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Assuming it's not deliberate, two things come to mind: light-sensitive switches will have significant hysteresis to avoid flickering on and off in dim light. So they will require brighter light to switch on in the morning than to switch off in the evvening. human vision perceives a given light level as being brighter during a transition from dark to ...


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If we measure the voltage between the terminals of a diode in an open circuit, the outcome is zero. The E-field of the junction in only internal. When a forward voltage is applied, but there is also a big resistance in series in the circuit, there is a tension between the ends of the diode but below 0.7V. Even below the threshold a small current flows. When ...


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A diode in its grounded state is an insulator. Start with that. The way we build the diode is, we take two insulators that are very close to being conductors but not quite there, and we make them conductors, in one case by inserting atoms which have extra electrons to give (N-doping) and in the other case by inserting atoms which have a tendency to instead ...


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Now, when a voltage is applied in the right direction, free electrons flow to the part where the holes are. This happens independently of an external voltage, because the electrons in the n-doped part feel the urge to fill the holes in the p-doped part. But because electrons move from the n-doped part to the p-doped part, the n-doped part becomes positively ...


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I think by "simple" you mean Linear, which would consist of Source, R/L/C, and Transformers. Or as Engineers tend to label them "Electrical Circuits" as opposed to "Electronic Circuits" which have transistors/diodes. These circuits can have their responses written in terms of Linear ODEs. The definitions get tricky, because as ...


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How do i calculate output resistance if i have the corresponding table for it? There are two output resistances here: 1)total AC, and 2)differential (dynamic) output resistances. The second one causes the incremental variation of the first. AC output resistance is the total instantaneous resistance for a given output voltage Vcb. Althu this is the parallel ...


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Short answer: Yes, pink noise can and usually will effect the phase. "Pink" noise just means the power density in the noise is greater at lower frequencies than at higher. But it doesn't specify any exact frequency roll-off or signal-to-noise ratio. Also, your question depends a little on how you plan to measure the phase. If you have a pure ...


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When the electrons diffuse from n-type region to p-type region, the atoms in n-type region will lose electron, therefore giving n-type region a positive charge. The opposite happens for p-type region. Electrons that diffuse into the p-type region gives a negative charge in the region. Due to the charge difference, the electric field will develop, from ...


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It's commonly used in windpower (generator) applications. On motor usage you need to have multi phase source of energy, which will destroy any economical advantage compared to multiple 3-phase motors, as the speed variations can so easily be done with inverters by varying frequency. Yet, it might be interesting to use on Electric cars, where the Battery is ...


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Silicon is an element, so silicon is just silicon. There's no special isotope used for semiconductor technology. But there are some special features needed: The silicon must be a single crystal. Crystal zone boundaries in the material would disturb the operation of the most common devices such as diodes and transistors. Really large monocrystalline silicon ...


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This is kind of like asking "how hot is too hot?" It will depend on how fast a battery can be charged and discharged- weakest link. You can always connect through a resistor, let it sit for some time so they equalize (current through resistor drops to zero or voltage across resistor becomes zero), then connect directly. Practically it doesn't have ...


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I interpret the question as being about cooling. In a thought experiment you may scale up the A64FX ARM CPU powering FUGAKU by a linear factor of 10.000 or 100.000 and then replace its integrated solid state electronic components by discrete ones. Cooling will not be a theoretical problem as the device is essentially 2D and you have the third dimension to ...


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Ohmic would mean means it follows Ohm's law $\ I= {\mathcal{E} \over R} $ It's non-ohmic so it does not, the current passed is not proportional to the EMF. Symmetric would mean that for negative EMF the the exact opposite current would flow. Being asymmetic, (in this case) it means that current flows more readily in one direction than in the opposite ...


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If "switches and wires" means transistors, then yes, you could build a supercomputer out of individual transistors instead of microchips. The Atlas was an early supercomputer from 1962 built from germanium transistors. Although it was considered a supercomputer at the time, it was very slow by modern standards. It performed 700,000 instructions per ...


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Normally what we call the intrinsic charge carrier concentration, that I note $n_i$ is the number of charge of any kind (not their) sum. It is a convention to build the theory nothing more. Having defined something like $n'_i = e + h$ would have make the equations much more ugly. This will be of use latter, because even though the semiconductor is not ...


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