Questions tagged [x-rays]

Use this tag for question related to X-rays which are a form of high energy electromagnetic radiation having wavelength ranging from 0.1 to 10 nanometres. Also referred to as Röntgen radiation after the scientist who discovered it. X-rays have a range of application including medical CT, airport security, astronomy, crystallography, etc. Different applications use different parts of the X-ray spectrum.

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Elements that do not produce X-rays

I have read that hydrogen does not produce X-rays as the energy difference between its shells is small. So if this is true what are the elements that do not produce X-rays and how was Moseley able to ...
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Is it possible that in a Coolidge tube characteristic $L_α$ X-rays are emitted but not $K_α$ X-rays?

Is it possible that in a Coolidge tube characteristic $L_α$ X-rays are emitted but not $K_α$ X-rays? Suppose the electron accelerated in the Coolidge tube knocks out the electron from the L shell ...
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How Do I Determine These Variables? (See equation below)

How do I determine variables g (reciprocal lattice vector for diamond) and Omega (Unit Vector in the direction of X-ray emission) ?
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Can a gamma ray or x-ray cause an isotope change of a nucleus with all its electrons stripped away?

I learned that Sodium22 atoms decay to Neon 22 by ($\beta$+) (positron) emission. Also some other radioactive elements isotopes can undergo positron emission or electron absorption with a similar ...
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Do all radioactive isotopes and compounds exhibit photoluminesce?

I have an antique item - colored in a florescent yellow, which may be comprised of radioactive pigment like Uranium Oxide or other radionuclides I haven't a Geiger counter, but I already shined a UV ...
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XRF experimental data?

I am trying to test my model to subtract background from Xray Spectrum. I do not have access to any equipment. Where may I find XRF experimental data? Detector response data? etc. Does one know a ...
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X-ray component of solar radiation

What wavelength of x-rays are emitted by the sun and what is the fraction of energy in solar radiation present in the form of x-rays?
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Does Bremsstrahlung occur in soft Xrays?

I always heard of bremsstrahlung in synchrotrons? But does it also happen in small Lab X-ray tubes? Is the background we see in the spectra in such a case bremsstrahlung radiation or something else?
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How to understand what is happening in this freshman X-ray scattering diagram?

In this Yale chemistry course I am taking on YouTube, I am stuck on something at 21:36 in the lecture. I am trying to understand the diagram Professor McBride is using to explain how X-Rays scatter ...
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Do the experimentally obtained XPS Binding energies come from different shells? or all from the same shell ($1s$ $K$-shell)?

In experimentally obtained XPS atomic Binding Energy data like on NIST; is the ionization energy always for $1s$ electron, or it differs among elements? I checked the experimental data, and other ...
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Does the Thomson scattering from a free (moving) electron differ from that of a bound (hence stationary) electron?

By definition, Thomson scattering refers to the elastic scattering in electrons. however, X-ray scientists prefer to use the term XRTS (X-Ray Thomson Scattering) to describe a board range of processes ...
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What technique is used to determine the energies of the radionuclide standards used in energy sensor calibration?

In using scintillator or germanium energy sensors, certain radionuclides representing some definite line energies are used to calibrate the sensors. What technique or method is used to determine the ...
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In what scenario could two particles cause fluorescence to each other?

Ni $K$ X-rays have higher energies than Fe $K$ X-rays, thus, Ni $K$ X-rays cause Fe $K$ X-ray fluorescence, meaning that there are more Fe $K$ X-rays than expected and the Fe concentration appears ...
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What qualifies an x-ray line as “useful for quantification” in a material's x-ray analysis?

Original question: Knowing the energy values for the different X-ray lines for Mo and for S in the analysis of bulk MoS$_2$ ($K_{\alpha 1}$, $K_{\alpha 2}$$K_{\beta1}$, $L_{\alpha 1}$, $L_{\beta1}$, ...
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Number of electron hole pairs generated from an x-ray

I have an X-ray that generates photons with energy $10$ keV and this beam is incident on an are $0.5$ µm $\times$ $0.5$ µm. The material is found to have a quantum efficiency of $70$% (that is $70$% ...
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Why do gamma ray and x-ray photons which have significantly higher energy travel at the same speed as photons of visible light? [duplicate]

Photons which constitute X-rays and gamma rays have a significantly higher energy than those which constitute the visible light. If they have so much more energy, why do they travel at the same speed ...
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Why is the reason for validity of the formula for wavelength of characteristic X-rays?

