Questions tagged [x-rays]

Use this tag for question related to X-rays which are a form of high energy electromagnetic radiation having wavelength ranging from 0.1 to 10 nanometres. Also referred to as Röntgen radiation after the scientist who discovered it. X-rays have a range of application including medical CT, airport security, astronomy, crystallography, etc. Different applications use different parts of the X-ray spectrum.

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X-ray image of the Earth

Since the Sun emits X-rays, what would happen if we had a hypothetically planet sized x-ray film and exposed it behind the earth? I understand we wouldn't be able to see the insides of the earth, but ...
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Why X-ray and radio waves can penetrate walls but light can not? [duplicate]

Why can visible light, which lies in the middle between X-ray and radio waves in terms of frequency/energy, not penetrate walls?
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X ray diffraction and the band theory

I was look around stack exchange and couldn't find a good answer to this: What is the relation of the band theory of solids and the X-ray diffraction? We know that it EM wave is scattered (the process ...
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Is the Crookes tube with Maltese cross (cathode rays) safe in terms of produced X rays at 5-10kV DC (1–10mA) during, say, 15 seconds of work?

I would like to get some information on the operational safety of this equipment. How much, approximately (just the order of magnitude) does the school Crookes tube with the Maltese cross, used to ...
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Expression for differential solid angle in terms of wave vector?

I have been reading this book " High resolution x-ray scattering from thin films to lateral nano structures " by Pietsch et.al. In the last line of page number $63$ the author replaces the ...
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Discharge tube phenomena

Why does Faraday dark space happen in discharge tube? Must we use flourescent to see cathode ray (electron) in vacuum tube? Why in some pressure there will be an anode ray ? I know in vacuum and ...
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Can we measure the norm square of a wave function from a single atom using ultra short - ultra bright x-ray pulses

X-ray light sources at x-ray free electron laser labs have $\approx 10^{13}$ photons in a single pulse. Assuming one could make the pulse extremely short (100 Atto seconds or less) and very focused. ...
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Photon scattering final state

I'm looking through the linked paper on x-ray scattering. The Section $5$ says that the expression $(67)$ (which contains an error but the editor mentions the correct variant at the beginning of the ...
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1answer
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Why we do not consider electrostatic potential in continuous x ray production?

Why we don't consider electrostatic potential in continuous X-ray production?In almost every Book I see they say that by energy conservation, maximum energy X-ray that could be emitted is $$eV=hυ$$(υ ...
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Metal, X-Ray, Gamma-ray

As I know, all metals absorb x-ray and gamma radiation. Also, as I know, all rays are converted into any energy. In this case, I mean warmth. For example, an x-ray is absorbed by metal, then metal ...
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Angular distribution formula & Poynting's vector

I'm looking for a derivation of the Angular distribution formula of the "Bremsstrahlung" for radiated power as a function of angle (Bremsstrahlung is german for "deceleration radiation"): $${\...
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How Do You Find $K_\beta$ X-Ray Energy?

I know you can use Moseley's law to calculate $K_\alpha$ X-ray energy. Can this law be used to calculate the $K_\beta$ energy? $$ \Delta E = (-13.6eV)(Z-1)^2\left(\frac{1}{n_{1}^2}-\frac{1}{n_{2}^2}\...
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Seccond continuous curve in the spectrum of an x-ray tube

In the diagram, you can see the spectrum of a x-ray tube, that I measured in an experiment. You can clearly see the continuous curve caused by bremsstrahlung and some characteristic spikes of the ...
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The Peak of The X-Ray Bremsstrahlung Wavelength Curve

This is probably not restricted to only Bremsstrahlung curves but other distribution curves as well. Is the peak the mode or mean wavelength produced? And more importantly why is approximately $1/3$ ...
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Is Scherrer equation applicable in low energy electron diffraction?

Scherrer equation is applicable in X-ray diffraction. What about low energy electron diffraction (LEED)?
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How far can an x-ray travel through water?

