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6

There is no particular property of alcohols; Wilson’s original cloud chamber used water and worked fine. The essential point of a cloud chamber is to create a supersaturated vapor. Vapors in air have a dew point at which they will condense onto dust and nearby surfaces (like dew condensing onto grass) and they are supersaturated when the dew point is above ...


4

They do form, but don’t last long. Delta baryons can have three up quarks (for the $\Delta^{++}$) or three down quarks (for the $\Delta^-$). These baryons are unstable and last only a few trillionths of a trillionth of a second.


3

where the answerer states that electrons cannot decay further as this would lead to violation of the law of conservation of charge (as far as I can understand from it). This answer is correct assuming that the standard model of particle physics will not undergo great changes from new data. There are speculative theories which try to find an underlying ...


2

In a cloud chamber (or any other detector) the particles are moving through a material medium, so they steadily lose energy (that can also suddenly lose energy which results in a kink in the track). Less energy means lower speed which means less momentum $p$, and the radius of curvature $R$ goes by $$ R = \frac{p}{qB} \;, $$ where $q$ is the particles ...


2

Quantum objects such as electrons are neither waves nor particles. 'Particle' and 'wave' are both ideas that we define using classical physics (not quantum physics) and then we can use the ideas as we see fit as an aid to understanding quantum physics. A (classical) particle is a little bitty thing that can be located at one place at any given time, but ...


1

For simplicity take the bosonic string theory in 26 dimensions. When you quantise the open and closed string you find excitations (states) of the string at any level $N$ with masses \begin{equation} M^2_\mathrm{open}=\frac{1}{\alpha '}\left(N-1\right),\qquad M^2_\mathrm{closed}=\frac{4}{\alpha '}\left(N-1\right). \end{equation} As $N$ takes on any non-...


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