How can we recover the Newtonian gravitational potential from the metric of general relativity?

The Newtonian description of gravity can be formulated in terms of a potential function $\phi$ whose partial derivatives give the acceleration:

$$\frac{d^2\vec{x}}{dt^2}=\vec{g}=-\vec{\nabla}\phi(x)=\left(\frac{\partial\phi}{\partial x}\hat{x}+\frac{\partial\phi}{\partial y}\hat{y}+\frac{\partial\phi}{\partial z}\hat{z}\right)$$

However, in general relativity, we describe gravity by means of the metric. This description is radically different from the Newtonian one, and I don't see how we can recover the latter from the former. Could someone explain how we can obtain the Newtonian potential from general relativity, starting from the metric $g_{\mu\nu}$?

Since general relativity is supposed to be a theory that supersedes Newtonian gravity, one certainly expects that it can reproduce the results of Newtonian gravity. However, it is only reasonable to expect such a thing to happen in an appropriate limit. Since general relativity is able to describe a large class of situations that Newtonian gravity cannot, it is not reasonable to expect to recover a Newtonian description for arbitrary spacetimes.

However, under suitable assumptions, one does recover the Newtonian description of matter. This is called taking the Newtonian limit (for obvious reasons). In fact, it was used by Einstein himself to fix the constants that appear in the Einstein Field equations (note that I will be setting $c\equiv 1$ throughout).

$$R_{\mu\nu}-\frac{1}{2}g_{\mu\nu}R=\kappa T_{\mu\nu}$$

Requiring that general relativity reproduces Newtonian gravity in the appropriate limit uniquely fixes the constant $\kappa\equiv 8\pi G$. This procedure is described in most (introductory) books on general relativity, too. Now, let us see how to obtain the Newtonian potential from the metric.

Defining the Newtonian limit

We first need to establish in what situation we would expect to recover the Newtonian equation of motion for a particle. First of all, it is clear that we should require that the particle under consideration moves at velocities with magnitudes far below the speed of light. In equations, this is formalized by requiring

$$\frac{\mathrm{d}x^i}{\mathrm{d}\tau}\ll \frac{\mathrm{d}x^0}{\mathrm{d}\tau} \tag{1}$$

where the spacetime coordinates of the particle are $x^\mu=(x^0,x^i)$ and $\tau$ is the proper time. Secondly, we have to consider situation where the gravitational field is "not too crazy", which in any case means that it should not be changing too quickly. We will make more precise as

$$\partial_0 g_{\mu\nu}=0\tag{2}$$