Questions tagged [wick-theorem]

A combinatoric procedure in QFT of reducing arbitrary products of creation and annihilation operators to sums of products of pairs of these operators. A string of such operators is rewritten as the normal-ordered product of the string, plus the normal-ordered product after all single contractions among operator pairs, plus all double contractions, etc., plus all full contractions.

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Different consequences of Wick's theorem in fermionic and bosonic condensed matter systems

Based on Wick's theorem, the time-ordered product of operators can be written as a sum of normal-ordered product and products involving all types of contractions. Upon taking the ground state ...
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Proof of Wicks Theorem, 3 Fields

The problem statement, all variables and given/known data Question attached: Relevant equations Using the result from two fields that $ T(\phi(x) \phi(y))= : \phi(x) \phi(y) : + G(x-y)$ Where $G(...
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Normal order vs Time order for fermions

For a conformal field $X$, Polchinski gives a relation between the time ordering $T$ (or equivalently the radial ordering ${\cal R}$) of a functional of identical fields and the normal ordering, which ...
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Calculating vertex factor for scalar field theory

I am practising basic QFT and am having some trouble with calculating the vertex factor of an interacting theory involving two real scalar fields, $\phi_{1}$ and $\phi_{2}$. If I create a generic ...
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How to use Wick's theorem to compute this matrix element?

I wanted to see how to use Wick's theorem in practice (I know with Feynman diagrams it is better, but here I want to do this with Wick's theorem only), so I considered computing the matrix element for ...
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Appending a Noether current to a Feynman rule

Background Typically in QFT one derives the Feynman rules by differentiating certain terms in the Lagrangian w.r.t the relevant fields. So for instance if our term is $\mathscr{L} =\phi_1\phi_2\phi_{\...
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Actually calculating something using Wick's Theorem

I am still struggling to get my head around QFT and whilst I think I understand the method of generating functionals to compute correlation functions (as in my question here), my course notes often ...
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Normal ordering of the commutator between annihilation and creation operator

According to the commutation relation of annihilation and creation operators, $$[a,a^{\dagger}]=1. \tag{1}$$ I would like to calculate the vacuum expectation value of the normal order of this ...
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Wick's Theorem for Calculating the Vacuum Functional

The vacuum functional of a theory of free fermions is the overlap between the bare vacuum and the interacting vacuum (i.e. the true groundstate of the Hamiltonian). If the theory preserves particle ...
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Symmetry factor for 1PI Feynman diagrams in $\phi^4$ theory

I am trying to understand the various factors that the Feynman amplitude will carry corresponding to the Feynman diagrams of Fig. 1 of this reference. I understand that the $n^{th}$ diagram containing ...
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Wick theorem and OPE

I'm trying to work out in detail how the Wick theorem is used for constructing OPEs in CFT. One of the first things which bothers me is the difference in definitions of normal ordered product and ...
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OPE of normal ordered operators

In what follows I use $\mathcal{N}\{\ldots\}$ for normal ordering, $\langle\ldots\rangle$ for contraction and $\operatorname{Reg}\{\ldots\}$ for the complete sequence of regular terms which is ...
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OPE of Lorentz current with tachyon vertex

This is a question related to chapter 2 in Polchinski's string theory book. On page 43 Polchinski calculates the Noether current from spacetime translations and then calculates its OPE with the ...
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Does Wick's theorem still work for derivative fields

I am wondering if Wick's theorem still is useful for something like $$\langle0|T\ \partial\psi(x)\partial\psi(y)...\partial\psi(w)|0\rangle$$ can I say this things equals to all possible ...
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Normal Order of Normal Order

in first volume of Polchinski page 39 we can read a compact formula to perform normal-order for bosonic fields $$ :\cal F:=\underbrace{\exp\left\{\frac{α'}{4}∫\mathrm{d}^2z\mathrm{d}^2w\log|z-w|^2\...
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Wick's Theorem for Yukawa Theory

I'm studying Quantum Field Theory and encountered Wick's theorem: for the real Klein Gordon field $\phi(x)$, one has $$ T(\phi(x_1)\cdots\phi(x_n)) = N(\phi(x_1)\cdots\phi(x_n) + \text{ all possible ...
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Symmetry factor via Wick's theorem

Consider the lagrangian of the real scalar field given by $$\mathcal L = \frac{1}{2} (\partial \phi)^2 - \frac{1}{2} m^2 \phi^2 - \frac{\lambda}{4!} \phi^4$$ Disregarding snail contributions, the ...
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Proof of Wick's theorem

