Questions tagged [x-rays]

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X-rays / Gamma rays “oven” vs microwave oven

Let's imagine a seller scammed you and sold you a Gamma rays / X-rays "oven" instead of a common microwave oven. The power consumption would be the same as a common microwave oven, i.e. about 1 kW, ...
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1answer
53 views

Diffraction pattern of X-ray and electron

Electron diffraction is used to study about wave - particle duality of matter. A beam of electrons directed at a single crystal produced a diffraction pattern like an X-ray diffraction pattern. I ...
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1answer
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Origin of the energy distribution of synchrotron radiation

Is there an easy explanation why synchrotron radiation from a bending magnet (e.g. in an electron storage ring) has an energy distribution? In other words, given a specific magnet with a defined ...
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1answer
22 views

X-RAY production from Coolidge Tube

In a Coolidge tube, electrons are ejected with a Kinetic Energy. They strike the metal target and during collisions lose some part of the KE which gets emitted in the from of electromagnetic waves(...
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1answer
44 views

Is the Compton effect observed during regular x-ray diffraction?

Here we have the standard set up to observe the compton effect. From what I understand, due to the particle like nature of light, when the x ray photons collide with the electrons in the scatterer ...
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Geiger Counter vs PIN Detector

I have noticed in many papers that test Moseley's law use PIN detectors instead of Geiger counters to measure the XRF spectrums of elements. Why is that? is it because Geiger counters signal also ...
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Aren't X-rays used to 'see' bones more dangerous than UV-C rays from Sun?

I am not sure, as to how to go about this ... But I believe X-Rays are distinguished by their high frequency. Exposure to a few minutes of UV increases the risk of sunburn. (I do not want to say about ...
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1answer
53 views

Why does a single X-ray photon generate 1620 electrons when it hits CCD detector?

Fe55 is one radioactive isotope. It emits X ray photons : mainly k-alpha & k-beta lines. Why does a single X-ray photon generate 1620 electrons when it hits CCD detector ? While, in photo-...
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1answer
39 views

Why are soft x-ray images of plasmas considered to represent magnetic field line configurations?

I'm learning about plasma physics and I've seen a number of papers which state something like 'soft x-ray pictures reveal the magnetic field lines', and it is common to use a soft x-ray image of the ...
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Bremsstrahlung photon energy query

In my textbook they've defined the energy of a photon released by an electron decelerated by a nucleus to be the difference in its KE before and after being decelerated by the nucleus. However I was ...
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Focusing of a cylindrical mirror in X-ray optics

Focusing cylindrical mirror are sometimes used to squeeze a photon beam in one direction. They can be vertically focusing or horizontally focusing, and such mirrors are typically used in X-Ray optics ...
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1answer
49 views

Where is the missing energy in the Debye-Waller effect?

X-ray/neutron scattering from crystals and liquids is well-described by the scattering theory to give the (dynamic) structure factor which is a function of momentum and energy: $$S(\mathbf{k},\omega)=...
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Principle of Energy Dispersive x-ray Spectroscopy

I have a question about the EDS I don't understand how the detector can differentiate the Energy of incident x-ray simultaneously. In my thought, the emitted x-ray from the sample have different ...
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3answers
210 views

What are the factors on which wavelength of X-rays depends upon? [closed]

So the thing is that I was learning about X-rays and I came across this line that minimum wavelength of continuous X-ray spectra depends only upon Anode voltage about which I'm sceptical because $$eV=...
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1answer
41 views

Correct way to calculate HVL of a given beam (poly)

Hello I'm trying to calculate the HVL of a beam of whom I know everything but a particular filtration. At the moment I tried by inverting the formula ($I=I_0 e^{- \mu x}$), integrating over all the ...
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1answer
258 views

X-ray imaging - why does bone show up as white?

I'm looking at why bone shows up white on a radiograph. The only explanation I seem to get is the bone is dense and 'absorbs more x-rays'. This is all ok, but it still doesn't seem to explain why ...
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1answer
11 views

What operation is used to construct single image of dual-energy x-ray scanned object?

