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Questions tagged [particle-physics]

Particle physics is the study of the fundamental forces of nature as they are embodied in the interactions of elementary and composite particles at high energies and short time and distance scales.

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Latest SUSY limits from LHC

What are the latest limits on low energy supersymmetry scale from experiments (LHC, etc.)?
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28 views

Dark Matter gamma-ray flux from hadronic annihilation channels?

For a project I am currently reading into indirect detection of Dark Matter via gamma-rays from DM subhalo's. I understand that there is a possibility of DM annihilating with each other in these ...
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33 views

What direction would this photon go?

Say a matter-antimatter pair of particles annihilates linearly (from a reference frame where the sum of the momenta is zero) to create a photon. Wouldn't momentum conservation prevent the photon from ...
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1answer
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If strings of matter are of the same substance how can matter carry differing charges?

Considering that a string is a loop of energy composed of the same underlying material how is it possible for it to be either positively or negatively charged? For that matter, how is it possible for ...
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Total heat loss from Human body [duplicate]

I want to calculate total heat loss from human body.Please tell me how I will determine total heat loss from human body?
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Alternative to Helium-Neon mixture when building a spark chamber

I have a project for building a spark chamber however have no way of procuring the Helium Neon gas mixture as used by http://www.ep.ph.bham.ac.uk/DiscoveringParticles/detection/spark-chamber/ Is there ...
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27 views

How to determine exchange particle of two-to-two process?

For the process, $e^+e^- \rightarrow e^+e^-$ I know that the exchange particle is a photon and for the process $\gamma\gamma \rightarrow e^+e^-$, the exchange particle would be an electron but I'm not ...
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1answer
61 views

How much harder is a proton theoretically speaking than a diamond? [on hold]

It's generally said that a diamond is the hardest substance known to man (apparently there are a few materials known to be harder). However, one ought to expect that a proton or neutron should be ...
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2answers
56 views

Could we use experimental evidence of micro black holes to prove the existence of additional spatial dimensions?

They are planning to create a new particle accelerator that can smash particles together at a much higher energy than the LHC. If in the process we observe the decay of a micro black hole, would that ...
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What physical law(s) are violated by two masses occupying the same space at the same time?

The two masses have equal mass and equal volume. I think the 2nd law of thermo is violated (because there are less ways to arrange a single mass in space than two), but what other laws could be ...
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Superconducting Super Collider vs Future Circular Collider [on hold]

I wonder, which one would provide better science and applications such as humanitarian aid science and technology when and if they were completed ?
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1answer
40 views

How to know what type of diagram contributes to a two-to-two process?

There are 3 types of diagrams that can contribute to a two-to-two process; the $s$-channel, $u$-channel and $t$-channel. How do I know what diagrams can contribute to a process? I know that in QED, ...
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Predicting the Frequencies of Visible Light [on hold]

Why can't the Standard Model predict the frequency range of visible light; which must rather be inferred from measures of wavelength? Given that QFT is a gauge theory in which, since the fields are ...
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1answer
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What are “large hadrons”? Are there also “small hadrons”?

The BBC News article Cern plans even larger hadron collider for physics search says: The difficulty with Cern's proposals for a larger Large Hadron Collider is that no one knows what energies will ...
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1answer
61 views

How do we know what happened during the Planck epoch era of the big bang?

The Cosmic Microwave Background provides the left over radiation of the big bang. Cosmologists have theorised what happened at the Planck epoch era of the big bang. Where is the evidence of what ...
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1answer
52 views

Gamma Photons vs. Muons; Which is more expensive [closed]

Which one takes more energy to produce? I ask as I theorize that keeping the plasma in a fusion reactor is very expensive. Muons, while useful, are too short lived. Maybe... Keeping the plasma at ...
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How to determine the squared average amplitude for $\nu_e(p_1)+d(p_2)\rightarrow e^-(p_3)+u(p_4)$?

