Questions tagged [x-rays]

Use this tag for question related to X-rays which are a form of high energy electromagnetic radiation having wavelength ranging from 0.1 to 10 nanometres. Also referred to as Röntgen radiation after the scientist who discovered it. X-rays have a range of application including medical CT, airport security, astronomy, crystallography, etc. Different applications use different parts of the X-ray spectrum.

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Why don't we have x-ray emitting LEDs?

I've just learnt about how X-rays are produced in existing systems. We barrage a hunk of metal with a beam of electrons, in order to get an effective yield of 20% of the energy converted into useful X-...
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Why is the screening coefficient, $\sigma_K$, in Moseley's law only constant for high $Z$ and how can it be anything other than unity?

In trying to understand the screening coefficient, $\sigma_K$ and the limitations of Moseley's law (why only valid for high $Z$) I came across a section of this lab script I found online: Moseley’s ...
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Scattered radiation factor for diagnostic

I need the confirmation, is it if we put survey meter at 270 degree, does the reading of scattered radiation is same with 90 degree. In my opinion, the reading would be same as the distance is still ...
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Building a "stelaser" - a star-powered maser network that distributes free global electricity. Why and Why not?

I wish to design a Space Based Power platform that delivers microwave power from space. This approach has been criticized (famously by Elon Musk), because converting sunlight to electrons to ...
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2answers
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How does x-ray attenuation compare to sound wave attenuation?

When it comes to medical imaging (x-ray and ultrasound specifically) there seems to be a difference between the attenuation of sound and x-rays. What I am gathering is as follows: When it comes to x-...
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What is the difference between the X-ray diffraction and neutron diffraction?

In the Kittel book, I have read that the ionic form of $\text{KCl}$ contains $\text{K}^+$ and $\text{Cl}^-$, having equal number of electrons. Looking at the statement in figure that while doing the ...
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X-Rays and UV Penetration Dichotomy Relative to Visible Light (Shorter Wavelength but opposite penetration)

My understanding was that relative to visible light, ultraviolet tends to be more strongly absorbed by materials because the higher energy photons are likely to be able to interact with the material. ...
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Why do X-ray telescopes have to be in space?

I have read this question: For x-rays the (HUP limit) Δx becomes smaller than the distances between the lattice distances of atoms and molecules, and the photon will interact only if it meets them on ...
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X-Ray data of AGN

I have downloaded spectra of a quasar from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS), but it has data in Visible Range. I need data of same quasar in the X-Ray region and I think SDSS don't have data in the ...
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Is it possible to take long-distance X-ray images at a high resolution in Earth's atmosphere?

It's my understanding that different wavelengths of EM radiation are affected by scattering and attenuation to varying degrees. Would a camera using only X-rays be able to take a picture of something ...
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How can i shoot accelerated electron directly into the air?

I am trying to do an experiment in which I have to first accelerate the electron to 10eV and then shoot into the air directly. I need some kind of membrane which allows electron to pass and keep ...
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1answer
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Differentiating between gas discharge and cathode ray

I am trying to build a cathode ray tube but my vacuum pump is a fridge compressor which sucks at achieving a good vacuum! However I am getting a cathode ray like glow inside the vacuum chamber. Now to ...
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What happens to the X-ray diffraction (XRD) pattern if we use laser as a incident beam?

In X-ray diffraction (XRD) pattern we use X-ray because it has the wavelength of the same order as that of the inter-planar separation. Now if instead of X-rays I use laser light, then how it will ...
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Computers That Can Compute in Femtoseconds

I was watching a video about LCLS 2 and they mentioned that they can shoot and record up to 1 million x-ray pulses allowing them to see chemical reactions. They said that these pulses of x-ray last ...
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How are characteristic and cut-off wavelength related to each other for a metal

Find the binding energy of an L electron in titanium if the wavelength difference between the first line of the K series and its short-wave cut-off is $\Delta \lambda=26 \;\text{pm}$. Cut-off ...
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Probability of an M-L electron transition in tungsten - characteristic x-rays

I am preparing a simple lesson on characteristic X-rays for tungsten, where the main energies produced are from $L \to K$ (about $58 \;\text{keV}$) and $M \to K$ (about $68 \;\text{keV}$) transitions. ...
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Is generating electricity from triboluminescence feasible?