The wavelength of Characteristic X-ray emissions is given by the expression $$\frac{1}{\lambda}=R_\text{H} (Z_{eff})^2 \left(\frac{1}{n^2}-\frac{1}{m^2}\right)$$ Where $R_\text{H}$ stands for Rydberg'...
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Can Bragg's spectrometer be used to determine wavelength of EM wave other than X-rays?

I have read that Bragg's spectrometer is used to study crystals using X rays. It is also used to determine the wavelength of X-rays . My question is that can it be used to determine wavelength of any ...
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Compton Scattering Contribution to Xray Spectrum background

I know the phenomenon, the experiment, and the compton X-ray shift.But I am wondering if compton scattering is essential contribution to Xray background. How is Compton scattering configured from Xray ...
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Xray atomic Binding Energy in Isotopes?

Does Xray atomic level energy value change in isotopes? Is the electron binding energy the same for same element isotopes? Do you know a reference?
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Could we see through objects if our eye could detect other wavelengths of light?

We see objects around us because light reflects off the surface and enters our eye. So if our eyes could see a wider range of the spectrum (maybe lower wavelength as they would scatter less) then ...
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Upper bound on frequency of photons generated by an x-ray tube

It is my understanding that X-rays can be generated by placing an anode and cathode in a vacuum tube, then creating a high voltage differential between them causing the electrons to be accelerated ...
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What's the issue with inventing a cold cathode X-ray tube?

My dad requires many CT scans, and we're asking this out of curiosity. We're not promoting or affiliated the company. Can someone please explain the para. below like I'm 5, in Simple English? The ...
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Does PIXE only measure external composition?

When performing X-ray spectroscopy, say with PIXE, do atoms inside the metal have vacancies induced or only the outer layer? For example, a quarter has a shell of 75% copper and 25% nickel, but a bulk ...
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Measuring compositions using peak heights or FWHM?

Let's say I have a simple X-ray spectrum, consisting of peaks corresponding to emission lines. How do I determine the percentage-wise composition of the source? Is it by taking the heights of the ...
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What is the probing depth of the XAS spectroscopy at Iron edge?

I want to find the probing depth of the XAS spectroscopy at Iron edge, I found this paper: Magnetic circular dichroism study of Fe/Co/Cu (001) using electron yieldx-ray absorption spectroscopy with ...
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How do I differentiate $K_\alpha$ from $L_\alpha$ transitions of X-ray emissions?

If I shine an electron beam in a sample and it returns, for an example, an X-ray wavelength compatible with both $K_\alpha$ of copper and $L_\alpha$ of hafnium. How can I tell the difference between ...
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Nomenclature of X-ray transitions-Siegbahn Notation

A colleague wanted to understand the notation for X-ray transitions. The main query is about the labeling of alpha, beta and gamma, with K, L, M etc. What is the main distinguishing criterion to label ...
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Why do high energy waves e.g. X-rays get refracted very little?

Correct me if I am wrong but since refractive index is directly proportional to frequency, this would mean that higher frequencies would have higher refractive indexes i.e should bend more but i have ...
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Phase shift in Thomson scattering of electromagnetic radiation from a positron

We know that in Thomson scattering of electromagnetic radiation, the phase shift of the scattered radiation from the incident radiation is $\pi$. Is this phase shift coming because of negative charge ...
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Can X-ray diffraction be applied to liquids, gasses or non-crystalline materials?

I learned that X-ray diffraction happens due to the periodic arrangement of atoms in a crystalline material, so can X-ray diffraction studies be done on liquids and non-crystalline materials ?
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Modeling X-ray beam using mass attenuation coefficient and its parts, in particular coherent and incoherent scatter

I understand that when X-rays pass through matter they interact in various ways, photoelectric, Compton, etc, which attenuate the beam. I am just slightly confused when it comes to coherent and ...
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Ultrasonic vs x-ray (for medical applications)

What are the differences between using x-rays and ultrasounds for medical diagnosis? From a physical point of view I am aware that x-rays are able to reach deeper into the material - but I think this ...
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Kinematic theory and dynamical theory of x-ray (or electron) diffraction. Why such names are given?

