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Questions tagged [refraction]

Change in the direction of propagation of a wave when its transmitting medium changes. The tag does also apply to index of refraction.

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Complete the concave ray diagram to show the path of the rays after refraction through the lens [closed]

Ray diagram, Path of the refracted rays
aparna chamala's user avatar
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23 views

What is meant by optical density?

I’m trying to research about optical density for a school task, but the definitions online are confusing me. From what I’ve gotten, optical density is: how much the intensity of light is increased or ...
anonymous hehe's user avatar
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2 answers
108 views
+50

Diffraction when the wavefront is not parallel to the plane

I am studying Feynman's chapter on the origin of the index of the refractive index (see this link). If I am not mistaken, what he does is to prove that when a wave enters a medium (modelled as a ...
Plop's user avatar
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Snell's law in materials having negative permittivity only?

We have reverse Snell's law in negative index materials (having negative permittivity and permeability). If we have a material with only negative permittivity , then can we also have reverse Snell's ...
MARYAM BIBI's user avatar
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1 answer
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Most generic form of refractive index tensors

The refractive index of a material is in general a $3x3$ tensor (as in the case of birefringent crystals). From literature, it seems that in the case of transparent crystals, this tensor is in general ...
Victor Liu's user avatar
3 votes
0 answers
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Relating Brachistochrone problem to Fermat's principle of least time [closed]

When I came across the Brachistochrone problem, my teacher said we could relate it to Fermat's principle of least time. So, we could make many glass slabs of high $\mathrm dx$, and every slab has a ...
AANT's user avatar
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5 votes
2 answers
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Huygens' principle and the laws of reflection/refraction

As I understand the Huygens principle, all points on the wavefront are sources of secondary spherical wavelets and the tangent to these wavelets will form new wavefront. This is used to prove the ...
Yevgeniy P's user avatar
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Is there a good quantum explanation of refraction? [duplicate]

I'm aware of the classical explanation of refraction which deals with light being a wave that gets "slowed" down while passing from a medium to another. One problem that I have with this ...
PicPuc's user avatar
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1 answer
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At which wavelengths do photons behave like X-ray?

Hard X-rays of wavelengths of about an angstrom are very different than regular lights in a way that they can’t be reflected or refracted, which means their refractive index is always close to 1 ...
哲煜黄's user avatar
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2 votes
2 answers
135 views

What does the optical Hamiltonian mean?

So I was trying to demonstrate Snell's law with Hamilton's equations, and when I got the Hamiltonian: $$H = -\sqrt{n^2-p_{1}^2-p_{2}^2}.$$ I had a question about what this Hamiltonian indicates. I ...
gordunox's user avatar
2 votes
2 answers
134 views

Why can't we see green color in the sky? [duplicate]

From sunrise to sunset we can see a variety of colors in the sky. For example, during morning the most dominant color is blue whereas during sunset orange,red,yellow and there shades are more dominant....
Ishaan's user avatar
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1 answer
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Inconvenience of speed of light in optic fiber

As far as I'm concerned, optic fiber is great in order to transport information quickly using light. Since light needs to undergo total internal reflection every single time it hits the walls of the ...
Lagrangiano's user avatar
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How to Calculate Focal Length when in another medium?

How do you calculate the focal length of a lens when it is placed into another medium, if I only have the focal length of a lens in the air? I understand that the lensmaker's equation should be used, ...
Astrovis's user avatar
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1 answer
45 views

What is a convex-concave lens?

I came across this term while studying for optics, and I'm unsure as to what this means. My thinking is that it might be a meniscus lens, but the text separately give two different models for each ...
Astrovis's user avatar
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I need to calculate the lateral displacement of light from a glass slab

I think I might have a solution to calculation the lateral displacement of light, however I'd like informed opinion on whether this is right. We first extend the incident line forwards. Now, we ...
Likhith Reddy's user avatar
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How can a greater than 1 reflectance coefficient be explained in $\rm SiC$-$\rm SiO_2$ interface?

I ran a simulation using the Transfer Matrix Method to plot the R,T and A curves for a SiC->SiO2 interface. There's a region of incident energies where the |r|^2 I get is higher than 1 and the ...
Daniel's user avatar
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1 vote
1 answer
126 views

How does Snell's law work with a complex refractive index?

In order to calculate Fresnel coefficients for layered media, we often need to calculate the angle that light travels inside a material with complex refractive index. Naturally, this is related to the ...
cheekylittleduck's user avatar
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Behaviour of light in non-Newtonian fluids

So if a ray of light is passed through a cuboidal glass tub, and refraction occurs for the first time and if force is applied on the the fluid laterally, the viscosity would vary and so would it's ...
Goutham's user avatar
1 vote
2 answers
72 views

Why total reflection happens at only 1 angle?

