# Questions tagged [refraction]

Change in the direction of propagation of a wave when its transmitting medium changes. The tag does also apply to index of refraction.

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### What causes materials like Vantablack to have their high optical absorption properties?

As per the title of this post. From reading, I understand that blackbody radiation is a factor I should consider here, with light being absorbed and converted to heat etc. However, what I want to ...
394 views

### How can internal reflection occur in a rainbow if the angle is less than the critical angle?

In the explanation for rainbow formation, it is said that the spherical droplet refracts and then Totally Internally reflects the incident sunlight. But examining the angles suggest ( see fig below ) ...
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### Exponential term obtained while solving the reflectance and transmittance coefficients using the Transfer Matrix method [closed]

I am trying to solve and obtain the percentage values for the reflectance and the transmission coefficient for a four-layer medium-BK7, Gold, Water, and air. The electromagnetic wave which I am ...
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### Young's double slit experiment IIT JEE problem

In a Young's experiment,the upper slit is covered by a thin glass plate of refractive index 1.4, while the lower slit is covered by another glass plate, having the same thickness as the first one but ...
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### light wave frequency number [closed]

The angular frequency ω and the wavenumber k for light waves travelling within a particular glass medium are related by the following equation 4π2c = Bkω where B is a constant. (a) What causes ...
36 views

### Snell law with two unknowns [closed]

I having troubles with a basic geometric optics exercise which says: The image shows a glass block immersed in water ($n_\text{water}=1,33$). What it’s the refraction index $n_\text{glass}$ of the ...
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### Why are the edges of a broken glass almost opaque?

Unfortunately I broke my specs today which I used in this question. But I observed that the edges are completely different then the entire part of the lens. The middle portion of the lens was ...
43 views

### Please explain Q.9 and 13 [closed]

In question 9 how to add intensities? Can we do like first finding 'resultant intensity' from 1 and 2 and then with 3. For that, what do I put the phase difference between the 'resultant' and 3.? And ...
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### Effective refractive index can be equal zero?

Can someone please explain the cases that the Effective refractive index $n$ on it can be equal zero? Does such a situation even exist? I am trying to solve an ordinary differential equation to find ...
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### Resulting ray power after subsequent reflections in a waveguide

Suppose we have a planar waveguide immersed in a solution with refractive index lower than its core. A ray that propagates through the waveguide is depicted below with incident angle (with respect to ...
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### Calculate the intensity of light emerging a droplet using calculus

I am reading a paper about rainbow and the appendix here is trying to explain the calculation the author made to calculate the intensity of light. The author mention about it is related to a ...
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### Variation of Optical density

How does the optical density of air vary with height. I know about variation of Optical density within smaller heights like that observed in phenomenon of Mirage and looming but when we are concerned ...
11 views

### What would be the intensity of light reflected on the interface of denser to rarer medium when the critical angle is not achieved?

There is always some amount of light reflected on the interface of the surface of denser to rarer medium. I just want to know, how much of light is actually reflected and how much refracted depending ...
12 views

### Effective refractive index and refractive index [duplicate]

Is there any relation connecting between the effective refractive index $N$ and the refractive index $n$ in waveguide?
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### Why do we generally get reflected and transmitted waves that too having same frequency as the incident one?

In a MIT OCW video lecture, a professor discusses a wave on a string having some density moving towards another string. Both of which are joined but have different densities. He goes on to analyse it,...
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### Modeling curved light in media with “complex” indices of refraction

I've written an algorithm to solve the Time Difference of Arrival (TDoA) localization problem, using Bancroft's method (see). Given the coordinates of $n$ nodes in ...
121 views

### Brewster's angle reflected wave- is it part of the refracted or incident ray?

I am trying to figure out what is happening to the charged particles in the reflective surface in the case of Brewster's angle. When this angle is different than zero or Brewster's angle, then the ...