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Questions tagged [x-rays]

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Bremsstrahlung photon energy query

In my textbook they've defined the energy of a photon released by an electron decelerated by a nucleus to be the difference in its KE before and after being decelerated by the nucleus. However I was ...
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Focusing of a cylindrical mirror in X-ray optics

Focusing cylindrical mirror are sometimes used to squeeze a photon beam in one direction. They can be vertically focusing or horizontally focusing, and such mirrors are typically used in X-Ray optics ...
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Where is the missing energy in the Debye-Waller effect?

X-ray/neutron scattering from crystals and liquids is well-described by the scattering theory to give the (dynamic) structure factor which is a function of momentum and energy: $$S(\mathbf{k},\omega)=...
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1answer
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Principle of Energy Dispersive x-ray Spectroscopy

I have a question about the EDS I don't understand how the detector can differentiate the Energy of incident x-ray simultaneously. In my thought, the emitted x-ray from the sample have different ...
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3answers
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What are the factors on which wavelength of X-rays depends upon? [closed]

So the thing is that I was learning about X-rays and I came across this line that minimum wavelength of continuous X-ray spectra depends only upon Anode voltage about which I'm sceptical because $$eV=...
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1answer
32 views

Correct way to calculate HVL of a given beam (poly)

Hello I'm trying to calculate the HVL of a beam of whom I know everything but a particular filtration. At the moment I tried by inverting the formula ($I=I_0 e^{- \mu x}$), integrating over all the ...
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1answer
116 views

X-ray imaging - why does bone show up as white?

I'm looking at why bone shows up white on a radiograph. The only explanation I seem to get is the bone is dense and 'absorbs more x-rays'. This is all ok, but it still doesn't seem to explain why ...
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1answer
11 views

What operation is used to construct single image of dual-energy x-ray scanned object?

I know that for dual-energy x-ray screening, two different energies are used which produces two distinct images. I want to know how these images are combined to result in a single image. I know that ...
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1answer
34 views

Characteristic radiation - scattering

When an incident electron strikes an inner shell electron, I read that the incident electron is scattered and the inner shell electron is ejected. What exactly does it mean for the electron to be '...
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1answer
45 views

Understanding Bremsstrahlung

I have this problem: The Stanford Linear Accelerator can accelerate electrons to 50 GeV What is the minimum wavelength of photon it can produce by Bremsstrahlung? Is this photon still called an ...
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0answers
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Bragg diffraction form an “inclined” crystal plane: which angle to consider?

Consider Bragg diffraction form an "inclined" crystal plane (i.e. not perpendicular to the normal of the crystal). I was sure that the angle of diffraction $\theta$ in bragg's law must always be ...
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1answer
32 views

What exactly happens to other electrons during an x-ray process?

What happens to the electrons that were knocked out where do they go? What happens to the electrons in the higher orbitals that are knocked out of orbit, I am sure they release photons as well as they ...
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Comparison between X-ray diffraction and slit experiment

Most diagrams regarding X-ray diffraction suggest that after hitting an atom, X-ray would get reflected. But then the method results in an interference pattern which means X-ray get diffracted. I am ...
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1answer
71 views

Why does the nuclear charge remain the same in Moseley's law?

So Today I was taught about the Moseley's law and its relation with Bohr's formula : $$\frac{hc}{\lambda} = R \left(\frac{(Z-\sigma)^2}{n^2}-\frac{(Z-\sigma)^2}{m^2}\right)$$ My understanding is ...
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1answer
40 views

How can I tell the cubic structure of different crystals?

