Questions tagged [x-rays]

Use this tag for question related to X-rays which are a form of high energy electromagnetic radiation having wavelength ranging from 0.1 to 10 nanometres. Also referred to as Röntgen radiation after the scientist who discovered it. X-rays have a range of application including medical CT, airport security, astronomy, crystallography, etc. Different applications use different parts of the X-ray spectrum.

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How do I differentiate $K_\alpha$ from $L_\alpha$ transitions of X-ray emissions?

If I shine an electron beam in a sample and it returns, for an example, an X-ray wavelength compatible with both $K_\alpha$ of copper and $L_\alpha$ of hafnium. How can I tell the difference between ...
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Nomenclature of X-ray transitions-Siegbahn Notation

A colleague wanted to understand the notation for X-ray transitions. The main query is about the labeling of alpha, beta and gamma, with K, L, M etc. What is the main distinguishing criterion to label ...
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Why do high energy waves e.g. X-rays get refracted very little?

Correct me if I am wrong but since refractive index is directly proportional to frequency, this would mean that higher frequencies would have higher refractive indexes i.e should bend more but i have ...
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Phase shift in Thomson scattering of electromagnetic radiation from a positron

We know that in Thomson scattering of electromagnetic radiation, the phase shift of the scattered radiation from the incident radiation is $\pi$. Is this phase shift coming because of negative charge ...
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Can X-ray diffraction be applied to liquids, gasses or non-crystalline materials?

I learned that X-ray diffraction happens due to the periodic arrangement of atoms in a crystalline material, so can X-ray diffraction studies be done on liquids and non-crystalline materials ?
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Modeling X-ray beam using mass attenuation coefficient and its parts, in particular coherent and incoherent scatter

I understand that when X-rays pass through matter they interact in various ways, photoelectric, Compton, etc, which attenuate the beam. I am just slightly confused when it comes to coherent and ...
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Ultrasonic vs x-ray (for medical applications)

What are the differences between using x-rays and ultrasounds for medical diagnosis? From a physical point of view I am aware that x-rays are able to reach deeper into the material - but I think this ...
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64 views

Minimum wavelength observed in the emission of X-rays in a X-Ray tube

In the book on Quantum physics written by Robert Resnik, there is a mention of the Bremsstrahlung radiation and a calculation regarding the minimum wavelength associated with the radiation spectrum ...
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Kinematic theory and dynamical theory of x-ray (or electron) diffraction. Why such names are given?

Kinematic theory and dynamical theory of x-ray (or electron) diffraction. Why such names are given to scattering theories ? Does it have any connection to Kinematics (of Galileo) and Dynamics (of ...
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What effect does surface have on light absorption at different wavelengths?

I am a bit confused and need a well rounded explanation. Have a look at two scenarios: A metal plate with small scratches on it appears diffuse in the optical spectrum, because the roughness reflects ...
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In the generation of X-Rays, why the incoming electron generated from anode knocks out the K shell electron rather than outer shell electrons?

When the high energy beam of particles or photon hits the cathode, electrons from $K$ shell are knocked in the generation of characteristic x-rays. Why do inner electrons get knocked out?
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What exactly is the science behind the detection of Cosmic Gamma-rays?

As far as I know the basic principle used by telescopes to detect Gamma-rays is through Compton scattering. This does explain the science behind Detection of gamma-rays through compton scattering but ...
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What's the difference between Hard X-rays and Gamma-rays?

So I'm aware of this and this, but the question is Are Hard X-rays and Gamma-rays the same thing? If not, then what would be the key difference between them. Moreover, How much would the properties of ...
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Determining the size of a light source

I have an incoherent light source that is of unknown size, and I was wondering about the possible methods to measure its size. The issue is that I am expecting it to be very small (few micrometers), ...
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What rules govern the absorption of photons by electrons when the photons exceed the work function of the material?

I am currently watching a series of lectures on Nuclear Physics. One of the topics covered is the emission and absorption of X-Rays. This got me thinking about some of the physical chemistry I took as ...
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Are there solid-state devices that can produce x-rays?

