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One would think that those molecules would have to possess some degree of common alignment in order to produce light that possesses nonrandom polarization. Molecules are quantum mechanical entities and light interacting with individual molecules should be thought of in photons. Nevertheless, the classical elecromagnetic light with its description by the ...


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I think your question is really based on isotropy and anisotropy: How can an isotropic medium produce an anisotropc effect? The answer is that the direction of the sunlight provides a preferred direction. Given the fact that the atmosphere is isotropic, polarization (if it exists) of scattered sunlight must have radial symmetry around the axis defined by ...


5

Light passing through a fluid can be polarized for two reasons. We call this interaction, where different polarizations of light scatter differently "birefringence." First, if the components of the fluid have some preferred direction, then the light will be polarized in the corresponding orientation (e.g. chiral molecules). Second, if the fluid ...


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Gravity holds the atmospheric gases to the earth. Very light gases like helium near the top of the atmosphere can gain enough energy from a collision with a heavier molecule to exceed the escape velocity. The pressure at any level is caused by the weight of the gasses above.


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If a body is moving very slowly, the air can easily move around it, resulting in the negligible drag terms. In practice, that void gets filled by air near the void, and the atmosphere takes the least effort required to populate the empty space. When you move the box, the air in front of the box is displaced, creating a slightly higher pressure region, ...


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What is "side?" What is "bottom?" The meaning of those words is somewhat arbitrary when you're talking about spacecraft. Spacecraft that are designed to survive re-entry and atmospheric braking typically turn so that the shielded part faces "forward" during the re-entry maneuver. When it's a manned spacecraft, the shielded/...


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It is possible to calculate but it is very unreliable. The reason being the density of atmosphere at different places and heights varies thereby changing the buoyant force on the apparatus. However to calculate the height we can do this. Measure the total mass of the apparatus( you may include the balloon and string too). Find out total volume it occupies. ...


1

For an object entering our atmosphere at high speed, there are two types of heat being produced, one from friction, where colliding molecules produce kinetic energy, and atmospheric compression, where perhaps several miles of atmosphere are compressed into a thin layer of gas in front of the object in less than a second. It is my belief that the vast ...


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