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A nucleus made of protons and neutrons surrounded by a cloud of electrons equal in number to the protons.

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1answer
56 views

What is the largest wavelength of a photon that can excite an atom in it's groundstate?

Let's assume we have an atom in it's ground state. That atom interacts with a single photon and get's exicited to a higher energy level. How large can the wavelength of the photon be? I'm looking ...
0
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3answers
92 views

What is the largest wavelength that can excite an atom?

What is the largest wavelength that can excite an atom? Or is there even a largest wavelength?
1
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0answers
16 views

Why Mercury, Cadmium and Zinc has low melting and boiling points and elements next to them start melting at a bit higher temperatures?

I have been playing with online periodic table and noticed that melting/boiling points are lowest for noble gasses and non metals then it starts for metals on left and creeps from right side of the ...
0
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1answer
47 views

If an atom is in its ground state, has the atom the lower energy possible and there is its lower temperature?

"In the lowest energy state, the constituents of the atom (the nucleus and the orbiting electrons) are arranged so that the total energy in the system is minimal. This is called the ground state of ...
0
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1answer
38 views

Should Copper 65 and Copper 63 isotopes have a larger density than a copper 29 atom?

I was looking at the first page of a paper (see https://aip.scitation.org/doi/10.1063/1.1735598#Metrics-content for details) and I ran across something odd. According to the paper, Copper isotopes 63 ...
2
votes
1answer
65 views

How do scientists experimentally (this means not theoretically) determine that an atom is not bonded with any other atom?

What I do not understand is how scientists can tell whether or not an atom is bonded to another atom or all by itself. If someone can help me understand this, please do.
2
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2answers
37 views

Why can't we influence neutral atoms with electric fields if they have charged constituents?

I mean, I know that it's because they're neutral and therefore have a charge of zero, but since atoms have positively charged nuclei and negatively charged electrons, why can't we directly influence ...
1
vote
1answer
111 views

How is hydrogen able to emit a light spectrum with only one electron?

When light is shined through hydrogen gas, three colors of light appear. The issue I have with this is that hydrogen has one electron, meaning somehow the electron has to be emitting all three of ...
0
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2answers
70 views

If $2p$ is circular, why is $2p_x$ not circular and what does $x$ mean?

I was reading about atomic orbitals. From Bohr's model, electron orbitals are considered circular. But as I saw the sub-orbitals like $2p_x$, $3d_{x^2-y^2}$ I noticed something strange. These sub-...
0
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0answers
111 views

Why don't atoms constantly emit light? [duplicate]

We know that accelerating charged particles emit electromagnetic radiation. We also know that electrons around nucleus have an angular momentum which means that electrons are revolving around the ...
1
vote
2answers
48 views

If I would let something mix in the blender and let time go to infinity, will all molecules be separated eventually?

Just question out of curiosity. If I would let something mix in the blender and let time go to infinity, will all molecules be separated eventually, i.e. if I open up the blender it will be gas? Or ...
1
vote
2answers
45 views

Does Earth emit Gravitational waves?

We know about bohrs model and his vagaue postulate challenging Rutherford for discrete orbits and not emitting electromagnetic waves during this. Extending this idea to our solar system, does earth ...
2
votes
4answers
86 views

How can moving electrons participate in electrostatic interaction?

People say that there is an electrostatic force between electrons and atomic nuclei. However, electrostatic force applies to static charges, i.e. charges at rest. Question: How can electrostatic ...
0
votes
1answer
22 views

Is the Hartree-Fock approximation getting better and better for higher atoms?

As the atomic number $Z$ increases, is the Hartree-Fock approximation getting better and better, or worse and worse?
1
vote
0answers
31 views

Absorbing only a fraction of photon energy

Atoms have energy levels for its electrons. When there is a match between those and light photon energy, an electronic transition ocurrs. Question Why atoms can't absorb just part of a photon ...
11
votes
5answers
3k views

Is Avogadro's law applicable for atoms or just for molecules?

