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A real image is formed when the rays converge in one point. That means, if an object emits light, and there is an optical system that makes those rays converge, then there is a real image where those rays converge. On the other hand, a virtual image is formed if the rays do not converge, but their prolongations do. This usually happens if the rays diverge, ...


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Here is the low-tech way. glue a round piece of clear plastic over the end of a 6" to 8" diameter plastic pipe about two feet long. attach handles to the open end so you can position it with your hands. to use, dip the closed end into the water below the level of the waves and look down through the pipe. This will give you a clear view below the ...


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I don't think you can exclude all reflection, a polarizing filter will help. But why not have a camera in a waterproof case on the bottom or side of your boat, the higher the camera, the more reflection you will get,


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