I read an article about triboluminescence where sticky tape under a vacuum produces x-rays as it's peeled away. I was left wondering if the generated x-rays can be converted into electricity using ...
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Intensity of X-ray characteristic emission

In the graph of x-ray intensity in coolidge tube, why is the intensity of the charactarestic emission higher than the continuous spectrum? Isn't it less likely for electorns to eject inner shell ...
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Why does x-ray films look better when illuminated with light?

Today I got an x ray of myself and it seems that it was much easier to distinguish between bones in the x ray when the films were illuminated with light from either side from either side. What is the ...
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Why is it necessary to dissipate the heat of the anode in an X-ray tube?

I understand that in an X-ray tube electrons collide with the anode which then deflects them out of the window producing X-rays and that this anode is rotated to dissipate heat. But why is it ...
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X-rays are absorbed by bone. If the width of the bone increased in proportion to the wavelength, would bone absorb radio waves?

What I’m interested in here, are the properties of different electromagnetic waves, and the factors that cause them to be absorbed by different materials and be influenced in other ways by different ...
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Multiple X-ray Emission during Electron Capture

In an atomic environment, a $\beta$-decay process competing with positron emission is electron capture, in which the nucleus absorbs one of its cloud of atomic electrons, emitting only a neutrino. $$p+...
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Elements that do not produce X-rays [closed]

I have read that hydrogen does not produce X-rays as the energy difference between its shells is small. So if this is true what are the elements that do not produce X-rays and how was Moseley able to ...
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Is it possible that in a Coolidge tube characteristic $L_α$ X-rays are emitted but not $K_α$ X-rays?

Is it possible that in a Coolidge tube characteristic $L_α$ X-rays are emitted but not $K_α$ X-rays? Suppose the electron accelerated in the Coolidge tube knocks out the electron from the L shell ...
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How Do I Determine These Variables? (See equation below)

How do I determine variables g (reciprocal lattice vector for diamond) and Omega (Unit Vector in the direction of X-ray emission) ?
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Can a gamma ray or x-ray cause an isotope change of a nucleus with all its electrons stripped away?

I learned that Sodium22 atoms decay to Neon 22 by ($\beta$+) (positron) emission. Also some other radioactive elements isotopes can undergo positron emission or electron absorption with a similar ...
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Do all radioactive isotopes and compounds exhibit photoluminesce?

I have an antique item - colored in a florescent yellow, which may be comprised of radioactive pigment like Uranium Oxide or other radionuclides I haven't a Geiger counter, but I already shined a UV ...
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XRF experimental data?

I am trying to test my model to subtract background from Xray Spectrum. I do not have access to any equipment. Where may I find XRF experimental data? Detector response data? etc. Does one know a ...
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X-ray component of solar radiation

What wavelength of x-rays are emitted by the sun and what is the fraction of energy in solar radiation present in the form of x-rays?
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How to understand what is happening in this freshman X-ray scattering diagram?

In this Yale chemistry course I am taking on YouTube, I am stuck on something at 21:36 in the lecture. I am trying to understand the diagram Professor McBride is using to explain how X-Rays scatter ...
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Do the experimentally obtained XPS Binding energies come from different shells? or all from the same shell ($1s$ $K$-shell)?

In experimentally obtained XPS atomic Binding Energy data like on NIST; is the ionization energy always for $1s$ electron, or it differs among elements? I checked the experimental data, and other ...
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Does the Thomson scattering from a free (moving) electron differ from that of a bound (hence stationary) electron?

By definition, Thomson scattering refers to the elastic scattering in electrons. however, X-ray scientists prefer to use the term XRTS (X-Ray Thomson Scattering) to describe a board range of processes ...
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What technique is used to determine the energies of the radionuclide standards used in energy sensor calibration?

In using scintillator or germanium energy sensors, certain radionuclides representing some definite line energies are used to calibrate the sensors. What technique or method is used to determine the ...
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In what scenario could two particles cause fluorescence to each other?

Ni $K$ X-rays have higher energies than Fe $K$ X-rays, thus, Ni $K$ X-rays cause Fe $K$ X-ray fluorescence, meaning that there are more Fe $K$ X-rays than expected and the Fe concentration appears ...
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What qualifies an x-ray line as "useful for quantification" in a material's x-ray analysis?