I notice that online definitions of this experimental law always say, molecules or atoms. From the Wikipedia article on Avogadro's Law: $${\frac {V_{1}}{n_{1}}}={\frac {V_{2}}{n_{2}}}$$ The ...
0
votes
0answers
17 views

How can I know the volume occupied by one element in a compound?

I struggle to find how to estimate the volume occupied by one atom in a compound. As an example let's take $\beta$-Ga$_2$O$_3$, since that's the material on which I work the most. The crystal ...
0
votes
0answers
43 views

Why the electrons do not fall into the nucleus of an atom? [duplicate]

If the mass of the nucleus of an atom is where most of the atom's mass is concentrated, then the nucleus should distort (or curve) the time-space of the atom creating therefore a huge gravitational ...
0
votes
2answers
48 views

Is velocity of the electron quantized in Bohr's model?

I know that angular momentum and energy of the electron is quantized in the model. When we wrote down the equations and get the velocity equation, if I am not mistaken, we find the velocity to be ...
1
vote
1answer
38 views

Distance between atoms and photon wavelength

Does the distance between an atom emitting a photon and an atom interacting with that emitted photon set a upper bound on what that photon's wavelength could be? For example, two atoms are a ...
1
vote
1answer
43 views

Atoms and Quantum Mechanics [duplicate]

Classically, an electron can be in any orbit around the nucleus of an atom. Then what determines the typical atomic size? When we talk about atomic size it can be anything from some finite value to ...
1
vote
2answers
97 views

Atom excitation: what changes, amplitude or frequency?

When an atom is excited by a photon and there is an electron transition from ground to excited state, from energy level 1 (E1) to energy level 2 (E2), I understand that the energy of the exciting ...
2
votes
0answers
28 views

How do gold atoms formed in hypernova (or kilonova) explosions reunite?

It would seem that the force of the explosion, would disperse them over an extremely large area. How do they get reunited to one day be found clustered in flakes and nuggets? I get that gravity ...
1
vote
0answers
41 views

What is the narrowest possible functioning straw that could be made?

Let's assume that the straw/pipe/tube can be made of any material, but it should be at least 100 times as long as the inside is wide. How narrow could the inside of the straw be made before it is no ...
0
votes
0answers
55 views

How can you make the atoms of a solid object turn into a gas without heat?

I’m doing some research and I’m not sure if his is physically possible without going through a liquid form.(Such as steel) If it isn’t possible please tell me so I don’t continue to waste my time.
0
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2answers
52 views

Can electrons, nucleons be transparent?

As, we can see right through the transparent materials which are composed of atoms which are further composed of electrons and nucleons, does this mean that atoms of transparent things are transparent....
0
votes
2answers
273 views

Why water molecules move faster when heated?

In his first lecture about the nature of Matter and Atoms, Professor Feynman claims that the higher the temperature of the steam gets, the quicker the movement of Water molecules will be. I don't see ...
0
votes
1answer
34 views

Burning atomic elements

when someone says "the carbon was completely burnt up" eg. in a car's engine. what does that mean?, Where does it go? I know no new elements are formed and of course it really didn't disappeared. so ...
4
votes
1answer
115 views

Can hydrogen have 3 electrons?

Can i in any way force a hydrogen atom to have three electrons? Two electrons in first shell and one in the second?
-1
votes
2answers
112 views

Why doesn't electron collide with nucleus? [duplicate]

We know that electrons go round the nucleus. But in my textbook, it is written that Rutherford's model was incomplete as the electrons would collide with the nucleus because of Maxwell's law. But in ...
1
vote
0answers
44 views

Binding energy $\rm^{212}Pb$-$\rm^{212}Bi$ and $\rm^{228}Ra$-$\rm^{228}Ac$

I'm considering the radioactive series of thorium-232. I do not understand the following fact: How is it possible that the binding energy decrease in the cases highlighted in red? In fact in both ...
1
vote
1answer
57 views

How can Hydrogen show spectrum with only one orbital?

In Bohr model, we know that when an electron in Hydrogen atom goes to a lower orbital it emits some energy which is seen as spectrum. But my question is Hydrogen has only one electron in one orbital....
0
votes
2answers
85 views

Electron/Proton Charge and Quarks Charge

So.. I´ve been investigating a bit on the subject of sub atomic particle charges and how they were defined, and basically what I´ve found out is that the defenition of the charge of an Electron or a ...
103
votes
7answers
17k views

How can we see an atom now? What was the scale of this equipment?

