Questions tagged [nuclear-physics]

Nuclear physics is the study of the composition, behavior and interaction of atomic nuclei and their constituent parts.

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Minimum kinetic energy required for alpha particle to 'stick' to silver nucleus [closed]

An alpha particle is incident on a silver nucleus, what is the minimum kinetic energy required in order to become stuck in the silver nucleus? Take the diameter of the nucleus to be 10^-15 m Thank you ...
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Can we affect nuclear warheads with neutrinos?

I heard, that we can either disarm or detonate nuclear warhead if we could target neutrino beam onto it. Is it true? Which reaction it would be? Conversion of neutrons to protons? Or conversion of ...
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Is the Larmor precession of $s$-orbital electrons constant, heedless of additional electronic orbitals as they get added from one element to another?

Understanding how the frequency required in NMR changes from element to element, even if all of them depend on the Larmor precession of the proton, I was wondering if they same applied to electron ...
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What can make nuclear radiation dosimeter increase $\rm 0.2μSv/h$ suddenly?

I got one nuclear radiation dosimeter, with national official verification certificate (legal effect). dosimeter specifics: Detector: Energy compensated GM counter tube Detectable species: Beta Gamma ...
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How do cyceling moltant salt reactors do nuclear fission?

I only have an understand of how PWR's do nuclear fission, looking at the diagram for the salt reactors it's a bit confusing. Where is the fission taking place if the salt is cycling throughout the ...
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How can I visualize the oxygen nuclear charge density?

Oxygen has 8 protons and 8 neutrons. Based on the nuclear shell model, protons should pair with anti-parallel protons to create singlet spin states, and neutrons should similarly pair with anti-...
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What are critical differences between conventional lasers and matter lasers?

In what ways would a coherent stream of matter waves/De Broglie wavelength interacting with the environment differ from a conventional coherent stream of photons? What have been observed and what have ...
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What is the heaviest element being produced in Sun?

Helium is being produced currently in Sun. 3 questions. Other than Helium what other elements are currently being produced in Sun right now.? Looks like in 5 billion years, when Sun will become a ...
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Probability in simultaneous parallel radioactive decay

Probability of survival (PoS) and probability of decay(PoD) in simple radioactive decay (X --> Y : $\lambda$ as disintegration constant) are given by: PoS = $e^{-\lambda t}$ and PoD = $ 1- e^{-\...
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Feynman Diagram for proton-proton and for neutron- neutron [closed]

What are the Feynman diagrams for these two reactions? $$p+p \to p+p + \pi^+ + \pi^- + \pi^0 \\ n+n \to \pi^+ + \pi^- + \pi^0$$
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Do spontaneous nuclear decay and a reactor-decay ultimately involve same energy release?

I want to compare two scenarios here. A particular nuclide undergoes spontaneous nuclear decay and release energy in form of emitted particles, their kinetic energies and radiations. In another case, ...
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Why free neutrons are usually produced in a Nuclear Fission?

The production of neutrons is a feature of fission reaction. Usually 2-3 free neutrons are produced in the fission. Why is that so?
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Conjugate nuclei

I'm trying to find an explanation for the difference in binding energies between conjugate nuclei being governed by the Coulomb interaction. I was looking at the semi-empirical mass formula and trying ...
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Extrema in the Table of Nuclides [closed]

Symbolic picture of a nuclid chart: I would like to know for which $Z$ the area in the nuclide map has the greatest width and for which $N$ and the greatest height. Does anyone know? Note: I don't ...
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First non-unique beta decay transition (parity of the nucleus is changes)

What is the difference in the cross-section of the allowed and 1st non-unique forbidden beta decay transition? In other words, how does the change in parity of the daughter nucleus influence the cross-...
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How is energy in the universe constant? [duplicate]

We have been taught that the universe has a constant amount of energy but if energy can be converted into matter, how is it constant?
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1answer
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What factors affect the rate of decay of a radioactive atom? [duplicate]