I know that for dual-energy x-ray screening, two different energies are used which produces two distinct images. I want to know how these images are combined to result in a single image. I know that ...
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1answer
35 views

Characteristic radiation - scattering

When an incident electron strikes an inner shell electron, I read that the incident electron is scattered and the inner shell electron is ejected. What exactly does it mean for the electron to be '...
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1answer
54 views

Understanding Bremsstrahlung

I have this problem: The Stanford Linear Accelerator can accelerate electrons to 50 GeV What is the minimum wavelength of photon it can produce by Bremsstrahlung? Is this photon still called an ...
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Bragg diffraction form an “inclined” crystal plane: which angle to consider?

Consider Bragg diffraction form an "inclined" crystal plane (i.e. not perpendicular to the normal of the crystal). I was sure that the angle of diffraction $\theta$ in bragg's law must always be ...
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1answer
37 views

What exactly happens to other electrons during an x-ray process?

What happens to the electrons that were knocked out where do they go? What happens to the electrons in the higher orbitals that are knocked out of orbit, I am sure they release photons as well as they ...
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1answer
180 views

Comparison between X-ray diffraction and slit experiment

Most diagrams regarding X-ray diffraction suggest that after hitting an atom, X-ray would get reflected. But then the method results in an interference pattern which means X-ray get diffracted. I am ...
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1answer
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Why does the nuclear charge remain the same in Moseley's law?

So Today I was taught about the Moseley's law and its relation with Bohr's formula : $$\frac{hc}{\lambda} = R \left(\frac{(Z-\sigma)^2}{n^2}-\frac{(Z-\sigma)^2}{m^2}\right)$$ My understanding is ...
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1answer
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How can I tell the cubic structure of different crystals?

So I have a couple of crystals I am analysing (LiF RbCl NaCl...) and I have the x ray diffraction patterns for them. How do I determine the different structures of these crystals as I need to ...
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0answers
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X-Ray Diffraction for Crystal Structures

So I was carrying out an XRD experiment and found that I only got peaks for the (2 0 0) and (4 0 0) lattice structures. I was wondering why there aren't any peaks for the (1 0 0) and (3 0 0) lattice ...
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3answers
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Ray sun heating

I recently got a curious question about the sun rays. Is there a material that can absorbs most of them and turn it into pure heat? For example, we all know that dark material (black t-shirts) get ...
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1answer
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Phase Retrieval and Oversampling

In signal and image processing theory, it is known that taking the Fourier transform of a zero-padded image gives the oversampled Fourier transform of the image. And that oversampling is a necessary ...
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1answer
500 views

Refraction of X-rays

According to Snell's Law, refraction occurs when an electromagnetic wave passes from one medium to another. My question is, how are x-ray images able to be produced if the x-rays refract as they pass ...
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1answer
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Actual explanation of bragg's law and diffraction

When We consider X-ray diffraction by a crystal, We account for the path difference between the rays reflected by the successive lattice planes. However, Light is scattered by the atoms on the lattice ...
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1answer
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What causes Lorentzian broadening of X-ray diffraction peaks?

In X-ray diffraction, the pseudo-Voigt model is a combination of Gaussian and Lorentzian distributions, and is often used to model peaks. The form of the peak is often described as $V(x)$ = (1-$\...
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1answer
46 views

Neutron reflectivity/X-ray reflectivity vs critical angle

I am trying to write a code that calculates Neutron/X-ray reflectivity profile of a multilayered system using Parrat algorithm. I am wondering what to do for $Q$ values below the critical $Q$ edge (...
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0answers
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Why $n=1$ in Bragg' s condition?

While studying XRD pattern , most of the time we use n= 1 in the Bragg equation. Why we prefer n=1? Why don't we use n = 2 or 3 ?
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1answer
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How linearly additive are the x-ray mass attenuation coefficients for molecules?

