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As I understand, particles such as the neutron, whilst having no external charge still possess a magnetic moment due to the underlying charges of its components.

By that logic why does the alpha particle have a magnetic moment of zero?

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This is actually the least hypothesis for this configuration.

Four nucleons comprising all four allowed $\text{spin} \times \text{isospin}$ states can all be expected to be in the s1 state so that they have no orbital contribution and for each pair the intrinsic magnetic moments cancel as the spins are opposed. Boom. Zero and done.

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    $\begingroup$ a more interesting question is how the spherical symmetry in the ground state of the $He_4$ nucleus is determinant for the degeneracy observed in the Bose-Einstein condensate, and why similarly symmetric nuclei do not show the condensate transition $\endgroup$ – lurscher Jan 25 '13 at 19:59
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    $\begingroup$ @lurscher Can bosons that are composed of several fermions occupy the same state? has some discussion on that issue, but it is mostly beyond my poor, weak, experimentalist brain. $\endgroup$ – dmckee Jan 25 '13 at 20:04

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