I have the following charged current interaction, at quark level, by the process: $$\nu_e(p_1)+d(p_2)\rightarrow e^-(p_3)+u(p_4)$$ By assuming that the energy is such that I can neglect the lepton and ...
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1answer
31 views

Alternative particle types?

If we consider mass and charge to be excitations of independent quantum fields, do they necessarily travel together? Can we have objects with only an excitation on the mass field, and objects with ...
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Why the Higgs mass has a upper and a lower bound?

in the above diagram what the $\Lambda$ axis is physically describing? How the graph will look like below 1TeV? why it is called new physics cut off scale?
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Why can a particle decay into two photons but not one?

I recently read an old physics news about the Higgs boson where it was observed to decay into 2 photons and I was wondering why it wouldn't have decayed into a single photon with the combined energy ...
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3answers
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How would a fast-moving atom interact with a body? [closed]

I found this question on Quora: https://www.quora.com/Can-you-theoretically-shoot-an-atom-fast-enough-to-kill-its-target I think the Quora answer is good but incomplete, and it got me wondering what ...
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SLED SLAC voltage and power profile

Anyone who has read the concept or papers related to sled slac, can tellme how to plot the voltage and power profiles?
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1answer
53 views

How to analyse the LHC signal for Higgs?

With increasing energy the collision decreases in the plot for signal in LHC. why is that? and at an energy 125GeV the no of events suddenly increases. How this proves that higgs has a mass of 125GeV?
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Electron waves through conductors

I'm not a student, professor, or academic scholar so please excuse me if this question seems "amateur". I'm very curious about how electricity, magnetism, and frequency all work together. From my ...
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2answers
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Mermin Wagner theorem proof, what does the K stand for ?

I've been reading about the Mermin-Wagner theorem recently. I think I understand pretty much every computation need to derive its result from the Bogoliub inequality, but there is one thing I don't ...
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Computational solution of exponential decaying wavefunction tail

As I am going through some (quite simple) computational physics exercices I have a question concerning one exercise that involves solving the radial Schrodinger equation. This is done with the ...
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1answer
31 views

Can neutrinos change chirality by oscillating?

Active neutrinos are left-handed while sterile neutrinos are right-handed. There are speculations that active neutrinos can oscillate into sterile neutrinos. Can neutrinos change chirality by ...
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32 views

Looking for a geometric cosmology model where time behaves like an orientation

This question is literally inspired from seeing the above scene unfold. Let the merging and splitting light spots you saw in the above gif be pairs of particles and anti particles, let the shape of ...
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0answers
130 views

If negative mass should exist, how would conservation of momentum work?

Imagine that a particle with negative mass has been discovered. It is known to obey both the equivalence principle and Newton's second law. This means that the particle is a subject to repulsive ...
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1answer
47 views

Can the deflection of an electron beam create a Lorentz Force capable of propelling a spacecraft?

Please reference the conceptual drawing below of this spacecraft propulsion idea. In the vacuum of outer space, if a strong electron beam enters a strong magnetic field, as shown in the drawing, it ...
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1answer
31 views

Are Generations and Families of elementary fermions one and the same?

I've seen both terms being used in papers and it seems to me they essentially mean the same thing referring to three generations of leptons and quarks as families. Is this true or are there some ...
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1answer
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Is anything expected to be found at CERN with 14 trillion electron volts that wasn't found at 13?

Based on this article the accelerator has smashed together approximately 16 million billion protons since 2015, when it reached its current energy of 13 trillion electron volts. Planned ...
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3answers
144 views

Left Handed / Right Handed Particles and the Weak Force

Good Afternoon, I am a 50-year-old guy who was never a scientist or physics student. Just a person who loves to read books on particle physics. I have a question on the Weak Force and particles. (...
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2answers
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Clarification on statement in “Unitary Symmetry and Elementary Particles” by Lichtenberg

He says that: The set of values of the parameter or parameters which characterize a group element can be considered to be points in some kind of space. The number of parameters characterizes the ...
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1answer
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Majorana Neutrinos in the KamLAND-Zen

