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### How do charge carriers "know" how much voltage to use for work in a specific component?

This is communicated to the current through surface charges on the surface of conductors and at the interface between conductors of different conductivities. So, for example, consider a circuit ...

### How do charge carriers "know" how much voltage to use for work in a specific component?

Once you accept circuit theory, then things must work as the theory describe. It is still a valid question to ask why is circuit theory true and why circuit theory is apparently non local. Given there ...

### How do charge carriers "know" how much voltage to use for work in a specific component?

Anthropomorphizing the physics in this case has made your problem far weirder than necessary. The fact that you have different resistances means there is different current flow for a given voltage. It ...
The current-voltage relation of an ideal inductor is $v=L\ di/dt$, or equivalently, $$i(t) = i(0)+\frac{1}{L}\int\limits_0^tv(\tau)d\tau.$$ Now consider the two ideal inductors in parallel, with ...