I would say what you're describing in your question has more to do with the difference between "active" and "passive" transformations, than it does global vs local/gauge symmetries. In particular, an active transformation is one where we perform some operation on the actual physical state, wheres a passive transformation is a change of our description keeping the physical state fixed. So for example, an active translation of a chair is, actually moving the chair. A passive translation of a chair is us moving our origin of coordinates. In the rest of the answer I'll use the language appropriate to active transformations, as they make more physical sense to me.
Global vs local symmetries are a different beast entirely. Exactly how to describe them depends a bit on your level of sophistication.
The precise answer, which is possibly useless depending on your level of knowledge, is that a generic symmetry transformation (assuming a continuous symmetry) has the form $\phi(x) \rightarrow \phi'(\phi(x),\theta)$. In other words, we take all our fields $\phi$, and transform them all to new fields $\phi'$ in a way that depends on some parameters $\theta$. What makes these transformations symmetries is that after doing this we find that the physics looks the same in our transformed point of view. The relationship between the transformed fields $\phi'$ and the original fields $\phi$ can be linear or non-linear. Then the key question is whether the parameter of the transformation, $\theta$, depends on space or not. If it does not, we call it a global symmetry: this is a genuine physical symmetry of the system. If $\theta$ does depend on space, we call it a local symmetry: this isn't a genuine symmetry, it really represents a redundancy of our description of the system.
To get an intuitive picture of what's going on let's imagine a field (ie a set of numbers of each point in space) which is made as simply the time at every point on the surface of the earth. Imagine we've covered the surface of the earth with lots of people each wearing wristwatches, the value of a field at point x on the earth is the reading on the wristwatch of the person standing there.
An example of a global symmetry would be time translations. Imagine moving forward in time by one second. Everyone's watch has been shifted forward in time by the same amount, one second. This is a symmetry in the sense that the laws of physics are still the same.
A local symmetry, on the other hand, would be if everyone suddenly and independently changed the settings on their wristwatches. This is a local transformation in the sense that each person can adjust their watch by different amounts. Note that in this example, the actual time has not changed, all that's happened is that our description of time in terms of people's watches has changed.
One thing that's not present in this example is the notion of curvature. It is possible for everyone to synchronize their watches with each other, and for them to remain synchronized? Where gauge theory really gets interesting is when you consider situations where that is not possible.
One way you can go with the wristwatch analogy I'm making is to start thinking about curvature of spacetime: black holes, clocks run at different speeds in a gravitational fields. Observers at different radial distances from the center of a black hole cannot synchronize their clocks.
Another way to describe the situation, from a less gravitational perspective, is given by Maldacena in this amusing essay: http://arxiv.org/abs/1410.6753.