Recently, I noticed that most devices that produce X-rays are somewhat 'crude'. It is usual for these devices to either heat something up to the point where the bremsstrahlung is in the X-ray region - ...
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Do terms like 'radiowave', 'ultraviolet', 'X-ray' mean the same thing in matter vs in vacuum/air?

I usually use terms like 'radiowave', 'microwave', 'X-ray', etc. to refer to ranges of electromagnetic (EM) frequencies ($f=2\pi/\omega$) or wavelengths ($\lambda = 2\pi/k$) in air or in a vacuum, ...
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X-ray image of the Earth

Since the Sun emits X-rays, what would happen if we had a hypothetically planet sized x-ray film and exposed it behind the earth? I understand we wouldn't be able to see the insides of the earth, but ...
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Why X-ray and radio waves can penetrate walls but light can not? [duplicate]

Why can visible light, which lies in the middle between X-ray and radio waves in terms of frequency/energy, not penetrate walls?
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X ray diffraction and the band theory

I was look around stack exchange and couldn't find a good answer to this: What is the relation of the band theory of solids and the X-ray diffraction? We know that it EM wave is scattered (the process ...
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Is the Crookes tube with Maltese cross (cathode rays) safe in terms of produced X rays at 5-10kV DC (1–10mA) during, say, 15 seconds of work?

I would like to get some information on the operational safety of this equipment. How much, approximately (just the order of magnitude) does the school Crookes tube with the Maltese cross, used to ...
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28 views

Expression for differential solid angle in terms of wave vector?

I have been reading this book " High resolution x-ray scattering from thin films to lateral nano structures " by Pietsch et.al. In the last line of page number $63$ the author replaces the ...
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Discharge tube phenomena

Why does Faraday dark space happen in discharge tube? Must we use flourescent to see cathode ray (electron) in vacuum tube? Why in some pressure there will be an anode ray ? I know in vacuum and ...
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Can we measure the norm square of a wave function from a single atom using ultra short - ultra bright x-ray pulses

X-ray light sources at x-ray free electron laser labs have $\approx 10^{13}$ photons in a single pulse. Assuming one could make the pulse extremely short (100 Atto seconds or less) and very focused. ...
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Photon scattering final state

I'm looking through the linked paper on x-ray scattering. The Section $5$ says that the expression $(67)$ (which contains an error but the editor mentions the correct variant at the beginning of the ...
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Why we do not consider electrostatic potential in continuous x ray production?

Why we don't consider electrostatic potential in continuous X-ray production?In almost every Book I see they say that by energy conservation, maximum energy X-ray that could be emitted is $$eV=hυ$$(υ ...
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Metal, X-Ray, Gamma-ray

As I know, all metals absorb x-ray and gamma radiation. Also, as I know, all rays are converted into any energy. In this case, I mean warmth. For example, an x-ray is absorbed by metal, then metal ...
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Angular distribution formula & Poynting's vector

I'm looking for a derivation of the Angular distribution formula of the "Bremsstrahlung" for radiated power as a function of angle (Bremsstrahlung is german for "deceleration radiation"): $${\...
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How Do You Find $K_\beta$ X-Ray Energy?

I know you can use Moseley's law to calculate $K_\alpha$ X-ray energy. Can this law be used to calculate the $K_\beta$ energy? $$ \Delta E = (-13.6eV)(Z-1)^2\left(\frac{1}{n_{1}^2}-\frac{1}{n_{2}^2}\...
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Seccond continuous curve in the spectrum of an x-ray tube

In the diagram, you can see the spectrum of a x-ray tube, that I measured in an experiment. You can clearly see the continuous curve caused by bremsstrahlung and some characteristic spikes of the ...
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The Peak of The X-Ray Bremsstrahlung Wavelength Curve

This is probably not restricted to only Bremsstrahlung curves but other distribution curves as well. Is the peak the mode or mean wavelength produced? And more importantly why is approximately $1/3$ ...
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Is Scherrer equation applicable in low energy electron diffraction?