So I have a couple of crystals I am analysing (LiF RbCl NaCl...) and I have the x ray diffraction patterns for them. How do I determine the different structures of these crystals as I need to ...
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0answers
36 views

X-Ray Diffraction for Crystal Structures

So I was carrying out an XRD experiment and found that I only got peaks for the (2 0 0) and (4 0 0) lattice structures. I was wondering why there aren't any peaks for the (1 0 0) and (3 0 0) lattice ...
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3answers
82 views

Ray sun heating

I recently got a curious question about the sun rays. Is there a material that can absorbs most of them and turn it into pure heat? For example, we all know that dark material (black t-shirts) get ...
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1answer
46 views

Phase Retrieval and Oversampling

In signal and image processing theory, it is known that taking the Fourier transform of a zero-padded image gives the oversampled Fourier transform of the image. And that oversampling is a necessary ...
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1answer
287 views

Refraction of X-rays

According to Snell's Law, refraction occurs when an electromagnetic wave passes from one medium to another. My question is, how are x-ray images able to be produced if the x-rays refract as they pass ...
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1answer
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Actual explanation of bragg's law and diffraction

When We consider X-ray diffraction by a crystal, We account for the path difference between the rays reflected by the successive lattice planes. However, Light is scattered by the atoms on the lattice ...
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1answer
73 views

What causes Lorentzian broadening of X-ray diffraction peaks?

In X-ray diffraction, the pseudo-Voigt model is a combination of Gaussian and Lorentzian distributions, and is often used to model peaks. The form of the peak is often described as $V(x)$ = (1-$\...
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1answer
32 views

Neutron reflectivity/X-ray reflectivity vs critical angle

I am trying to write a code that calculates Neutron/X-ray reflectivity profile of a multilayered system using Parrat algorithm. I am wondering what to do for $Q$ values below the critical $Q$ edge (...
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0answers
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Why $n=1$ in Bragg' s condition?

While studying XRD pattern , most of the time we use n= 1 in the Bragg equation. Why we prefer n=1? Why don't we use n = 2 or 3 ?
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1answer
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How linearly additive are the x-ray mass attenuation coefficients for molecules?

Having a look at https://www.nist.gov/pml/x-ray-mass-attenuation-coefficients, the introduction states: For compounds and mixtures, values for $μ/ρ$ can be obtained by simple additivity, i.e., ...
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calculating lattice parameter for rhombohedral mineral

I would like to know how to calculate the lattice parameter values for rhombohedral mineral (tourmaline) from the d-spacing values produced by the diffraction pattern. Thanks, tarek
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Titanium Oxydifluoride

In the X-Ray powder diffraction study of titanium oxydifluoride the data, when indexed, gives the structure as simple cubic. Putting the titaniums at the eight corners of the unit cell gives 8 x 1/8 = ...
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2answers
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Continuous X-rays [closed]

The continuous X-ray spectrum has x-rays of widely varying frequencies. Since an E-M wave is defined by its frequency, is it possible for the X-rays coming out of heavy metals through bremsstrahlung ...
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1answer
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Which parts of the electromagnetic spectrum are difficult to image with? [closed]

Alternately stated question: What parts of the electromagnetic spectrum can't be used in traditional imaging techniques, and why not? By 'traditional' I specifically mean using a lens (or some '...
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1answer
61 views

X-ray: Observation of absorption edge [closed]

So I am working on this experiment on X-ray and kinda stuck on this last and following section. I have done the measurements and plotted the graph as required in 1. and 2. See below, However, I ...
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1answer
43 views

X-ray: Aluminium mass absorption co-efficient vs photon energy [closed]

I am doing this experiment on X-rays and I have to do this part of measuring aluminium mass absorption coefficient vs photon's energy. I have done all the work but now stuck in the last step (step 4). ...
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1answer
114 views

How would you reconstruct a CT image from two sinograms?

Say you perform a dual-energy x-ray CT scan using a high and low energy spectrum on three different materials. Since you're using two different energy levels, there will be two sinograms. But how ...
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1answer
60 views

What is the difference between dual CT and spectral CT?

I'm reading about different types of CT scans and I'm frequency seeing the words "Dual x-ray CT" and "Spectral x-ray CT" being used to describe different things but I can't find a single explanation ...
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How does a slit modify a Gaussian X-ray beam?

It is well known that the X-ray beam coming from a tube X-ray source has a Gaussian distribution in divergence. If we put a slit of 100 microns symmetrically then will the beam coming from the slit be ...
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2answers
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Why cathode rays produce visible light on hitting glass but X-rays on hitting denser material?

