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Questions tagged [protons]

A proton is a positively charged particle which is generally considered to be a composite particle comprising of three quarks interacting through the strong force (e.g. in the standard model.)

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What devices are used in a proton accelerator to separate the protons from their electrons and send the protons into the vacuum chamber? [duplicate]

I understand the general idea of how they accelerate the protons once they get them isolated in the chamber, but what's the device they use to isolate them to begin with even called?
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Minimum energy of proton converting into a neutron

I'm given the isotope sodium 22 (which is positron emitter) and I'm stuck with calculating the minimum energy that a proton needs to convert into a neutron and a positron. It got to do with $E=MC^2$ ...
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Why protons and electrons attract each other? [duplicate]

This YouTube video states that electrons and protons are bonded together by emitting electromagnetic waves and absorbing each other's electromagnetic waves. But isn't because it due to potential ...
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Energy budget of of proton-proton fusion (p-p chain)

How much energy is released in the first nuclear reaction of the p-p chain which produces energy in lower-mass stars like the Sun? The value of 1.44 MeV is given in many sources, but I don't ...
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Why does this quiz question say that protons and electrons do not combine to form neutrons?

I read this somewhere: Where are the protons and electrons in a neutron star? When the neutron star forms, most of the protons and electrons combine together to form neutrons. But on a true/false ...
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What is the effect of isospin on the proton or neutron alone, i.e. not in a doublet?

So I start with a proton $p$. I extend my "physical" space by means of the internal degree of freedom of isospin, so that I know write $p$ in a higher dimensional space: $$ p = \left( \begin{array}{...
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How would a difference in electron and proton charge be detectable in astronomy?

How would a deviation in neutrality of matter affect astronomy? Obviously this would introduce a lot of repulsive force but how, exactly, would that affect the universe? If the repulsive force was ...
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Do electron really experience any repulsive force while attracted by proton compared to positron?

I read up that the reason 2 electrons with same energy states can be binded to the first orbital of a necleus is due to one electron having positive spin half and another having negative spin half ...
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Can you fake protons with light?

I have been reading similar discussions on how protons and electrons interact, using virtual photons and such. Yet, I can find little information regarding the subject in question. Can a beam of ...
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What is the upper limit for the size of an atom? [duplicate]

I read an article saying an Israeli scientist had discovered the heaviest nucleus with 122 protons and 170 neutrons, and found it in a sample of purified thorium, and I would like to know if there are ...
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Stability in Nuclear Shell Model

As far as I understand , a particular sub-shell is filled with either protons or neutrons, $2*(2l+1)$ number of them, and never both together since protons and neutrons fill up levels separately in ...
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formation of atomic nuclei from nucleons

What holds the nucleus together? In a nucleus there are several protons, all of which are positive. Why don't they push themselves apart? It turns out that in nuclei there are, in addition to ...
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Is there a mass spectrometer software that can measure the mass of a proton

I spent a lot of hours looking for mass spectrometer software (or Cathode-ray simulator) that can measure the mass of a proton or any sub atomic particle. Until now I only found software that work on ...
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Why is neutron slightly heavier than the proton? [duplicate]

With latest knowledge of QCD, is there any explanation for why the neutron is slightly heavier than the proton? Can it be boiled down to a simple formula?
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Does a proton bend spacetime?

Protons have mass and as a result of einstein's field equation dictate that the spacetime is no longer flat. But yet I find in most Quantum Field Theory books the Minkowski flat spacetime metric is ...
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Is a nucleus a collection of quarks or a collection of neutrons and protons? [duplicate]

I do not much about particle physics. But people say that neutron and proton are composed of quarks, and in turn a nucleus is composed of neutrons and protons. Therefore, the question is, is this ...
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Collision of a photon with a quasi-free particle

What is a quasi-free proton? How does the wavelength of a photon change when it collides with a quasi-free particle, e.g. a quasi-free proton?
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Nuclear Fusion Proton-Proton Chain

When hydrogen nuclei are able to overcome the coulomb forces, two protons collide. As a result, one of them decays into a neutron and a positron and electron neutrino are emitted. However, isn't mass ...
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Angle between velocities: Elastic collision question in 3D

I have been given a scenario of a proton (particle 1) travelling with u1 = 3î+ 4j–6k and a Helium-3 nucleus (particle 2) travelling with u2= 3î+ 4j–2k. The two particles collide and the proton (...
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In a quantum state, Maximum how many protons & neutrons can exist?

This is in reference to the statement I have read in a book i.e., " each quantum state can contain at the most two protons (with opposite spin) & two neutrons (again with opposite spin)". So what ...
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What is the experimental evidence that the nucleons are made up of three quarks?

What is the experimental evidence that the nucleons are made up of three quarks? What is the point of saying that nucleons are made of quarks when there are also gluons inside it?
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Electrostatic force between two grains of sand with unbalanced charge placed 30 meters apart

Quote from The Feynman Lectures on Physics Volume I: To give an idea of how much stronger electricity is than gravitation, consider two grains of sand, a millimeter across, thirty meters apart. ...
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High spin for $Δ^{++}$ resulting from angular momentum of pion in relation to proton

When a pion (Spin 0) collides with a proton (Spin 1/2) the result can be a Δ++ (Spin 3/2). When I tried to look up how the resulting Spin is possible, I came about an answer I do not understand. It ...
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Unstable vs. stable nuclei plotted on a graph

The enclosed graph shows the number of Protons on the x-axis (Z), and the number of Neutrons on the y-axis for all elements (N). Stable combinations are marked by black squares, whereas unstable ones ...
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Calculating the velocity of a proton through Relativity Theory

I was asked to calculate the velocity of a proton through Relativity Theory, with the following information given: -the Total Energy of the proton is 1,500 MeV -the resting mass ($m_0$) of the ...
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How to “build” a proton

Sabine Hossenfelder in her column The End of Theoretical Physics As We Know It made the following statement: For example, we have a perfectly fine theory that describes the elementary particles ...
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How are exchange terms in phenomenological nuclear potentials related to the exchange of nuclear force carrirer particles?