Scherrer equation is applicable in X-ray diffraction. What about low energy electron diffraction (LEED)?
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How far can an x-ray travel through water?

I am studying x-ray's and how they interact with different mediums, but I am a bit confused on the distances an x-ray can travel through different mediums such as water. Let's take an x-ray with 3 ...
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Atom-electron interaction in an x ray tube

My question has to do with the absorption of an electron by an atom. When an electron approaches the atom there are two possibilities. Either the electron will do a "slingshot" around the nucleus (...
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X-Ray Diffraction

In X-ray diffraction when we accelerate the electron with some potential say $V$ and make collision with plate that produces $X-$ray (frequency $\nu$). $$h\nu_{max}=eV$$ But as we know that the ...
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Dose calculation of X-Ray tubes

I am working on a X ray tube project and I want to calculate approximate dose. Do you know any equation ? I have found one on internet but I think this is wrong: $$D=g\cdot kV^2\cdot \dfrac{mAs}{d^...
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Is there a way to analyze the elements in a material from a satellite?

There are means to analyze elements in a specimen in a laboratory, such as XRF and PIXE. My question is this - is there a way to analyze elements in a specimen from a satellite? Edit: to clarify, I'...
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X-Ray simulation software suggestions

Asking here as a 'specialist' location, as opposed to the regular 'software suggestion'. I am looking to find a way to generate synthetic x-rays of a 3D model. The closest I've found (Free) was http:/...
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Is it possible to converting electromagnetic waves to each other?

For example I have a source that emits X-Rays, is it possible to turning them into visible light or micro waves with the same energy as it was xray (I mean, can I change the frequency or the ...
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Determining If A Test Article Is Suitable For X RAY Following Shock Testing?

NOTE: Cross-posted this in Engineering stack exchange. I am interested in putting a small (3"x3"x2") assembly under X-ray, following a shock test, in order to evaluate failures of an internal ceramic ...
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Can a hydrogen atom emit characteristic X-ray?

Is it not possible that incoming electron excite the hydrogen atom and then when it de-excites it releases radiation? Here please don't answer no because hydrogen is light. My actual query is can ...
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How can we differentiate different parallel planes with the same Miller indices?

How can we distinguish different parallel planes with the same Miller indices not by graph and just with the numbers?
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Why x-ray diffraction occur only in forward direction?

When x-ray falls on an atom,the atom scatters it in all 4pi solid angles. In case of a crystal also the atoms sitting in different planes scatter light in all 4pi direction. But when it comes to Bragg ...
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How to determine interplanar spacing for BCC/FCC crystals?

I have a query as to how interplanar spacing in fcc and bcc can be determined. In line with the known formula, $$d_{hkl} = \frac{a}{\sqrt{h^2+k^2+l^2}}$$ for a crystal with Miller indices (1 1 0), ...
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Is wavelength expressed in astronomical unit?

i have a question! is wavelength expressed in astronomical unit? I know that it is possible to express it, but is it done in books or questions?
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Is there any full Compton scattering experiment done with x-ray since 1923?

The original paper of A.H.Compton 1923 did not provide data of a full experiment; he provided 3 points. Was his result corroborated by others? Can someone provide a real full set of data for Compton ...
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Energy absorbed by a medium if X-rays pass through it

Obviously light-matter interactions are extremely complicated, but I’m trying to get a general estimate. Say I have a beam of X-rays, passing through a medium - say water - of a finite thickness and ...
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Soft X-rays and Hard X-rays

How to know how much of kilovolts are in soft X-rays, and in hard X-rays? (Ex: 80kV is in soft X-rays or hard X-rays?
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X-ray imaging of coconut [closed]

I'm doing the X-ray imaging of a coconut with soft X-rays. But the images have no contrast between the rice and water inside the coconut. How can I adjust the parameters to see this contrast inside ...
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X-rays / Gamma rays “oven” vs microwave oven

Let's imagine a seller scammed you and sold you a Gamma rays / X-rays "oven" instead of a common microwave oven. The power consumption would be the same as a common microwave oven, i.e. about 1 kW, ...

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