Original question: Knowing the energy values for the different X-ray lines for Mo and for S in the analysis of bulk MoS$_2$ ($K_{\alpha 1}$, $K_{\alpha 2}$$K_{\beta1}$, $L_{\alpha 1}$, $L_{\beta1}$, ...
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Number of electron hole pairs generated from an x-ray

I have an X-ray that generates photons with energy $10$ keV and this beam is incident on an are $0.5$ µm $\times$ $0.5$ µm. The material is found to have a quantum efficiency of $70$% (that is $70$% ...
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Why do gamma ray and x-ray photons which have significantly higher energy travel at the same speed as photons of visible light? [duplicate]

Photons which constitute X-rays and gamma rays have a significantly higher energy than those which constitute the visible light. If they have so much more energy, why do they travel at the same speed ...
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Why is the reason for validity of the formula for wavelength of characteristic X-rays?

The wavelength of Characteristic X-ray emissions is given by the expression $$\frac{1}{\lambda}=R_\text{H} (Z_{eff})^2 \left(\frac{1}{n^2}-\frac{1}{m^2}\right)$$ Where $R_\text{H}$ stands for Rydberg'...
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Can Bragg's spectrometer be used to determine wavelength of EM wave other than X-rays?

I have read that Bragg's spectrometer is used to study crystals using X rays. It is also used to determine the wavelength of X-rays . My question is that can it be used to determine wavelength of any ...
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Compton Scattering Contribution to Xray Spectrum background

I know the phenomenon, the experiment, and the compton X-ray shift.But I am wondering if compton scattering is essential contribution to Xray background. How is Compton scattering configured from Xray ...
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Could we see through objects if our eye could detect other wavelengths of light?

We see objects around us because light reflects off the surface and enters our eye. So if our eyes could see a wider range of the spectrum (maybe lower wavelength as they would scatter less) then ...
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1answer
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Upper bound on frequency of photons generated by an x-ray tube

It is my understanding that X-rays can be generated by placing an anode and cathode in a vacuum tube, then creating a high voltage differential between them causing the electrons to be accelerated ...
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5answers
470 views

What's the issue with inventing a cold cathode X-ray tube?

My dad requires many CT scans, and we're asking this out of curiosity. We're not promoting or affiliated the company. Can someone please explain the para. below like I'm 5, in Simple English? The ...
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1answer
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Does PIXE only measure external composition?

When performing X-ray spectroscopy, say with PIXE, do atoms inside the metal have vacancies induced or only the outer layer? For example, a quarter has a shell of 75% copper and 25% nickel, but a bulk ...
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Measuring compositions using peak heights or FWHM?

Let's say I have a simple X-ray spectrum, consisting of peaks corresponding to emission lines. How do I determine the percentage-wise composition of the source? Is it by taking the heights of the ...
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1answer
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What is the probing depth of the XAS spectroscopy at Iron edge?

I want to find the probing depth of the XAS spectroscopy at Iron edge, I found this paper: Magnetic circular dichroism study of Fe/Co/Cu (001) using electron yieldx-ray absorption spectroscopy with ...
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How do I differentiate $K_\alpha$ from $L_\alpha$ transitions of X-ray emissions?

If I shine an electron beam in a sample and it returns, for an example, an X-ray wavelength compatible with both $K_\alpha$ of copper and $L_\alpha$ of hafnium. How can I tell the difference between ...
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1answer
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Nomenclature of X-ray transitions-Siegbahn Notation

A colleague wanted to understand the notation for X-ray transitions. The main query is about the labeling of alpha, beta and gamma, with K, L, M etc. What is the main distinguishing criterion to label ...
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Why do high energy waves e.g. X-rays get refracted very little?

Correct me if I am wrong but since refractive index is directly proportional to frequency, this would mean that higher frequencies would have higher refractive indexes i.e should bend more but i have ...
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Can X-ray diffraction be applied to liquids, gasses or non-crystalline materials?

I learned that X-ray diffraction happens due to the periodic arrangement of atoms in a crystalline material, so can X-ray diffraction studies be done on liquids and non-crystalline materials?

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