Is it possible to measure the albedo of a surface using a standard camera (DSLR or from a mobile device)?
It is highly probable that 'albedo' is not the correct term because, to me (feel free to correct me if I am wrong) it is a unit-less measure on how much energy is reflected back by a surface in relation to the incoming energy onto this surface. That is why, to me, it is dependent not only on the surface properties but also on the incoming light properties and incident angle. And it's more a word coming from climate sciences/astronomy.
So, it is not exactly what I want; I would like to be able to, let say "estimate" (instead of "measure"), "the ability of a surface to reflect light" (i.e. its "whiteness"), more specifically sunlight with a simple consumer grade camera. Is the correct word for this "reflectance", "luminance" or other?
There is a large vocabulary and different definition when dealing with light fluxes: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Radiant_flux
I first want to be sure on which equation(s) to use, especially regarding the camera settings (for example focal length, aperture or f-number, iso sensitivity, shutter speed, sensor size)
I was not sure where to ask this question, so let me know if I'm on the wrong place.
Hint, I'm not a physicist, feel also free to make a comprehensive answer.