I'm tackling proof of Wick's theorem. By induction. Let us suppose we have already proved $$ C_2 \cdots C_n = N(C_2 \cdots C_n + (\text{all possible contractions}) ) \quad (C_i=a\,\, \text{(...
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Wick theorem on correlator in quantum mechanics

I have an exercise to calculate the following one dimensional integral explicitly using the Wick theorem: $$<q(t_1)q(t_2)q(t_3)q(t_4)q(t_5)q(t_6)>=\frac{\int Dq q(t_1)q(t_2)q(t_3)q(t_4)q(t_5)q(...
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Application of Wick's theorem

I have the following expectation value in a free theory for $N$ real massless scalar fields $ \phi^i $: $$ \langle \phi^i\phi^i(x)\phi^j\phi^j(y)\rangle = 2N[G(x-y)]^2, \tag{2.11}$$ cf. arXiv:1404....
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Is this time ordering correct?

Suppose we have a current $J_\mu(0)$ and some (say scalar) fields $\phi(x)\psi(x)\chi(x)$. Suppose also that we don't know the commutation relations between the current and the other fields. Isn't it ...
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Wick contractions with respect to an arbitrary state

I've been working through the following set of slides related to Wick's theorem: http://www.euroschoolonexoticbeams.be/site/files/2008_JDobaczewski_lecture.pdf From slide 19 onwards the following is ...
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Truncation of the product of operators

Given that the operators $A,B $ and $C$ commute with each other, how can we justify the following approximations: $<ABC> ≈ <A><BC> + <AB><C> + <AC><B>$ - 2$&...
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A problem related to Wick's theorem from RG analysis of KT transition

Recently, I was reading a review paper by John B. Kogut An introduction to lattice gauge theory and spin systems, when he was doing the RG analysis for the X-Y model, on page 702, to go from (7.61a) ...
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Meaning of approximation $\cos(\phi)=\frac{\phi^2}{2}\mathrm{e}^{-\frac{1}{2}\langle{\phi^2}\rangle}$ in a field theory?

In Appendix E.1 (linking to a pdf) of Giamarchi's book "Quantum physics in one dimension", when deriving renormalization group equations (irrelevant to this question at all), formula (E.18) is used to ...
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Normal Order in Free Boson Vertex Operator

In string theory, if we consider the CFT of a free boson $X$ and consider the (momentum) vertex operator: $$V_k(z_1,z_2)=:e^{ikX(z,\bar{z})}:$$ Then we have the OPE: $$:e^{ik_1 X(z_1,\bar{z_1})}::e^...
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Quantum Operators: An Identity

I came across the following neat property: For an operator $\hat{A}$ which is a linear combination of creation and annihilation operators, we have: $$ \langle e^{\hat{A}} \rangle = e^{\langle \...
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Wick renormalization

I'm trying to understand the Wick renormalization in the framework of the Ito integral. I saw the Wick theorem as presented on Wikipedia in a QFT course and I would like to understand how that is ...
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Stratonovich integral in quantum field theory

I'm reading a paper on Wick renormalization and there are a couple of things that are not that clear to me. The paper ends with the following sentence: In Euclidean quantum field theory, the ...
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Why is Wick contraction a $c$-number?

It is mentioned in Fetter's Quantum Theory of Many-Particle Systems (in contraction part of section 8 Wick's Theorem), that: contractions are c numbers in the occupation-number Hilbert space, not ...
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Wick's theorem and transverse field Ising model

I am trying to understand calculation of correlation function in the ground state of the Transverse Field Ising model, from the following book, which is freely available: http://link.springer.com/book/...
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Help with two dimensional polar axis Fourier transform

This is a problem that I met in real-life physics research. This question is related to Wick's theorem. The question is: 1. In two dimensional plane with polar axis, why do we have the following ...
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Time-ordered product of two normal-ordered products of fields

Suppose you have a scalar field theory with field operators $\phi(x)=\phi(x)_+ + \phi(x)_- $ that can be decomposed into terms of annihilation and destruction operators. Let $$ D(x-y) = <0|T(\phi(...
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Wick contraction in proton-pion production

Proton-pion production $\gamma + p \rightarrow \pi^0 + p$ occurs through the interaction hamiltonian $$\mathcal H_{int} = ig \bar \psi^{(p)} \gamma_5 \psi^{(p)} \phi + e \bar \psi^{(p)} \gamma_{\mu} \...
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Feynman Propagator in Peskin & Schroeder

