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Questions tagged [x-rays]

Use this tag for question related to X-rays which are a form of high energy electromagnetic radiation having wavelength ranging from 0.1 to 10 nanometres. Also referred to as Röntgen radiation after the scientist who discovered it. X-rays have a range of application including medical CT, airport security, astronomy, crystallography, etc. Different applications use different parts of the X-ray spectrum.

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How is the number of charge carriers set free in an x-ray detector proportional to the energy of the incoming photon?

I'm a chemistry undergrad student and I've been doing some research into the ways light is generated and detected at different parts of the spectrum (for the purposes of better understanding practical ...
user3499799's user avatar
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Max. energy of X-rays produced in an X-ray tube if 99% of the electrons' KE is thermally dissipated

(I think this question may be what the 'no homework merchant' meant to ask here.) I was working through a question that asked me to find the maximum energy produced from an X-ray tube with ...
Anis Manuchehri-Ramirez's user avatar
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Would we be able to see the superposition of two X-rays where the frequency of the modulation matches visible light?

Suppose I had the superposition of two electromagnetic waves whose angular frequency was in the X-ray region. Together they form a composite made of a carrier wave and a modulation wave where the ...
Hadi Khan's user avatar
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Can X-rays compress plasma for fusion?

I know in ICF fusion, generally lasers are used to generate X-rays inside a holhraum to compress a duetirium tritium fuel pellet until it generates fusion reactions. I was wondering if the same ...
Barry Allen 's user avatar
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Going from a photon flux to a photon flux after a slit (partial photon flux)

Thanks to the help of someone here and others a few weeks ago (who referred me to the Jackson), I have managed to express the flux of a bending magnet like so: $\frac{d_N}{\frac{d\omega}{\omega}} = \...
sokse's user avatar
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Why escape peak positions are calculated using emission energy and not absorbing energy?

For a X-ray monocromatic source, escape peaks energy positions are described by the difference between the incident energy and the fluorescence ($K_{\alpha}$ for example), like $E_{Escape Peak} = E_0 -...
xor's user avatar
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Expressing synchrotron radiation, bending magnet flux

In chapter 14 of Jackson the number of photons per unit frequency interval is given by: How can I go from $\frac{photons}{d \omega}$ to a flux expressed in photons per second per 0.1% bandwith $\frac{...
sokse's user avatar
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What physical processes are involved in causing the Voigt profile in X-ray diffraction

I understand qualitatively that a Voigt profile combines both Gaussian and Lorentzian profiles which is a suitable method for plotting an X-ray diffraction pattern. Which physical processes lead to ...
Exterminator2004's user avatar
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2 answers
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What's the difference between the different kinds of EM waves?

I am an A-level student. We have traditionally been taught that different types of EM waves exist only between certain ranges of wavelengths and frequencies. However, I learned that electromagnetic ...
Haram Tanveer's user avatar
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Why does a CT scan with contrast make you feel warm?

I recently had a CT scan with IV contrast liquid. I was warned it might make me feel warm and that this is normal. I had an amazing sensation of heat moving down my body. All my searches tell me that ...
Skrrp's user avatar
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Why aren't we seeing $\Delta n = 0$ transitions in the spectrum of an X-ray-tube?

Well basically title. The characteristic / discrete radiation from an x-ray tube comes from electrons falling down into a vacancy which was created by an incoming electron from the acceleration ...
Zedssad's user avatar
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Small-Angle X-Ray Scattering of Bulk Polymers

Does anyone have any recommendations on how to get useful information from SAXS of polymers when the system is not dilute? This is the type of data we're working with: My understanding is that since ...
polythenesam's user avatar
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Could an x-ray tube be made to emit other kinds of EM radiation?

If the accelerating voltage of an x-ray tube is greatly reduced, could it be made to emit photons of lower energy (UV or visible)?
adrian's user avatar
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When K-shell X-ray is emitted, how the vacancy in the L-shell are filled?

When there is a vacancy in the K-shell because of electron capture or incoming energy, an electron in the higher energy level will fill the vacancy and emit a characteristic X-ray. However, I think ...
siron's user avatar
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Causes of diamond shaped gaps PET image

I'm a math student, and I'm studying about inverse problems in specific reconstruction of PET images, but I have a problem understanding some things. Some sinograms have black diagonal lines, after ...
matdlara's user avatar
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How to typeset "$\rm kVp$" (kilovolt-peak) in CT physics?