I've just seen this on the news - Single Trapped Atom Captures Science Photography Competition's top prize. Credit: David Nadlinger via EPSRC I am not a Physics major but I believe I do know the ...
0
votes
1answer
63 views

Do photons make contact with the atoms in a lens?

We can all agree empirically that a stream of photons encountering an arrangement of atoms forming a lens bends. But do the photons actually make contact with the atoms in the process of bending? I ...
0
votes
0answers
15 views

Is the metal in a conductor present as M(s) or M^(n+)?

My textbook says that, When atoms of a conductor like copper come together to form the solid, some of their outermost (and so most loosely held) electrons become free to wander about within the ...
0
votes
0answers
19 views

Does inelastic scattering dominate elastic scattering in real metals at room temperature?

Does inelastic scattering dominate elastic scattering in real metals at room temperature? Is it safe to assume the the elastic relaxation time is much larger than the inelastic when using Sommerfeld ...
41
votes
4answers
3k views

Why are line spectra only seen in gases?

This might be a stupid question but I could not find the answer in my textbook or on the internet with a few searches. So I believe when an atomic electron moves down to a lower energy level it ...
0
votes
3answers
72 views

If an electron is part of an atom, how can we separate the electron from the atom?

If an electron is part of an atom, how can we separate the electron from the atom?. If we consider the electron part of an atom what happens after removing the electron,?. Whether what remains behind ...
7
votes
3answers
612 views

How are orbitals arranged in an atom?

I'm really confused about the ideas of orbitals, shell, subshell and most importantly how are they arranged in an atom? According to my knowledge orbitals are region having highest probability of ...
3
votes
2answers
95 views

What happens to molecules when a neutron is captured?

What happens to a molecule during neutron capture? Does the process release enough energy to break the molecule bond? In fission this is obviously the case, since the compound nucleus forms and then ...
0
votes
2answers
87 views

Does the Bohr atomic model relate to the $spdf$ electron shell model?

I am in a structures of materials class and the Bohr model was brought up. Chemistry's azimuthal electron energy level does not seem to support this. What am I not seeing?
0
votes
2answers
965 views

How Exactly is Energy Stored in the Bonds Between Atoms?

More specifically, how and why is there energy stored in the strong attractive bonds that hold multiple atoms together? I am struggling to understand this as my understanding is that energy is ...
0
votes
0answers
59 views

The size of an atom according to BOHR model

The atomic size of hydrogen atom is 53 pm actually, but according to Bohr model, an electron in a hydrogen atom can go to $n = 5$ orbit. Here, the radius of atom is very large which shouldn't be.how ...
1
vote
2answers
38 views

Does the nucleus radiate energy?

Does the nucleus also revolve around the centre of mass of atom? If yes then will it radiate any energy?why or why not
-1
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1answer
53 views

Is there any way to attract or push away a proton?

Like an electron that can be attracted by positive charge (or less negative charge), is there any way to make a proton move by attraction?
0
votes
1answer
68 views

Why are atoms so different from one an another? [duplicate]

An atom is composed of a positively charge nucleus, with a cloud of electron(s) around it. But I can seem to understand the huge differences between 2 components that seem so close in terms of what ...
4
votes
1answer
67 views

Are nucleons electrically polarized?

A water molecule is polarized due to the 3 atoms bonding structure. Since protons and neutrons are made of quarks of electrical charge $2/3$ and $-1/3$, wouldn't it follow that at any given moment ...
2
votes
3answers
287 views

How much heat is required to fully ionize an atom?

Assuming that the atoms are stable, is there a formula to determine how much heat energy is required to fully ionize an atom, given the number of electrons, or electron shells, or something else? ...
0
votes
1answer
43 views

Why is there a difference in angles of deflection in Rutherford model?

In Rutherford's model why were the angles of deflection different from each other?why were the deflections of large angles so less in number and was there a difference in deflections from protons and ...