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Semiconductor physics is the branch of solid state physics that focuses on specific properties of semiconductors. It studies dynamics of different perturbations (mainly electrons and holes) in the semiconductor crystal and the ways to harness it in electrical circuits.

Semiconductor physics is a field that is dedicated to the study of materials that have properties in between those of insulators and conductors. With the introduction of impurities into semiconductors, its electrical properties can be altered and carefully controlled.

This ability to control the conductivity of a material and the means by which it conducts makes allows semiconductors to form versatile devices that form the foundation of digital electronics. The PN Junction is the most common of such devices and has been used in applications as wide ranging as the design of microprocessors to the production of light.