I'm not a radiation physicist. Kilovolt-peak appears to be used as a unit, with descriptions such as "80 kVp". Should this be typeset as a single unit written "Vp", similar to e.g. ...
Anna's user avatar
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How to practically generate longitudinal waves in a plasma

It can be read almost everywhere that plasma is the best convertor of transverse waves to longitudinal waves. I'm not much interested in the theory here. Rather, I would like to know how to do it in a ...
MikeTeX's user avatar
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What is the wavelength range of X-rays?

I was reading and came across the following paragraph The X-rays thus produced by many electrons make up the continuous spectrum of Figure 2-10 and are very many discrete photons whose wavelengths ...
Jack's user avatar
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Extremely strong peak around 10 eV energy of Aluminum crystal in an x-ray inelastic scattering experiment

I conducted an experiment where I measured Bragg reflection for two different atomic planes (200 and 400) of Aluminum crystal at an energy of 10 KeV. Then, in each of these two measurements I shifted ...
cheers's user avatar
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If voltage of x-rays is doubled then intensity of X-rays will be?

My text book says it will remain unchanged because intensity of x-rays depends upon the current and number of electron. If this is true we can also say, the current depends upon voltage. So, why we ...
Amrit Pant's user avatar
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How to calculate or estimate an energy deposition inside $\rm BeO$?

I wonder how one could or would calculate the energy deposition inside e.g. $\rm BeO$. To simplify the radiation source shall be a photon with 160 keV and $\rm BeO$ is 0.5 mm thick and 1 mm² wide.
Ben's user avatar
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Finding the Bremsstrahlung in diffraction patterns of NaCl

I recently got the chance to measure the diffraction pattern of a NaCl crystal using the Bragg-Brentano method. I can see the peaks caused by the characteristic lines of the used X-ray tube (in this ...
Space junk's user avatar
2 votes
1 answer
130 views

What's the difference between X-ray crystallography and X-ray spectroscopy?

From my understanding, further evidence for the structures of molecules can be obtained from single crystal X-ray crystallography which involved irradiating a crystal with X-rays and looking at the ...
Don Aborah's user avatar
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Fowler-Nordheim tunneling following high voltage and voltage breakdowns in X-ray tubes

I am taking some measurements concerning a vacuum based X-ray tube. One has to ramp up the voltage slowly in a process called conditioning of the tube. Without allowing a current to flow along the ...
user996159's user avatar
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Solid state X-ray detector response to environmental background & cosmic radiation

I would like to know what exactly is the "ticking" sound produced when using solid state Unfors Survey detector, i.e., when it is connected to its Xi Base unit and turned "ON" in ...
Roadschollar50's user avatar
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Bremsstrahlung x-ray appears due to energy conservation?

Consider an electron that is launched towards an atomic nucleus. As the electron gets closer to the nucleus, the electric potential energy between these particles changes, it decreases. According to ...
In the blind's user avatar
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Debye-Waller Factor in the case of isotropic fluctuations

I am reading through Girvin & Yang Ch. 6 (pg. 91), they mention that the Debye-Waller factor $$-2\Gamma(\vec{q})=-\langle\langle(\vec{q}\cdot\vec{u}_j)^2\rangle\rangle$$ (where the positions of ...
umklapp's user avatar
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Adjectives regarding interfaces

I'm studying X-Ray reflectivity at interfaces and the book I'm reading reads: ... The ideally flat, but graded interface, and the ideally sharp, but roughened interface, will be considered... I'm ...
chemdamned's user avatar
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X-ray unit analysis

A survey meter is used to measure X-ray scatter radiation coming through a wall from an adjacent X-ray room. During the test X-ray pulse, the survey meter simultaneously meassures the “accumulated ...
Roadschollar50's user avatar
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Kramer's Equation at max Energy for photons is giving Intensity = 0, how is this possibe?

IE = KZ(Em – E) where IE is the intensity of photons with energy E, Z is the atomic number of the target, Em is the maximum photon energy, and K is a constant. As pointed out earlier, the maximum ...
medical physics's user avatar
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When X-ray produced why 99% of the energy is in the form of heat and 1% in the form of X-rays. Why it it not more then that?

When the electrons hit the anode in an X-ray tube, 99% of their energy is released in the form of heat and 1% of that energy is X-rays. Why it is only 1% and not 2% or 3%?
HRISHIKESH BHAGABATI's user avatar
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2 answers
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Is it possible for microwave beam to pass through non-metalic materials?

Greetings fellow physicists. I have some questions about the ability of different electromagnetic waves to pass through materials that I hope you can clarify. It seems that microwaves can go through ...
Hooman Puyandeh's user avatar
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Are their pairs of Nuclear Isobars that differ in energy by less then the Lighter Nuclides Characteristic X-ray?