I'm reading the following paper concerning the KamLAND-Zen experiment "Search for Majorana Neutrinos near the Inverted Mass Hierarchy Region with KamLAND-Zen" In the second paragraph of the first ...
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Why do electrons appear more frequently than it's counterpart, positrons? [duplicate]

Electrons appear in electron clouds of atoms but positrons are found in cosmic rays and radioactive elements. Why do electrons seem more common then positrons? Edit: Is this an example of asymmetry? ...
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1answer
62 views

Invariance vs. Conservation of the Four-Vector Dot Product

This question refers to example 3.4 of Griffiths Introduction to Elementary Particles Second addition. In the example, a moving proton is collided into a proton at rest, producing 3 protons and 1 ...
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1answer
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What's the mass of $D_1(2430)^{\pm}$?

What's the mass of $D_1(2430)^{\pm}$? The standard reference http://pdglive.lbl.gov/ParticleGroup.action?init=0&node=MXXX035 only shows the data for $D_1(2430)^0$ but not for $D_1(2430)^{\pm}$. ...
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1answer
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Muon neutrino interacting with nucleon's quarks

I'm considering the muon neutrino/anti-quark interaction with the nucleons of ice in the IceCube experiment. The purpose is to decide which antiquarks are $\bar{q}$ and $\bar{q}'$. I have the ...
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Collision of electron beams

How much eV is necessary for electron beams in a collider to get generation of electron-positron pairs in electron-electron collisions ?
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How much does $b_1^-$ meson's mass differ from that of $b_1^0$?

How much does $b_1^-$ meson's mass differ from that of $b_1^0$? From reading http://pdglive.lbl.gov/Particle.action?node=M011, it is not very clear.
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1answer
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Propagator for W boson

I've found in different literature that some write the propagator for the W boson as $\frac{g_{\mu\nu}-\frac{k_\mu k_\nu}{M^2_W}}{k^2-M^2_W+iM_W\Gamma_W}$ and others like $\frac{g_{\mu\nu}-\frac{k_\mu ...
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1answer
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Muon neutrino and down quark interaction diagram

My questions concerns the IceCube experiment, in particular, the interaction between muon neutrino and the down quark. I've drawn the following Feynman diagrams: Are both diagrams correct? Can I say ...
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1answer
81 views

Why can the pion decay into two photons?

The neutral pion belongs to the pseudoscalar meson octet, so it has, in the ground state ($L=0$): \begin{align} P_{\pi^0}&=-1 \\ C_{\pi^0}&=+1. \end{align} And the photon has \begin{align} ...
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1answer
67 views

Number of strings? [duplicate]

Is each particle associated with an unique string and where exactly is the string located, if it's vibration produces the appearance of a particle? What I mean is if I see an electron, does it have an ...
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1answer
51 views

How does the nuclear interaction keep protons and neutrons together?

The strong force holds atoms hadrons together by using gluons to change the color charge of quarks and making the hadrons color nutral. But how does the nuclear force keep protons together, I heard ...
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2answers
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Could this feynmann diagram happen on its own? $e^- \to W^- + \nu_e$

I am starting to learn about Feynman diagrams and I wonder if this reaction could happen as a physical process on its own, as opposed to part of a more complicated diagram: $e^- \to W^- + \nu_e$ ...
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2answers
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Virtual particles

I use Wikipedia to learn physics. In a recent search I found an ample description of virtual particles in terms of a discontinuous (in the present) and asymptotic distribution of these particles from -...
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Transition amplitude in scalar QED from a point-like charge

I have a problem for you to compute. I have a classical source, $A_\mu = \delta_\mu^0 \frac{Q}{r}$, representing the Coulomb potential generated by a point-like charge. I want to compute the ...
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1answer
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When is $Q= B/2 + I_3$ true in particle physics?

I have seen stated that for unflavoured quarks, the relation between baryon number, electric charge and third component of isospin can be written as $Q= B/2 + I_3$. However, I have also seen this ...