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Questions tagged [atoms]

A nucleus made of protons and neutrons surrounded by a cloud of electrons equal in number to the protons.

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Can particles feel hot to the touch? [closed]

The other day, I got a tiny splash of hot cooking oil on my hand. But I could barely feel it because it was so small. That made me wonder: how hot would a small collection of atoms need to be for me ...
Dennis Hackethal's user avatar
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When two neutral atoms collide, and one atom ionizes, how does the speed of the ejected electron compare to that of the atoms?

When two neutral atoms collide, and one atom ionizes, how does the speed of the ejected electron compare to that of the atoms? Context is, I was trying to do the calculations for the velocity of the ...
Hugh Perkins's user avatar
4 votes
3 answers
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How large are atomic positional/angular fluctuations within a molecule?

I have seen videos of thermal fluctuations/oscillations of atoms that have covalent bonds with each other, and they are usually quite dramatic. I'm curious how strong the fluctuations really are of a ...
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What happens after a Photon pass-es through an element without causing any ElectronTransition? e.g. A Cube of Scanadium [closed]

Assuming:- No ElectronTransition ==> Photon passes through the atom. [right?] Longer Version In Words:- If a Photon doesn't have enough energy / has more energy than to trigger a ...
REYNEP's user avatar
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Hydrogen atom in a very strong magnetic field

An atom of hydrogen is placed in a very strong magnetic field. The magnetic moment of the orbit of the electron may either align with the external field or may oppose it. What will happen with the ...
question-asker's user avatar
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Value of permittivity inside an atom

As we know, the permittivity of free space physically measures how dense an electric field can form in response to electric charges in free space. I have the following 2 questions: What will be the ...
Curiosity_killing_me's user avatar
2 votes
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Why don't the electron and proton get attracted to each other? [duplicate]

The electron and proton have opposite charges, yet they somehow don't get attracted to each other and stay stable. By attraction, here I mean colliding into one another like magnets with opposite ...
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Question about coherent population trapping

In coherent population trapping, if we denote the ground states in a $\Lambda$-like system as $|0\rangle$ and $|1 \rangle$ and the excited state $|2 \rangle$, there is a linear combination $|d \...
Alex Marshall's user avatar
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Is there a momentum representation of the atomic stationary states?

In standard quantum mechanics, the atomic orbitals are represented by the following wave functions (where $u = 2 \mathrm{Z} r / n a$): $$\tag{1} \psi_{n l m}(r, \theta, \varphi) = \phi_{n l}(r) \, Y_{...
Cham's user avatar
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Positronium radius more than expected

I am trying to derive the basic properties of positronium. Usually it is stated that we can just set reduced mass of hydrogen atom as $\dfrac{1}{2}m_e$ and obtain: \begin{equation} r_n=\dfrac{8\pi\...
Aslan Monahov's user avatar
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How do electrons absorb photons?

I understand that atom-bound electrons can absorb photons (explanation for why they are typically atom-bound). However, what is the particular mechanism for this occurring? I am familiar with the idea ...
EngineeringMind's user avatar
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What is the relationship between the energy absorbed and reemitted by an atom?

What is the relationship between the energy absorbed and emitted by an atom with the model of Lorentz? In the Lorentz model of an atom, we have that, using the effective cross-sections we might get ...
Ivy's user avatar
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Electrons and atoms

Electrons do not follow fixed orbits around an atom's nucleus but exist within "clouds of probability" (orbitals), where there is a high chance of finding them. As one extends the search for ...
Marco Fabbri's user avatar
1 vote
1 answer
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Complete absortion of a photon by an atom (from the perspective of conservation laws)

It is very simple to show that an isolated charged particle cannot completely absorb a photon, since that would contradict the conservation of linear momentum or energy: consider a system where the ...
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How Are Discrete Energy Levels Identified in Metals and Liquids?

The NIST atomic spectra database has atomic energy levels well documented. I understand that discrete energy levels in gases can be identified using emission and absorption spectroscopy, due to the ...
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Why aren‘t other metals colored?

From an online lecture, I heard that $d$ orbitals cause metals to have a peak in their reflectivity curve at some wavelength. This is generally the case for most metals. However, the peak lies mostly ...
shar's user avatar
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Why aren't we seeing $\Delta n = 0$ transitions in the spectrum of an X-ray-tube?