I saw a specific quote that made me question this : "Other atoms in the universe don't influence the rate, it's just an intrinsic property of each separate atom that it has some chance to decay.&...
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Estimate minimum mass A of unstable nuclei for $\alpha$ decay

I want to estimate a minimum mass $A$ from which nuclei can be unstable for $\alpha$ decay using the liquid drop model. I started by writing the reaction's Q value for the usual $\alpha$ decay, in ...
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2answers
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Change in the mass of a star due to nuclear fussion of Hydrogen [closed]

Let's suppose a star is initially composed only of hydrogen. After a certain time $t$, it has consumed the $5\%$ of its initial hydrogen, fusing it to produce helium, according to the following ...
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1answer
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If mass and energy can neither be created nor be destroyed then how in nuclear fusion mass is converted to energy with the formula $E = mc^2$

It is said by law of conservation of mass and energy that: Mass and energy can neither be created nor be destroyed. But if it is true then during a nuclear fusion or fission reaction how is mass ...
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Can the synchronous Larmor precession of several nuclei cause the emergence of a quasiparticle system?

As phonon's form due to the synchronous oscillation of their vibrational modes, couldn't the same apply to the synchronous oscillation of a system of protons oscillating at their fundamental frequency?...
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Why do atoms only absorb energy in the form of radiation or heat?

Why do atoms eject electrons only if they are provided energy in the form of radiation(photons) or heat(thermal energy or friction)? Why can't we excite atoms by increasing its other energies like ...
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Wave/particle duality of an alpha-particle that is emitted by alpha decay

I am wondering about the wave/particle duality of an alpha particle in vacuum. Suppose a U-238 nucleus emits an alpha-particle in vacuum. Is the alpha particle initially a spherical wave propagating ...
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Does Build up factor actually make it worse to have shielding?

I'm having a little trouble understanding Build up factor in radioactive shielding equations. I learned that the equation for shielding with the Build up factor is: $$I = I_0 \cdot B e^{-ux}$$ And I ...
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Why is the number of isotopes of an element bounded?

Is there a known reason why any given element has finitely many isotopes? Here I mean both stable and unstable isotopes. If we know this, do we have a reason why, for a given element, are the isotopes ...
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Is there an equivalent Larmor precession that is non-magnetic in nature?

Can the magnetic moment of a particle be manipulated without magnetic fields? Could one accomplish this with electromagnetic radiation or even "Atom Lasers"?
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1answer
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Recent review on high density equation of state?

Can anyone suggest a recent review on the equation of state of the matter at high (nuclear and above) densities? I would like this review to contain both astrophysical applications, mainly for neutron ...
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What defines Fusion-Evaporation Reactions in Nuclear Physics?

A bit of a general question I know; but I would like to understand a bit more about the topic. The situation is an alpha beam is incident on an Aluminium-27 target, which ejects a neutron and leaves a ...
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Is Proton-Tritium fusion possible?

Suppose we have a single tritium nucleus ( $^3_1H$ so two neutrons and one proton). Tritium is a highly unstable nucleic configuration and hence decays into $^3_2He$ with a half life of roughly 12 ...
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Low-energy excited states of $^{13}C$

While doing some studying for an exam in introductory nuclear physics, I stumbled upon a question I can't answer. I'm supposed to explain the ground state and the three lowest energy excited states of ...
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Why can a neutral pion decay into 2 photons but not one? [duplicate]

Hi Sorry if this is a simple question I just can't seen to get my head at what law is being violated due to a neutral pion decaying into a photon (I have an inclining its to do with 4-vector momentum ...
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What exactly is neutron radiation?

Well, I'll be honest my physics is not good. But I really wonder about radiation and other physical stuff. When I search about it I see three types of ionizing radiation: Alpha, Beta and Gamma. But ...
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Is there any conversion mechanism of neutron radiation into electromagnetic radiation?