I am studying x-ray's and how they interact with different mediums, but I am a bit confused on the distances an x-ray can travel through different mediums such as water. Let's take an x-ray with 3 ...
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1answer
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Atom-electron interaction in an x ray tube

My question has to do with the absorption of an electron by an atom. When an electron approaches the atom there are two possibilities. Either the electron will do a "slingshot" around the nucleus (...
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X-Ray Diffraction

In X-ray diffraction when we accelerate the electron with some potential say $V$ and make collision with plate that produces $X-$ray (frequency $\nu$). $$h\nu_{max}=eV$$ But as we know that the ...
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Dose calculation of X-Ray tubes

I am working on a X ray tube project and I want to calculate approximate dose. Do you know any equation ? I have found one on internet but I think this is wrong: $$D=g\cdot kV^2\cdot \dfrac{mAs}{d^...
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Is there a way to analyze the elements in a material from a satellite?

There are means to analyze elements in a specimen in a laboratory, such as XRF and PIXE. My question is this - is there a way to analyze elements in a specimen from a satellite? Edit: to clarify, I'...
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X-Ray simulation software suggestions

Asking here as a 'specialist' location, as opposed to the regular 'software suggestion'. I am looking to find a way to generate synthetic x-rays of a 3D model. The closest I've found (Free) was http:/...
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2answers
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Is it possible to converting electromagnetic waves to each other?

For example I have a source that emits X-Rays, is it possible to turning them into visible light or micro waves with the same energy as it was xray (I mean, can I change the frequency or the ...
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Determining If A Test Article Is Suitable For X RAY Following Shock Testing?

NOTE: Cross-posted this in Engineering stack exchange. I am interested in putting a small (3"x3"x2") assembly under X-ray, following a shock test, in order to evaluate failures of an internal ceramic ...
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Can a hydrogen atom emit characteristic X-ray?

Is it not possible that incoming electron excite the hydrogen atom and then when it de-excites it releases radiation? Here please don't answer no because hydrogen is light. My actual query is can ...
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How can we differentiate different parallel planes with the same Miller indices?

How can we distinguish different parallel planes with the same Miller indices not by graph and just with the numbers?
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Why x-ray diffraction occur only in forward direction?

When x-ray falls on an atom,the atom scatters it in all 4pi solid angles. In case of a crystal also the atoms sitting in different planes scatter light in all 4pi direction. But when it comes to Bragg ...
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How to determine interplanar spacing for BCC/FCC crystals?

I have a query as to how interplanar spacing in fcc and bcc can be determined. In line with the known formula, $$d_{hkl} = \frac{a}{\sqrt{h^2+k^2+l^2}}$$ for a crystal with Miller indices (1 1 0), ...
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Is wavelength expressed in astronomical unit?

i have a question! is wavelength expressed in astronomical unit? I know that it is possible to express it, but is it done in books or questions?
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Static Structure Factor

I know that static structure factor can be calculated from molecular simulation or X-ray diffraction. I would like to ask that if there is a way I can also calculate static structure factor given a ...
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2answers
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Is there any full Compton scattering experiment done with x-ray since 1923?

The original paper of A.H.Compton 1923 did not provide data of a full experiment; he provided 3 points. Was his result corroborated by others? Can someone provide a real full set of data for Compton ...
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Energy absorbed by a medium if X-rays pass through it

Obviously light-matter interactions are extremely complicated, but I’m trying to get a general estimate. Say I have a beam of X-rays, passing through a medium - say water - of a finite thickness and ...
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56 views

Soft X-rays and Hard X-rays

How to know how much of kilovolts are in soft X-rays, and in hard X-rays? (Ex: 80kV is in soft X-rays or hard X-rays?
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X-ray imaging of coconut [closed]

I'm doing the X-ray imaging of a coconut with soft X-rays. But the images have no contrast between the rice and water inside the coconut. How can I adjust the parameters to see this contrast inside ...
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What will happen if I bombard electron beam on metalloid?