Well basically title. The characteristic / discrete radiation from an x-ray tube comes from electrons falling down into a vacancy which was created by an incoming electron from the acceleration ...
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How was Rutherford's model of an atom wrong?

They mention that Rutherford's model of an atom was wrong as in a circular orbit the electron would accelerate and hence radiate energy along with electric and magnetic fields. But why does the ...
Unknxwn's user avatar
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Intermolecular force vs distance and energy plot

I have seen from the graph that Ea is increasing slowly while Fa is increasing really fast. On the other hand Er is increasing faster than Fr. My question is why ? Is there any mathematical idea ...
Rayhan's user avatar
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Does quantum mechanics explain the behavior of subatomic particles to the exclusion of classical mechanics, or are they both applicable? [closed]

On the one hand, the cathode ray experiment conducted by JJ Thomson seems to indicate that the radius of path deflection of an electron beam is also governed by the same centripetal force equation ...
JJ W's user avatar
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Why the electron of a lower energy orbit remain unstable at higher energy orbit?

I am confused that, what makes an electron unstable in a higher energy orbit to revolve ? As an electron have constant negative charge and defined masss then what is the property that is making the ...
Vidushi Aggarwal's user avatar
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How can I simulate multiple layers of atoms forming Turing patterns?

This experiment blew my mind -- they created a Turing pattern in a single atomic layer of bismuth adsorbed on crystalline niobium selenide. https://www.chemistryworld.com/news/tiniest-turing-patterns-...
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Variation of orbital energy with atomic number

I have come across the statement in an examination that “the energy of a given orbital with the same principal quantum number decreases as the atomic number increases”; but I couldn't understand why. ...
Aspirant29's user avatar
2 votes
1 answer
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How large would an atom have to be to see it? [closed]

I was thinking about atoms, and then I came up with this: How would an atom visible to the naked eye look? What would be its half life and chemical properties? Could it even exist? Edit: “Seeable”, ...
11111's user avatar
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Youtube video claims 2023 physics Nobel prize winners proved Heisenberg wrong

This video claims (scroll to 11:22 frame), that inventors/improvers of a unique attosecond pulse generation which enables us to monitor atom dynamics proved that Heisenberg was wrong (citation from ...
Agnius Vasiliauskas's user avatar
2 votes
5 answers
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Bohr model of the atom

According the classical physics, the electron should radiate energy and fall to the nucleus in a short period of time. However, this was not the case. Hence, Bohr proposed his theory, suggesting that ...
Quin Gardiner Bax's user avatar
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2 answers
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What is the colour of an atom? [closed]

We know that when an electron jumps from shell to shell it produces light waves which produce the sensation of vision to our eyes. But can anything be said about the colour of an atom in particular. ...
Sillyasker's user avatar
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1 answer
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Can molecular structure be explored using sound waves? (Project Hail Mary)

I have studied science till school, but not in grad... so I might very much be wrong ... isn't the wavelength of sound waves larger than the dimensions of atoms? Won't sound waves skip over atoms?
Plant lover Next door's user avatar
3 votes
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Does the flame-type influence emission spectra?

I am thinking about the following question: when I look at the atomic emission spectrum of a specific element and I am only interested in the visible section of this spectrum and the method of ...
Kevin008's user avatar
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1 answer
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What are the properties of an unknown object that guarantee that it has mass?

During JJ thomson experiment and similiar other experiments,they found that cathode rays were deflecting from its direction under magnetic fields and electric field,also the gold leaf attached to co-...
Dheeraj Gujrathi's user avatar
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Signal in hopping term in diatomic chain using the tight binding method

I am currently studying the tight binding method, and while solving solving a problem I came across something I don't understand. There are two atoms A and B, A has only type s orbitals and B has only ...
Ana Branco's user avatar
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Double nomenclature of molecular orbitals

I'm studying molecules from Brandsen-Joachain's book: "Physics of atoms and molecules". In chapter 9 he talks about molecular orbitals, and then he specifically talks about them for ...
Rhino's user avatar
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36 votes
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To what degree of precision are atoms electrically neutral?

It is said that if, say, the electric charge is not a Lorentz invariant, neutral atoms are no longer neutral, which is not experimentally valid. I want to know to what degree of precision atoms are ...
Mohammad Javanshiry's user avatar
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1 answer
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What does recoil kinetic energy of an atom mean?

