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As long. as you hold the balll in your hand, you excert a centripetal force on it, when it leaves your hand this force no longer exists, so it goes forward with the tangential velocity in the horizontal direction, while you on the merry go round continue in a circle, so the ball will land outside it makes a parabola landing at outside, The truck is ...

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It seems to me you are suggesting a distinction between the rotating Earth case and the merry-go-round case that isn't actually there. To emphasize similarity, let's take the case of firing a projectile from the center, towards the perimeter. On the merry-go-round: Once the projectile is fired the motion of it is completely unconnected with the merry-go-...

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The Earth has different angular speeds at different latitudes, so a bullet traveling north or south far enough would have to take this into account. Once a ball is thrown from a moving merry go round gravity and air resistance are the only forces acting on it, so it will not curve with the merry go round.

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Are both centrifugal force and Coriolis force really fully explained by what is called "frame dragging" in GR? Centrifugal and coriolis effects are explained by special relativity, without needing to introduce GR. They're explained the same way they are in Newtonian mechanics, since Newtonian mechanics is the low-velocity limit of SR. Frame ...

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A Foucault pendulum swings back and forth in a plane and the Earth rotates beneath it, so that a relative motion exists between this plane and the earth's surface, so that the plane of the pendulum as viewed from above appears to rotate. Now consider yourself (for simplicity) at the north pole, and you are looking down at the pendulum setup. If you picture a ...

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