I know that it is not possible, however, this thought keeps me awake and make me thinks a lot.

Is it possible to create an atom artificially from free protons, electrons and the neutrons??

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    $\begingroup$ Welcome to SE. Unfortunately, I find it hard to understand what you are asking. Do we create an atom if we combine a proton and an electron? Einstein's relationship $E=mc^2$ tells us, that we are able to "create" fundamental particles and their anti-particles (e.g. an electron and a position). Could you please be more specific. $\endgroup$
    – Semoi
    Nov 27, 2019 at 21:37
  • $\begingroup$ My question was that, is it possible to create the proton, neutron and electron to create a desirable atom? $\endgroup$ Nov 27, 2019 at 21:43

2 Answers 2


Yes, but why bother? There is an incentive to make antiparticles, for example beams of antielectrons or antiprotons, see for example https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Antiproton_Collector

Atoms of anti-hydrogen have also been produced: https://www.nature.com/articles/nature21040.pdf

  • $\begingroup$ I want to explore more about the creation of atoms, protons, neutron and electron that's why. $\endgroup$ Nov 27, 2019 at 21:37
  • $\begingroup$ @TerminSham I added some links. When one wants to make antiparticles, also ordinary particles are produced, but those are the same as everything else. $\endgroup$
    – user137289
    Nov 27, 2019 at 21:45
  • $\begingroup$ So antiparticle and ordinary particle are like - & +, when one is created the other will emerge or will be produce along with it? $\endgroup$ Nov 27, 2019 at 21:53
  • $\begingroup$ So it is possible to create proton, neutron and electron to make a desirable atom. Is that right? $\endgroup$ Nov 27, 2019 at 21:55
  • $\begingroup$ @TerminSham It is not easy to make antihydrogen. To go beyond that does not seem possible (how to manipulate fast antineutrons?) and it would not be very interesting. $\endgroup$
    – user137289
    Nov 27, 2019 at 22:23

The microcosm of elementary particles, atoms, molecules is described mathematically by quantum mechanical models, very successfully. Quantum mechanics give only the probability of something happening.

In classical physics models, if something is possible one can control the parameters so it can happen. The system is deterministic. In quantum mechanics if the probability of something happening is very small it cannot be forced to happen . So quantum mechanics solutions with low probabilities are not possible to happen within our lifetimes.

In principle given enough energy input in any quantum mechanical interaction the wavefunction of creating a pair of particle-antiparticle gives a probability for them to be created, but it is very very small and cannot be controlled in the sense of your question "create" which implies large probabilities. The creation cannot be controllable at the quantum level , only probable.

In addition there are quantum numbers that have to be conserved at the quantum framework. That is why creation has to happen in pairs of particle-antiparticle , so that the quantum numbers add up to zero.

So scientists have created for example antiproton beams by providing enough energy to get the probability of creating proton antiproton pairs in an interaction, and separating the antiprotons, but it is a statistically controlled process.

The higher the mass of the particle the smaller the probability of pair creating.

Even in cosmological models, where the energies are very high, nucleosynthesis has complicated models to be explained, because even at those energies the probability of getting an atom antiatom pair is very small.

Is it possible to create an atom, proton, neutron and electron?

Pair production given enough energy can produce particle-antiparticle pairs of these, electron-positron, proton-antiproton, neutron-antineutron are low enough mass to be created in our laboratory beams , because the quantum mechanical probability is large enough. For higher masses one would have to manipulate products, to create more complicated atoms, with prohibitive experimental difficulties, because the probability of atom-antiatom pair creation is very very small.

  • $\begingroup$ I have found an alternative way to achieve time travel without negative energy but now it seems it going to take time since the creation of an atom is still in probability. $\endgroup$ Nov 28, 2019 at 6:43
  • $\begingroup$ One needs courses in quantum mechanics. Try the MIT open courses? Anyway, in mainstream physics time travel is not possible due to special relativity, so this site is not for discussing this, as the rules say "mainstream physics" $\endgroup$
    – anna v
    Nov 28, 2019 at 6:47

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