraction is that the effects of diffraction become more noticeable when the width of aperture is comparable to the wavelength, and from that we can say the spacing of fringes ...
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Diffraction By Small Holes - Hans Bethe 1944 paper

I am a beginner physics student and my background is not in mathematics so I have an elementary question - I am trying to follow along Hans Bethe's 1994 paper on the diffraction of electromagnetic ...
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$\rm Lux$ to $\rm W/m^2$ conversion?

For a physics project, I'm planning to investigate the relationship between the number of slits in a diffraction grating and the intensity of the central maxima. The light meter which I'm planning to ...
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Why doesn't the acousto-optic frequency shift depend solely on the velocity of sound in the medium, if it is a form of Doppler shift?

Many optics books make the statement that the frequency shift of a laser beam from the acousto-optic effect can be thought of as a Doppler shift from a traveling index of refraction grating (pressure ...
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Diffraction due to a long narrow slit

I wanted to derive an expression for intensity due to a single slit whose dimensions are 1m and a ( where a is of the order of wavelength (diffraction. For that firstly I divided the slit into ...
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Diffraction of light (slit)

According to some books, diffraction occurs when there is an obstacle whose linear dimensions are comparable to the wavelength of light. This is true also for a hole or a slit through which the light ...
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Why do waves, specifically light, diffract through a slit?

I've been wondering this for a while now, and have thus far only come across answers that seem to use an equation as an explanation. I've also looked at Huygens' principle (albeit not in-depth), but ...
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Why is resolution half the wavelength?

My biology textbook says: The general rule is that the limit of resolution is about one half the wavelength of the radiation used to view the specimen. This means anything smaller than half the ...
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The maximum wavelength obtainable from a diffraction grating

I am trying to understand what exactly is meant by the following question: What is the maximum wavelength that can be obtained with a given diffraction grating in (a) the first order (b) the second ...
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How do Airy disks happen in focused vs unfocused light?

In articles about Airy disks, I can't find whether they are talking about an aperture with a lens or mirror that focuses the light, or about a plain aperture. Most of the time they are talking about ...
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Diffraction from fcc(111) surface

Take the (111) surface of a fcc lattice: If we have a wave incident on the surface moving in a direction with a projection parallel to the orange line, then in principle we should observe diffraction ...
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Is there an analytic expression for the Fresnel pattern from a circular aperture?

I am interested in the Fresnel diffraction pattern (over an entire observation plane, not just the value on-axis) due to a plane wave incident on both square and circular apertures. I have two optics ...

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