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The article Broken symmetry, emergent properties, dissipative structures, life: are they related? co-authored by Phil Anderson discusses the emergence of life as emergence of long-range order in non-equilibrium systems. Anderson extensively refers to Prigogine and co-workers, but I am not sure whether one can recommend a specific work: perhaps starting with ...


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If you're after the simple physics answer, and in the interest of keeping it simple, let's use the formula for work. Work = Force x Distance. Force = Mass x Acceleration (which we use as gravity's acceleration that we are overcoming. So for each exercise (and I have to convert to metric): First Assumptions (not too practical but not going down a rabbit ...


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Cell is usually considered to be the basic unit of life. Of course, cells consist of atoms, but atoms do not satisfy the criteria of being alive in any meaningful sense. From the physicist point of view a cell can be considered a heat engine: it takes energy from the environment (e.g., in the form of sugars), uses this energy to produce useful work (...


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The answer lies in the word 'unit'. A cell, as a unit, satisfies the common definition of a living entity- an atom as a unit does not.


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There is no evidence for "redness" in the sense of "perception or the sensation of red" outside humans (and some animals). There is plenty of evidence of photons with certain wavelengths that make us perceive red. The argument between Goethe and Newton is basically about "colour is subjective experience" and "colour is a ...


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So in that sense, what scientific evidence is there for the definable real world quality of redness independent our perception? The atomic spectra evidence, they have specific frequencies for specific colors perceived by our eyes. This is the electromagnetic spectrum as a function of the wavelength/frequency . Visible light is a very small part of the ...


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How do we know? We cannot know for sure, since this stage of the evolution happened long time ago, leaving no fossil evidence. The main sources by which we can reconstruct the early evolution are the idiosyncratic features, like the molecular asymmetry, the sequence of steps in metabolic cycles, the protein configurations and random features of certain parts ...


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