Consider a proton-neutron system. Phenomenlogical nucleon-nucleon potentials contain exchange forces terms (Majorana, Bartlett and Heisenberg terms), which are linked to the symmetry of the state w.r....
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How the Heisenberg principle holds for protons?

Does this principle holds for protons since their position is, in a manner of speaking, known and they are also assumed to be stationary at every popular physics book that I have read, including the ...
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In which experiment did protons seem to consist of infinite amount of quarks?

In this video Richard Feynman is telling that in some experiment it seems that the proton should consist of infinite amount of quarks. What is this case he's mentioning? Is it solved now?
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A proton's weak charge is .0719. Is this dimensionless? A ratio?

A recent piece of major news in the physics world is that the proton's weak-force charge was measured to be .0719. Is that a ratio? A dimensionless number, with no units? The articles I read ...
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159 views

Direction of Electron Field for Moving Proton

I had the following problem: A proton is moving to the right at constant speed v and enters a region with uniform magnetic and electric fields. It continues to move in a straight line. The ...
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Where is the proton mass coming from?

I always thought that the mass of a proton would simply be the mass of the three separated quarks plus their binding energies. Nevertheless, I was once discussing with one of the developers of RICH ...
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Creating isotopes by shooting neutrons into an unstable nucleus [closed]

I've been doing a lot of amateur research lately (youtube videos) on particle physics and find it all really interesting. I'm also a crazy alien conspiracy theorist who believes in the whole "Bob ...
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Seperating Charges in a Cell

Sorry for not being detailed for my question here but how do charges seperate in a cell and when the electrons are pumped out of the battery does it return and become positive ? Yet again sorry if I ...
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Quark intrinsic angular momentum and the Proton Spin Crisis

According to recent results regarding the "Proton Spin Crisis", apparently only about 30% of the total angular momentum of the proton comes from the intrinsic angular momentum of its constituent ...
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What is the reason for the shift in balance between neutrons and protons in the early universe?

In the book of The First Three Minutes by Weinberg, on pages 106-107, it is stated that SECOND FRAME. The temperature of the universe is 30,000 million degrees Kelvin [...] The nuclear particle ...
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How do we know that electrons are moving in an electric current?

We are learning about the Hall Effect in high school, but what confused us was that hypothetically if both protons and electrons were moving, but electrons moved much faster, then wouldn't there still ...
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Why is the proton anti-proton annihilation and pair production asymmetric?

This is a follow up question to this question. The process of annihilation is very well explained. However while the annihilation is a step-by-step process the pair production does not seem to follow ...
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What's the mass? [duplicate]

Let's perform two simple calculations and then formulate the relative questions. By checking Wikipedia, one can know the mass of neutron and proton: $$M_{neutron}=939.5654133(58)MeV/c^2=1.674927471(...
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About electron and proton

Can electron stick ''glue'' with proton if they collide with each other? What will happen if electron collide with pion? Can it glue with it or not?
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How accurately is it known that protons have the same charge as electrons?

Recently, I claimed that the proton and electron have the same charge, and that this has been experimentally verified up to $1$ part in $10^{26}$. This belief was naively based on CODATA's 2014 ...
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What is a proton gas?

I was studying nuclear fusion reactions, then suddenly came nuclear fusion reactions of two protons. My book says when two protons in a proton gas fuse then something something happens. I understood ...
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Is there any way to attract or push away a proton?

Like an electron that can be attracted by positive charge (or less negative charge), is there any way to make a proton move by attraction?
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Why is the proton the only stable hadron?

The title pretty much explains the question, but I've always thought that it'd be a neutron because of its 0 charge.
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What percent of the mass the proton comes from its electric field energy density?

How much heavier would the proton be with respect to the neutron if the up quark and the down quark had the same mass? How much does the electric field energy density of the proton contribute to its ...
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Why can't we harness the energy from neutron + protium = deuteron reaction?

The answer to this physics se question, established that 2.2Mev (Mega electron volts) of energy is emitted as a gamma ray photon when the hydrogen atom nucleus oka protium absorbs a slow moving free ...
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Neutron Creation Machines [closed]

My question is specific "what methods are there to generate free neutrons"? With a few aside queries and confirmations of undertanding Now as I understand free protons are far easier to create than ...
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What is the true nature of neutrons? [closed]

I have been spending time thinking about atoms with an open mind. In general, I am trying to think of atomic and molecular physics in terms of pure magnetism. I am going to explain my train of thought ...
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178 views

How does the collision of two protons forming a hydrogen-2 atom produce energy if a neutron is more massive than a proton?

Wouldn't the transformation of a proton to a neutron require energy since the neutron is more massive?
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Why proton and neutron in an atom don't spread out like electron cloud?

Proton and neutron are very tiny particles and should follow the heisenberg uncertainty principle and spread out like the electron cloud, which also apply to the quarks that made up the proton and ...