I know when we bombard electron beam on metals it gives out X rays, but my question is that what will happen if I bombard electron beam on metalloids?? please give answer
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X-rays / Gamma rays “oven” vs microwave oven

Let's imagine a seller scammed you and sold you a Gamma rays / X-rays "oven" instead of a common microwave oven. The power consumption would be the same as a common microwave oven, i.e. about 1 kW, ...
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1answer
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Diffraction pattern of X-ray and electron

Electron diffraction is used to study about wave - particle duality of matter. A beam of electrons directed at a single crystal produced a diffraction pattern like an X-ray diffraction pattern. I ...
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1answer
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Origin of the energy distribution of synchrotron radiation

Is there an easy explanation why synchrotron radiation from a bending magnet (e.g. in an electron storage ring) has an energy distribution? In other words, given a specific magnet with a defined ...
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1answer
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X-RAY production from Coolidge Tube

In a Coolidge tube, electrons are ejected with a Kinetic Energy. They strike the metal target and during collisions lose some part of the KE which gets emitted in the from of electromagnetic waves(...
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1answer
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Is the Compton effect observed during regular x-ray diffraction?

Here we have the standard set up to observe the compton effect. From what I understand, due to the particle like nature of light, when the x ray photons collide with the electrons in the scatterer ...
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Geiger Counter vs PIN Detector

I have noticed in many papers that test Moseley's law use PIN detectors instead of Geiger counters to measure the XRF spectrums of elements. Why is that? is it because Geiger counters signal also ...
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2answers
108 views

Aren't X-rays used to 'see' bones more dangerous than UV-C rays from Sun?

I am not sure, as to how to go about this ... But I believe X-Rays are distinguished by their high frequency. Exposure to a few minutes of UV increases the risk of sunburn. (I do not want to say about ...
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1answer
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Why does a single X-ray photon generate 1620 electrons when it hits CCD detector?

Fe55 is one radioactive isotope. It emits X ray photons : mainly k-alpha & k-beta lines. Why does a single X-ray photon generate 1620 electrons when it hits CCD detector ? While, in photo-...
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1answer
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Why are soft x-ray images of plasmas considered to represent magnetic field line configurations?

I'm learning about plasma physics and I've seen a number of papers which state something like 'soft x-ray pictures reveal the magnetic field lines', and it is common to use a soft x-ray image of the ...
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Bremsstrahlung photon energy query

In my textbook they've defined the energy of a photon released by an electron decelerated by a nucleus to be the difference in its KE before and after being decelerated by the nucleus. However I was ...
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Focusing of a cylindrical mirror in X-ray optics

Focusing cylindrical mirror are sometimes used to squeeze a photon beam in one direction. They can be vertically focusing or horizontally focusing, and such mirrors are typically used in X-Ray optics ...
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1answer
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Where is the missing energy in the Debye-Waller effect?

X-ray/neutron scattering from crystals and liquids is well-described by the scattering theory to give the (dynamic) structure factor which is a function of momentum and energy: $$S(\mathbf{k},\omega)=...
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Principle of Energy Dispersive x-ray Spectroscopy

I have a question about the EDS I don't understand how the detector can differentiate the Energy of incident x-ray simultaneously. In my thought, the emitted x-ray from the sample have different ...
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What are the factors on which wavelength of X-rays depends upon? [closed]

So the thing is that I was learning about X-rays and I came across this line that minimum wavelength of continuous X-ray spectra depends only upon Anode voltage about which I'm sceptical because $$eV=...
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1answer
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Correct way to calculate HVL of a given beam (poly)

Hello I'm trying to calculate the HVL of a beam of whom I know everything but a particular filtration. At the moment I tried by inverting the formula ($I=I_0 e^{- \mu x}$), integrating over all the ...
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1answer
780 views

X-ray imaging - why does bone show up as white?

I'm looking at why bone shows up white on a radiograph. The only explanation I seem to get is the bone is dense and 'absorbs more x-rays'. This is all ok, but it still doesn't seem to explain why ...

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