In the textbook I am reading for class it is talking about the interactions of photons with atoms and how when an atom emits a photon it must have the same and opposite momentum of the emitted photon. ...
Aleyna Koro's user avatar
18 votes
3 answers
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What exactly is the shape of an atom as per modern physics?

I am currently a student of grade $11$. I am pretty confused about how exactly the atom looks like? In books I have read till now used the electron orbiting model of atom. Some say there is "...
Aleph's user avatar
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Does any of the atoms actually "survive" in plasma?

Or does this state of matter detach electrons from all the atoms? Thank you.
bp2017's user avatar
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The role of valence electrons in the electric field of atoms

I've read somewhere that hydrogen forms a strong electric field because it's a really small atom and it doesn't have any valence electrons. My question would be, how does this conclude that it has a ...
randomdude's user avatar
3 votes
1 answer
219 views

Confusion on Energies of absorbed and emitted photons

My physics teacher shouted this atleast 3 times yesterday, 'a photon can be absorbed only when it's energy is EXACTLY equal to the energy difference between the energy states' So my understanding is, ...
Elizabeth Huffman's user avatar
3 votes
2 answers
125 views

Where does this (hydrogen molecule energy) graph come from?

I was thinking about the good old question of 'Why do molecules have lower energy than the atoms?' And in a video (around 6:15), this good old energy graph is shown, which is stated as the 'answer' to ...
Rohit Shekhawat's user avatar
-1 votes
1 answer
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Energy level photon spectra for different atoms

I'm trying to determine the photon emission wavelength ranges for different atoms. For hydrogen, it's super simple. We use the $$ E_n = -\frac{13.6}{n^2} $$ Then, if we want to see the wavelength of ...
Nika's user avatar
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3 answers
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If all microstates are equally probable, why do we see Hydrogen with its electron always in the ground state?

I have learned in my Statistical Mechanics class that one of the fundamental assumptions of thermodynamics is that all microstates are equally probable. However, in the case of the Hydrogen atom, we ...
Relativisticcucumber's user avatar
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1 answer
277 views

How electron, proton and neutron have mass numbers

As far as I know, the mass number of an atom means the amount of protons and neutrons it has. For example, the mass number of Sodium (Na) is 23 since it has 11 protons and 12 neutrons. Then how ...
Shaidozzaman Araf's user avatar
-2 votes
2 answers
123 views

Paradox between Heisenberg and ground state? [closed]

According to Heisenberg principle if the electron is near the nuclei it is more likely to have a greater momentum $p$. So the energy must be greater. But the electron loses energy and has in fact ...
Mercury's user avatar
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Experimental ways of studying the structure of atomic orbitals

As far as I understand, the notion of atomic orbital was introduced by Bohr in 1913 in terms of his semi-classical model of atom. Bohr assumed that each electron in the atom has a certain energy and ...
MKO's user avatar
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What’s happening with ions while a capacitor is being charged by a battery?

An uncharged capacitor has an equal amount of positive and negative charges in both plates, meaning there are ions in both plates which altogether have a neutral charge. When you connect an uncharged ...
user1329190's user avatar
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32 views

Will removing an outermost electron from the outermost orbital of an atom change the orbital geometry?

Does $\text{He}^+$ and $\text{He}$ have different orbitals?
nitin sathish kumar's user avatar
3 votes
2 answers
294 views

Is really change in temperature inversely proportional to primary kinetic energy of ideal gas molecules?

I was trying to derive Charles law. While deriving I got two results and one of these was unexpected. Those are, $$\Delta t \propto \Delta E_k$$ Where, $\Delta t$ is change in temperature and $\Delta ...
Debanjan Biswas's user avatar
1 vote
1 answer
53 views

Are the atomic orbital balloons representations of some mathematical surface equation?

The atomic orbitals are usually shown in shape of fuzzy clouds and sometimes straight-up rigid/hollow balloon shapes. I understand that actually they are representing the probability of finding ...
Rohit Shekhawat's user avatar
2 votes
2 answers
403 views

What is so significant about electron spins and can electrons spin any directions?

I just want to know what is so significant of with direction electron is spinning. Does it have any effect on the element or on the atom? Also, does electron must spin up or down or can they also spin ...
Junsoo's user avatar
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6 votes
3 answers
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Is an electron in an hydrogen atom being measured by the nucleus?

In an hydrogen atom, the electron interacts with the nucleus by multiple forces, for example the Coulomb force. Does that mean that the nucleus makes quantum measurements of the electron? EDIT: I ...
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