Charged radiation such as beta, alpha or even stray protons and nuclei as they are charged can loose their energy as photons. Can neutrons do this as well, even if they do not have any electric charge ...
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Drawbacks of dielectric wall accelerators

Wby are dielectric wall accelerators not used as a replacement to conventional particle accelerators? How “efficient” are they in accelerating particles compared to conventional accelerators?
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Does neutron decay have an additional factor of 2 in the decay rate?

In neutron decay, a down quark decays into an up quark. Does the fact that there are two down quarks with the possibility of decaying contribute a factor of 2 to the decay rate? My confusion is that ...
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Why does the binding energy per nucleon rise as the nucleon number rises, then go down again, with nuclei heavier than iron? [duplicate]

As the strong nuclear force is a short range force, and as it is way stronger than Coulomb force, Lumen Learning answered my question as follows: “for low-mass nuclei, the nuclear attraction dominates ...
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What went wrong with the nuclear boy scouts breeder reactor?

If I recall correctly the Nuclear boy scout tried to build a breeder reactor but the experiment gave him radiation poisoning because the neutron emitter was to emitting to many neutrons. Does anyone ...
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Why are PWR's being build instead of FBR's or LMFBR's?

Why are PWR's still being built in modern times when we have the option to use designs that allow intake of raw uranium without the need for enrichment and allow for recycling of waste material. I don'...
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Energy from fission of Pb?

The fission of lead has been demonstrated as a result of proton or photon bombardment. The process releases energy from the mass defect between the original Pb nucleus and the fission products. ...
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What are the effects of structural shape on quantum confinement?

The dimension’s of quantum dot’s allows for the quantum well of electron’s of the material. However, how would the shape of a quantum dot or quantum dot like material, make it behave differently, were ...
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Is resonance total width conserved in different frames?

Since we have to perform a relativistic transformation to transform the resonance peak energy from the lab frame to the resonances rest frame, I would find it surprising that we could use the total ...
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Elastic Proton-Proton Scattering at tree level

Hello im trying compute the Cross section of an elastic proton-proton scattering and my results are beyond terrrible and i can't figure out where my mistakes lie. I'm going to describe what i tried to ...
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Binding energy per nucleon of the nucleus [closed]

I'm trying to calculate the binding energy in MeV per nucleon of the nucleus for Sulphur-34. However, I am told that my calculation is wrong and that the mass of the electrons do not have to be taken ...
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Quantum tunnelling in space vs. time

In the Gamov model of alpha decay they use the WKB approximation to find the magnitude of the stationary state wavefunction of an alpha particle with a given fixed energy $Q$ that has tunnelled ...
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Is nuclear force always attractive?

I read in my high school physics's textbook that nuclear force holds the nucleus. Is the nuclear force another name for the strong force? If it holds the nucleus it should be attractive. Am I right?
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Does the nuclear interaction favour aligned or anti-aligned spins?

My particle physics lecture notes seem to have contradictory statements. Firstly they argue that p-n is stable while p-p and n-n are not because the nuclear interaction favours spin alignment (and by ...
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Proton to neutron mass ratio while free versus when bound inside the nucleus?

Is the proton to neutron mass ratio different while they are free versus when they are bound inside a nucleus?
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What is pion condensation (or hadron condensation in general)?

I found some references, for instance here and here, but I still don't really understand the concept of why it happens, or why it's interesting. In particular, I'd like to know: What is hadron ...
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Containing a nuclear explosion in space

Suppose we have a nuke as strong as tsar bomb in space. can we somehow contain the explosion? the same way we contain plasma in fusion reactors.
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Feynman rules for Nucleon-Nucleon Interaction with Tensor Coupling

Hello im trying to Compute the Cross section of an elastic Nucleon-Nucleon scattering and i don't know what to make of the following Lagrangian: \begin{equation} \mathcal{L}_{\rho N N}=-g_{\rho} \bar{\...

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