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Please note that the concept of "force" comes from classical mechanics. Fortunately there is the definition of force as $F=dp/dt$, $p$ the momentum in the interaction, which is exactly what is needed in Feynman diagrams. Every virtual particle exchange carries a dp/dt, and the four vectors are what are used to calculate the probabilities of any interaction ...


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You could say that there are currently as per the Standard Model (SM), force mediators. Photons (electromagnetic), gravitons (gravity), gluons (strong force), W and Z bosons (weak force). You could say that there are as per SM some particles that can actually emit these mediators, so electron for the photon, quark for the gluon (but the gluon emits its own ...


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Photons are present in all electromagnetic interactions. Sometimes they are virtual (e.g., in the case of electrostatic interactions), and sometimes real (e.g., in the case of electromagnetic radiation). For a photon to be perceived as light, it must a) be real; b) have the right range of wavelength (or frequency, or energy); and c) must be detected by your ...


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The other answer is correct. Let me add a few things. Photons are the quanta of light, and the quanta of energy, that is, the smallest amount of involved in an interaction. In physics, a quantum (plural quanta) is the minimum amount of any physical entity (physical property) involved in an interaction. The fundamental notion that a physical property can ...


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At our present understanding of physics, photons are elementary particles, in the axiomatic table of the standard model of particle physics. This model is mathematically based on quantum field theories. The understanding is that the underlying layer of nature is quantum mechanical, and all classical theories are limits, emerge from this underlying level. A ...


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