To prove Wick's Theorem, Peskin & Schroeder define the contraction of two fields: \begin{align} \text{Contract}[\phi(x)\phi(y)]\equiv \begin{cases} [\phi^+(x),\phi^-(y)] & \text{for }x^0>y^...
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Obtaining the $s,t,u$ Feynman diagrams by Wick contraction

Consider a real scalar field described through the following lagrangian $$\mathcal L = \frac{1}{2} \partial_{\mu} \phi \partial^{\mu} \phi - \frac{1}{2}m^2 \phi^2 - \frac{g}{3!}\phi^3$$ The second ...
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Normal ordering in string theory: Polchinski vs. all others

Polchinski defines normal ordering in string theory as: $$:X^\mu(z,\bar z)X^\nu(w,\bar w): = X^\mu(z,\bar z) X^\nu(w, \bar w) + \frac{\alpha'}{2} \eta^{\mu\nu} \log |z-w|^2$$ and for more ...
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Time ordering of normal ordered product

I would like to calculate $$<0|T(:x^4::y^4:)|0>$$ for scalar fields $x$, $y$ "by hand", but I don't understand yet how. With Wicks theorem I'd say this is strictly 0. Is this correct? By hand I ...
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Central charge in energy-momentum tensor OPE

I think that general point of view about central charge in books is considering OPE $T(z) T(w)$ for different field theories and finding that general expression for the most singular term is about to ...
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Operator Product Expansion

I wonder why in OPE in CFT terms like $$ \frac{:O(z) O(w):}{(z-w)^2} $$ occur, for example in the OPE of Energy-momentum tensor with itself: $$T(z) T(w) = \frac{c/2}{(z-w)^4} + \frac{T(z)}{(z-w)^2} ...
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Linear Dilaton CFT

I´m doing the exercises on the Tong lectures of String Theory, in particular Problem Sheet 2: Consider the tensor: $T(z) = \frac{-1}{\alpha '} :\partial X(z) \partial X(z): - Q \partial^2 X$. By ...
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Wick Theorem, ordering & CFT

I'm having a little trouble with correlation functions wick theorem and ordering in the context of OPE and CFT, for string theory. (1) My first question, the propagator is: $$<X(z) X(w)> = \...
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Free Vacuum vs Interacting Vacuum and Wick's theorem

I'm studying perturbation theory in QFT and I stumbled on a conceptual problem. My understanding of the interplay between LSZ reduction formula and the Gell-Mann & Low perturbation series is that:...
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Can I Wick-contract terms with derivatives with terms without derivatives?

Consider for example the QCD three point vertex, can I contract a gluon field with the gluon field with a derivative in the vertex?
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Correlator $bc$ system [closed]

I have da doubt with bc system. Polchinski says (2.5.10) $$ b(z)b(0)~=~O(z). \tag{2.5.10} $$ I tried to compute the correlation function With eom, using eq (2.5.6b) by Polchinki, removing the source ...
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Problem with OPE (from Polchinski) [closed]

I was reading Polchinski, Vol. 2 pag 12, while I found (10.3.12a): $$ e^{iH(z)}e^{-iH(z)}=\frac{1}{2z} + i\partial H(0) + 2zT^H_B(0) + O(z^2).\tag{10.3.12a} $$ Now I tried to do the OPE, what I ...
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Calculating OPE of Graviton Vertex Operator

Consider Exercise 2.8 in Polchinski's String Theory book. We are asked to compute the weight of $$f_{\mu \nu}:\partial X^{\mu} \bar{\partial}X^{\nu}e^{ik\cdot X}:$$ I have carried out the usual ...
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Mode operators in the Virasoro algebra

This questions concerns Exercise 2.11 in Polchinski. We are asked to compute the commutator $$L_{m}(L_{-m}|0;0\rangle) - L_{-m}(L_{m} |0;0\rangle)$$ By plugging the mode expansions, we use the ...
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Operator product expansion energy momentum tensor

We have the following equation from Polchinski (2.4.6) $$ T(z)X^{\mu}(0) \sim \frac{1}{z}\partial X^{\mu}(0) , \tag{2.4.6} $$ where $T(z)$ is defined as $T(z) = -\frac{1}{\alpha'} :\partial X^{\mu} \...
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Wick's Theorem: Why is the vacuum expectation value of uncontracted operators zero?

I'm am right now reading Chapter 4.3 (Wick's Theorem) in Peskin & Schroeder. It is said that In the vacuum expectation value, any term in which there remain uncontracted operators gives zero (...