The critical angle can be intuitively understood by Snell's law.If the incident medium has a bigger diffraction index than the refracted medium then according to Snell's law the refracted ray will be ...
Root Groves's user avatar
5 votes
4 answers
1k views

How do parallel reflected rays meet to form image at infinity? If they never meet then how is image formed?

In my textbooks it is written that when an object is kept at focus, its image is formed at infinity and is real. But how is this possible because parallel lines never meet and it is necessary for rays ...
Shivam Gogia's user avatar
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1 answer
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Ray separation in waveplates

In a birefringent medium, the ordinary and extraordinary rays have different Pointing-vector directions and, therefore, different propagation directions, since the direction of the Poyting-vector ...
Kubrik's user avatar
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Lens maker’s formula from parabolic approximation

I’m attempting to derive the lens maker’s formula for a thin or thick lens using the parabolic approximation. I’m familiar with the other proof using the law of refraction and different angles. The ...
TheorVHP's user avatar
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0 answers
31 views

Property of total internal reflection question

If I create a medium with gradually decreasing refractive index from once face at index 2.0 and other at 1.01, and show a beam of light upon the optically denser side, will there be any losses upon ...
Udaiyan Bhan's user avatar
1 vote
2 answers
77 views

Deviation suffered by light ray incident on a surface

Problem: Figure shows two spherical surfaces of radii $R$ and $2R$ separating three transparent media of refractive indices $\mu_1=1, \mu_2=2$ and $\mu_3=4$. A ray of light travelling in medium $\...
Haider's user avatar
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Is the relativistic energy-momentum relation fundamental? [duplicate]

The following relativistic energy-momentum relationship is taken to be fundamental: $$E^2=p^2c^2+m_0^2c^4.\tag{1}$$ Let us specialize to massless particles ($m_0=0$) so that we have: $$E=p\ c.\tag{2}$$...
John Eastmond's user avatar
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2 answers
74 views

Is there a way to calculate the angle between the refracted and reflected rays given the refractive index?

Is there a way to calculate the refracted and reflected rays? I know we use Snell's law to calculate the refracted rays, but is there a formula to calculate the angle of the reflected rays, or does it ...
Astrovis's user avatar
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7 votes
2 answers
1k views

Fermat principle: how did they know the speed of light in different mediums?

Pierre de Fermat derived his principle of least time by considering the path that light would take when traveling between two points. He postulated that light would follow the path that minimized the ...
Andy Chow's user avatar
3 votes
0 answers
60 views

What causes the plane contrails to bend in the foreground of the eclipse?

This looks almost like refractive index of air is different in the shadowed part, but what would cause that?
Dargscisyhp's user avatar
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2 votes
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Apparent position of object in bowl of water

Say you have a bowl of water and you keep an object in it. What would the apparent position of an object inside the bowl from the position of an outside observer? Will the curvature of the spherical ...
Astrovis's user avatar
  • 187
5 votes
1 answer
407 views

Difference between deviation of ray and wavefront

This is a reference to the question posted by Govind Prajapat Refraction of light through a slab of variable refractive index A monochromatic light wave is incident normally on a glass slab of ...
soccerer's user avatar
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2 answers
66 views

Is refraction a special case of diffraction according to the book by Charles Kittel?

Wikipedia defines diffraction as - Diffraction is the interference or bending of waves around the corners of an obstacle or through an aperture into the region of geometrical shadow of the obstacle/...
Vatsal Sharma's user avatar
1 vote
0 answers
34 views

QFT view of lower light speed of light in medium [duplicate]

In classical EM theory, if we have a medium whose dielectric coefficient is independent of wavelengths (suppose we filter the incoming signal to a certain frequency band), then the waveform gets to ...
Meatball Princess's user avatar
0 votes
0 answers
26 views

Why the photons are deflected during the refraction? [duplicate]

From what I learnt, when photons are passing throw a denser environnement with an positive angle (from the atmosphere to water for exemple), they are slow down. But I can't understand how this ...
Jay Labarsurlakantik 's user avatar
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0 answers
42 views

Why do shockwaves refract when they travel into the ground?

If a shockwave from something like an explosion travels into the ground, why will it refract? The speed of sound is far different in the ground, but what would make it refract? I can’t seem to find ...
Wyatt's user avatar
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1 vote
1 answer
43 views

How are shockwaves able to refract?