Why cathode rays produce visible light on hitting glass but they produce x rays on hitting denser material ? I mean what is the difference in denser atoms that cause x rays rather than visible light .
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1answer
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SAXS: Why would a second order peak behave differently than first order?

What is the significance of a second order peak in SAXS and during an assembly of nanoparticles, why would it have a different shape over time: What are factors that are unique to first or second ...
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1answer
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K alpha and K beta, which one has more energy? [closed]

I have a question regarding K-alpha and K-beta in X-rays. I examined the intensity vs. wavelength diagram and concluded that K-beta has more energy than K-alpha but K-beta is more intense. Am I ...
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1answer
224 views

Why is $K_{\alpha,3/2}$ always more intense than $K_{\alpha,1/2}$ in copper?

Consider characteristic X-ray emission from copper. The $K_{\alpha}$ line is a doublet because of the spin-orbit interaction. But why is the $K_{\alpha,3/2}$ line always more intense than the $K_{\...
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1answer
107 views

Coolidge tube and x-rays production

I have two question about the coolidge tube : 1- Why electrons emit x-rays but not other wavelengths as well ? 2-Why is the intensity of the charchterstic spectrum is higher than the bremsstrahlung ...
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0answers
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Secondary electrons in X rays excites more than ionize. Why?

In secondary electrons, it is said that electrons excite 8 times more than ionize. Only 3 eV is needed to excite and 10eV to ionize. Why is it so, as binding energy of inner shell can reach up to ...
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320 views

If the incident electron loses all of its energy in the collision with an atom,what happens to it after the collision?

I was studying the production of X-rays and there was this line that "If an electron loses all its energy in a single collision with a target atom, an x-ray photon with the maximum energy or the ...
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1answer
27 views

Using a previously determined detective quantum efficiency for a detector

I am doing a radiation damage survey on a few different materials and will need the Detective Quantum Efficiency (DQE) when calculating the dose. I will be using the same detector for each sample and ...
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0answers
45 views

Attenuation Coefficients

Should the attenuation coefficient for a material be constant? I have a graph of thickness against the natural log of transmission and the negative of the gradient is the attenuation coefficient, ...
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0answers
103 views

What is ptychography, in a nutshell?

I've heard of ptychography as an imaging technique a number of times in the past, and recently I found myself in need of a refresher on what it actually entails. Unfortunately, the Wikipedia page on ...
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1answer
383 views

Is my tritium keychain emitting significant amounts of radiation?

I recently purchased a tritium keychain, composed of a small glass vial of tritium gas partially enclosed in a stainless steel fob. Here are the Amazon links so you can see a specific example: Link ...
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253 views

Compton Scattering X-Ray Question

Question: Attempt: I need to find the theoretical peak for an 88KeV photon being back-scattered. I don't think I am understanding this question correctly.If the detector is placed 180 degrees ...
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1answer
93 views

The meaning of the attenuation coefficient (Computer Tomography)

I've been sorting out the process of detecting the signal in Computer Tomography and met a problem with undestanding of the meaning of the attenuation coefficient. Here's the pic that made me feel ...
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1answer
332 views

Continuous X-Ray spectrum, higher keV lower intensity [closed]

Why does the intensity fall with increasing x-ray energy?
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Trying to get the Signal to Noise Ratio for X-ray spectrum

I am new to this forum so forgive me if the question is too trivial. Here is the problem: I have an x-ray spectrum of a galaxy and there are some emission lines in it. All I have to do is find a ...
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1answer
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Relative intensity in powder method

I cracked KCl and made two samples. One is a fine powder, another is a coarse powder. Using these samples, diffraction intensity was measured. The results were as followed. ...
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1answer
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How to work out energy uncertainty values for an x-ray spectrometer?

I’m doing an x-ray spectroscopy experiment at university. The spectrometer consists of a copper x-ray tube, a collimator, a LiF analyser crystal and a Geiger Muller counter mounted on a goniometer, ...