Having a look at https://www.nist.gov/pml/x-ray-mass-attenuation-coefficients, the introduction states: For compounds and mixtures, values for $μ/ρ$ can be obtained by simple additivity, i.e., ...
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Titanium Oxydifluoride

In the X-Ray powder diffraction study of titanium oxydifluoride the data, when indexed, gives the structure as simple cubic. Putting the titaniums at the eight corners of the unit cell gives 8 x 1/8 = ...
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2answers
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Continuous X-rays [closed]

The continuous X-ray spectrum has x-rays of widely varying frequencies. Since an E-M wave is characterized by its frequency, is it possible for the X-rays coming out of heavy metals due to ...
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1answer
57 views

Which parts of the electromagnetic spectrum are difficult to image with? [closed]

Alternately stated question: What parts of the electromagnetic spectrum can't be used in traditional imaging techniques, and why not? By 'traditional' I specifically mean using a lens (or some '...
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1answer
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X-ray: Observation of absorption edge [closed]

So I am working on this experiment on X-ray and kinda stuck on this last and following section. I have done the measurements and plotted the graph as required in 1. and 2. See below, However, I ...
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1answer
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X-ray: Aluminium mass absorption co-efficient vs photon energy [closed]

I am doing this experiment on X-rays and I have to do this part of measuring aluminium mass absorption coefficient vs photon's energy. I have done all the work but now stuck in the last step (step 4). ...
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1answer
117 views

How would you reconstruct a CT image from two sinograms?

Say you perform a dual-energy x-ray CT scan using a high and low energy spectrum on three different materials. Since you're using two different energy levels, there will be two sinograms. But how ...
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1answer
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What is the difference between dual CT and spectral CT?

I'm reading about different types of CT scans and I'm frequency seeing the words "Dual x-ray CT" and "Spectral x-ray CT" being used to describe different things but I can't find a single explanation ...
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How does a slit modify a Gaussian X-ray beam?

It is well known that the X-ray beam coming from a tube X-ray source has a Gaussian distribution in divergence. If we put a slit of 100 microns symmetrically then will the beam coming from the slit be ...
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2answers
170 views

Why cathode rays produce visible light on hitting glass but X-rays on hitting denser material?

Why cathode rays produce visible light on hitting glass but they produce x rays on hitting denser material ? I mean what is the difference in denser atoms that cause x rays rather than visible light .
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1answer
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SAXS: Why would a second order peak behave differently than first order?

What is the significance of a second order peak in SAXS and during an assembly of nanoparticles, why would it have a different shape over time: What are factors that are unique to first or second ...
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1answer
6k views

K alpha and K beta, which one has more energy? [closed]

I have a question regarding K-alpha and K-beta in X-rays. I examined the intensity vs. wavelength diagram and concluded that K-beta has more energy than K-alpha but K-beta is more intense. Am I ...
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1answer
280 views

Why is $K_{\alpha,3/2}$ always more intense than $K_{\alpha,1/2}$ in copper?

Consider characteristic X-ray emission from copper. The $K_{\alpha}$ line is a doublet because of the spin-orbit interaction. But why is the $K_{\alpha,3/2}$ line always more intense than the $K_{\...
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1answer
116 views

Coolidge tube and x-rays production

I have two question about the coolidge tube : 1- Why electrons emit x-rays but not other wavelengths as well ? 2-Why is the intensity of the charchterstic spectrum is higher than the bremsstrahlung ...
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0answers
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Secondary electrons in X rays excites more than ionize. Why?

In secondary electrons, it is said that electrons excite 8 times more than ionize. Only 3 eV is needed to excite and 10eV to ionize. Why is it so, as binding energy of inner shell can reach up to ...
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1answer
390 views

If the incident electron loses all of its energy in the collision with an atom,what happens to it after the collision?

I was studying the production of X-rays and there was this line that "If an electron loses all its energy in a single collision with a target atom, an x-ray photon with the maximum energy or the ...
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1answer
30 views

Using a previously determined detective quantum efficiency for a detector

I am doing a radiation damage survey on a few different materials and will need the Detective Quantum Efficiency (DQE) when calculating the dose. I will be using the same detector for each sample and ...
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1answer
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What is ptychography, in a nutshell?

I've heard of ptychography as an imaging technique a number of times in the past, and recently I found myself in need of a refresher on what it actually entails. Unfortunately, the Wikipedia page on ...