Isobars are atoms (nuclides) of different chemical elements that have the same number of nucleons. According to the https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mattauch_isobar_rule if you have two adjacent elements ...
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Gamma Spectroscopy Scintillator for X-ray Fluorescence

I have been reading into X-ray and gamma spectroscopy. I have found that they can both be done with scintillation detectors and work off similar principles. That is to say that when a sample is ...
import_hill's user avatar
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Gamma and X-Ray Shielding with Photoelectric Effect

The photoelectric effect is most probably seen when the incoming light has lower energy than the energy needed for both Compton scattering and pair production to happen. The probability of the ...
medical physics's user avatar
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What's the maximum thrust-to-power ratio of the most possibly powerful absorbed x-ray?

What's the maximum thrust-to-power ratio of the most possibly powerful absorbed x-ray? In Newtons per watt..
James's user avatar
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Energy of an x-ray generated by cathode ray

I'm trying to understand if I could capture the event of generation of an electron positron pair from a gamma ray inside a cloud chamber. So far I've been thinking of using a cathode ray tube as a ...
Luke__'s user avatar
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1 vote
1 answer
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Cherenkov radiation in glass via electron tube?

Recently I was experimenting with an vacuum tube attached to a wimshurst machine and measuring the X-Rays emissions. While doing so, I noticed the the surface of the tube began to glow blue in some ...
AcademicPlum30's user avatar
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Governing equation for white X-ray emission spectra and relation to the BB spectra

The white x-ray spectra (bremsstrahlung radiation) when plotted for different incident electron energies in the same graph, looks very similar to the Black-body radiation curve except for starting ...
Shikhar Chamoli's user avatar
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How would we create a device to detect communication using the x-ray and gamma bandwidth? Like a radio. But x-ray gamma spectrum [closed]

I realize the dipole would have to be small enough (in the nucleus of an atom range) and we don't have any mechanism that is small enough to demodulate the frequencies at this rate. But is there some ...
ZiiZii's user avatar
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1 vote
2 answers
336 views

Why are CT scans much smaller than the raw data?

I'm not too familiar with CT, but I worked with medical CT images long ago, and recall that the raw data, recorded by the scanner was way bigger than the 3D image itself (Both were 16-bit TIFF files, ...
MWB's user avatar
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Why is Aluminium and Magnesium used as anodes in X-ray sources for X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS)?

Is there any particular reason for using Al/Mg Kα rays in X-Ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy? I read that the energy of the X-Rays produced by taking these elements as the anode materials can decrease ...
Jitin Sathish Kumar's user avatar
1 vote
1 answer
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Luminescence vs. X-ray emission

When a target atom is struck by some kind of radiation (for example, a $\text{MeV}$ proton), electrons from lower shells are kicked off and replaced by electrons from higher shells, which in return ...
Jakov's user avatar
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How to calculate the resolution of spectrometer at the emission edge of a metal in x-ray emission?

I wonder how I can calculate the resolution of the spectrometer from the Al L2,3 X-ray emission edge, and why this method is used to determine the resolution.
chameleon's user avatar
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Why are characteristic X-rays produced in greater numbers than bremsstrahlung rays?

In a typical X-ray spectrum we can observe that characteristic X-rays occur in noticeably larger numbers compared to other energies. Characteristic emission is a separate phenomenon from ...
In the blind's user avatar
2 votes
2 answers
88 views

How the braking radiation fit into the photon picture of light?

The continuous part of the x ray spectrum is due the deceleration of electrons. I know that a decelerating charged particle emits a braking radiation according the EM theory. However, what's in the ...
Jack's user avatar
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How to convert bandwidth from wavelength to energy?

I have an x-ray emission spectrum obtained using wavelength dispersive spectroscopy (WDS), the spectrum gives us the number of counts (intensity) as a function of wavelength. I measured the bandwidth (...
chameleon's user avatar
4 votes
1 answer
221 views

Recombination of protons in solar wind

All accounts of solar wind I have seen (I am no expert in the topic), seem to refer to it being everywhere a plasma (mainly composed of protons/electrons). For example, I have seen statements about ...
oliver's user avatar
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How does CT imaging deal with the thickness of materials?

In the medical CT imaging field, image of an inspected object is obtained through xray projection. xray is attenuated by the inspected object through the formula $I=I_0e^{-\mu t}$. The projection $p$ ...
Winston Pan's user avatar
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What is the mass absorption coefficient and how it is determined?

I would like to know what is mass absorption coefficient in the field of x-ray spectroscopy means and how can we determine this value experimentally (or by simulation) and also why for some materials ...
chameleon's user avatar

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