Kinematic theory and dynamical theory of x-ray (or electron) diffraction. Why such names are given to scattering theories ? Does it have any connection to Kinematics (of Galileo) and Dynamics (of ...
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What effect does surface have on light absorption at different wavelengths?

I am a bit confused and need a well rounded explanation. Have a look at two scenarios: A metal plate with small scratches on it appears diffuse in the optical spectrum, because the roughness reflects ...
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In the generation of X-Rays, why the incoming electron generated from anode knocks out the K shell electron rather than outer shell electrons?

When the high energy beam of particles or photon hits the cathode, electrons from $K$ shell are knocked in the generation of characteristic x-rays. Why do inner electrons get knocked out?
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What exactly is the science behind the detection of Cosmic Gamma-rays?

As far as I know the basic principle used by telescopes to detect Gamma-rays is through Compton scattering. This does explain the science behind Detection of gamma-rays through compton scattering but ...
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What's the difference between Hard X-rays and Gamma-rays?

So I'm aware of this and this, but the question is Are Hard X-rays and Gamma-rays the same thing? If not, then what would be the key difference between them. Moreover, How much would the properties of ...
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Determining the size of a light source

I have an incoherent light source that is of unknown size, and I was wondering about the possible methods to measure its size. The issue is that I am expecting it to be very small (few micrometers), ...
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What rules govern the absorption of photons by electrons when the photons exceed the work function of the material?

I am currently watching a series of lectures on Nuclear Physics. One of the topics covered is the emission and absorption of X-Rays. This got me thinking about some of the physical chemistry I took as ...
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Are there solid-state devices that can produce x-rays?

Recently, I noticed that most devices that produce X-rays are somewhat 'crude'. It is usual for these devices to either heat something up to the point where the bremsstrahlung is in the X-ray region - ...
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Do terms like 'radiowave', 'ultraviolet', 'X-ray' mean the same thing in matter vs in vacuum/air?

I usually use terms like 'radiowave', 'microwave', 'X-ray', etc. to refer to ranges of electromagnetic (EM) frequencies ($f=2\pi/\omega$) or wavelengths ($\lambda = 2\pi/k$) in air or in a vacuum, ...
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X-ray image of the Earth

Since the Sun emits X-rays, what would happen if we had a hypothetically planet sized x-ray film and exposed it behind the earth? I understand we wouldn't be able to see the insides of the earth, but ...
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Why X-ray and radio waves can penetrate walls but light can not? [duplicate]

Why can visible light, which lies in the middle between X-ray and radio waves in terms of frequency/energy, not penetrate walls?
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X ray diffraction and the band theory

I was look around stack exchange and couldn't find a good answer to this: What is the relation of the band theory of solids and the X-ray diffraction? We know that it EM wave is scattered (the process ...
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Is the Crookes tube with Maltese cross (cathode rays) safe in terms of produced X rays at 5-10kV DC (1–10mA) during, say, 15 seconds of work?

I would like to get some information on the operational safety of this equipment. How much, approximately (just the order of magnitude) does the school Crookes tube with the Maltese cross, used to ...
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Expression for differential solid angle in terms of wave vector?

I have been reading this book " High resolution x-ray scattering from thin films to lateral nano structures " by Pietsch et.al. In the last line of page number $63$ the author replaces the ...
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Discharge tube phenomena

Why does Faraday dark space happen in discharge tube? Must we use flourescent to see cathode ray (electron) in vacuum tube? Why in some pressure there will be an anode ray ? I know in vacuum and ...
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Can we measure the norm square of a wave function from a single atom using ultra short - ultra bright x-ray pulses

X-ray light sources at x-ray free electron laser labs have $\approx 10^{13}$ photons in a single pulse. Assuming one could make the pulse extremely short (100 Atto seconds or less) and very focused. ...

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