How are shockwaves able to refract? As said here, When two shock waves collide, they interact with each other and produce complex patterns of compression, rarefaction, and reflection. The resulting ...
Wyatt's user avatar
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1 vote
4 answers
99 views

Why does light bend through a different medium?

How does light going through a medium make light refract? Here’s a good picture : The problem with this analogy is it depends on the students or light being connected to each other and as far as I ...
Wyatt's user avatar
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2 votes
0 answers
27 views

Definition of the displacement field in classical field Lagrangian

In a BSM related paper (in appendix B), the authors use an effective Lagrangian $\mathcal{L}_{EFT}$, and define the following fields: $$ \mathbf{D} = \frac{\partial\mathcal{L}_{EFT}}{\partial\mathbf{E}...
Doron Behar's user avatar
2 votes
1 answer
113 views

Why is the refractive index for light rays travelling in circular paths proportional to $1/r$?

While studying optics, I came across a problem with solution in which the trajectory of light rays was known—circular paths around a fixed point in space, and the question was that of determining the ...
davidaddisonsenjaya's user avatar
1 vote
1 answer
89 views

Why do highlights occur on edges? [closed]

When looking at an object, the highlights are usually on the corners and edges. Highlights can occur anywhere on an object, but it seems like the brightest parts are where it is the most sharp.
mh11111's user avatar
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0 votes
1 answer
123 views

Wave propagation in inhomogeneous media

There is a problem I'm trying to solve for some time now and is about the standard (?) approximation that it is made when one tries to solve the Helmholtz equation in inhomogeneous media, that is \...
user1524841's user avatar
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0 answers
50 views

Can anyone explain convergence of parallel rays on the focus of a parabolic reflector using Fermat's Principle?

Can anyone explain convergence of parallel rays on the focus of a parabolic reflector using Fermat's Principle? using optimization techniques from calculus?
Sachin Kalakoti's user avatar
1 vote
0 answers
32 views

Microscopic model of complex refractive index

In my Electromagnetic Optics class, we tried to reconcile the microscopic (optical) properties of matter with its macroscopic counterparts, and one of the most challenging properties is the (complex) ...
Lagrangiano's user avatar
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0 votes
0 answers
28 views

How does an electromagnetic wave behave when it enters a medium with refractive index less than unity?

From what I am able to find, the phase velosity of the wave exceeds c, but the group velosity remains less than c. However, why does the wave form wavepackets after entering a medium with refractive ...
QuarkGP's user avatar
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0 votes
0 answers
68 views

Finding the limiting refractive index of a rainbow

Give the limiting refractive index of a rainbow. The raindrops are modelled as spherical droplets, with refractive index $n$, with parallel rays from the Sun incident on it. I have a very limited ...
Developer's user avatar
0 votes
1 answer
39 views

Can anyone explain the relationship between the refractive index, the speed, wavelength and angle of a wave?

Can anyone explain the relationship between the refractive index, the speed, wavelength and angle of a wave? in my book is states that $$n = \frac{v_1}{v_2} = \frac{\sin θ_1}{\sin θ_2} = \frac{λ_1}{...
dayum's user avatar
  • 1
3 votes
2 answers
134 views

Why is $c = \frac{1}{\sqrt{\mu_0 \epsilon_0}}$?

I'm sorry if this is a duplicate but I didn't find my answer. I'm currently studying maxwell's equations and I know that by comparing the wave equation for either the magnetic or the electric field \...
Axodarap's user avatar
0 votes
0 answers
33 views

Does light accelerate? [duplicate]

If considering the general formula for acceleration, ie. Δ V/ΔT, we would get zero as the velocity of light is constant and does not change. However, what about when photons travel through different ...
Mel's user avatar
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0 votes
0 answers
29 views

Minimum Radius of Curvature an Optical Fiber can be bent

Using the thickness and refractive index of an optical fiber, is it possible to know the maximum radius of curvature it can be bent before there are losses due to refraction? In my research, I came ...
Astrovis's user avatar
  • 187
3 votes
2 answers
3k views

Why does laser light not bend (refract) when it travels from air to water?

I passed green laser light from air to water but to my suprise the light doesn't bend towards normal even though I changed the angle of incidence.It goes undeflected ,Is it because of its higher ...
Sanjay S's user avatar
3 votes
4 answers
641 views

Refraction of light through a slab of variable refractive index

Here I am posting a question of Jee Adv. 2023 based on refraction. A monochromatic light wave is incident normally on a glass slab of thickness 𝑑, as shown in the figure. The refractive index of the ...
Govind Prajapat's user avatar

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