Questions tagged [wick-theorem]

A combinatoric procedure in QFT of reducing arbitrary products of creation and annihilation operators to sums of products of pairs of these operators. A string of such operators is rewritten as the normal-ordered product of the string, plus the normal-ordered product after all single contractions among operator pairs, plus all double contractions, etc., plus all full contractions.

Filter by
Sorted by
Tagged with
10
votes
1answer
4k views

Why/How is this Wick's theorem?

Let $\phi$ be a scalar field and then I see the following expression (1) for the square of the normal ordered version of $\phi^2(x)$. \begin{align} T(:\phi^2(x)::\phi^2(0):) &= 2 \langle 0|T(\...
8
votes
1answer
2k views

Time-ordering vs normal-ordering and the two-point function/propagator

I don't understand how to calculate this generalized two-point function or propagator, used in some advanced topics in quantum field theory, a normal ordered product (denoted between $::$) is ...
1
vote
3answers
670 views

Normal ordering of the commutator between annihilation and creation operator

According to the commutation relation of annihilation and creation operators, $$[a,a^{\dagger}]=1. \tag{1}$$ I would like to calculate the vacuum expectation value of the normal order of this ...
10
votes
1answer
743 views

Quick question regarding Wick's theorem

Let $T\{...\}$ denote time-ordering, $N\{...\}$ normal-ordering and $\left<ab\right>$ be the propagator. Wick's theorem states that $$ T\{ab\} = N\{ab\} + \left<ab\right>. $$ I now ...
13
votes
4answers
6k views

Why is normal ordering a valid operation?

Why is normal ordering even a valid operation in the first place? I mean it can give us some nice results, but why can we do the ordering for the operators like that? Is its definition motivated by ...
9
votes
1answer
1k views

Free Vacuum vs Interacting Vacuum and Wick's theorem

I'm studying perturbation theory in QFT and I stumbled on a conceptual problem. My understanding of the interplay between LSZ reduction formula and the Gell-Mann & Low perturbation series is that:...
5
votes
2answers
1k views

Normal Order of Normal Order

in first volume of Polchinski page 39 we can read a compact formula to perform normal-order for bosonic fields $$ :\cal F:=\underbrace{\exp\left\{\frac{α'}{4}∫\mathrm{d}^2z\mathrm{d}^2w\log|z-w|^2\...
4
votes
1answer
829 views

Wick Order and Radial Ordering in CFT

I am not so much familiar with the computations tools of conformal field theory, and I just run into an exercise asking to demonstrate the following formula (related to the bosonic field case): $$\...
3
votes
2answers
513 views

Identity of Operator Product Expansion (OPE)

I have one more s****d question in Polchinski's string theory book, Eqs. (2.3.14a) $$ j^{\mu}(z) :e^{ik \cdot X(0,0)}:~ \sim~ \frac{k^{\mu}}{2 z} :e^{ik \cdot X(0,0)}:,$$ where $j^{\mu}_a =\frac{i}{...
3
votes
2answers
786 views

Central charge in energy-momentum tensor OPE

I think that general point of view about central charge in books is considering OPE $T(z) T(w)$ for different field theories and finding that general expression for the most singular term is about to ...
8
votes
2answers
993 views

Gaussian integral of a function with nonzero mean (generalizing Wick theorem)

From the wikipedia article, for a Gaussian integral of an analytic function we have that This is equivalent to the Wick theorem when f(x) is a polynomial. Now I'm trying to obtain a similar formula ...
3
votes
2answers
792 views

Symmetry factor via Wick's theorem

Consider the lagrangian of the real scalar field given by $$\mathcal L = \frac{1}{2} (\partial \phi)^2 - \frac{1}{2} m^2 \phi^2 - \frac{\lambda}{4!} \phi^4$$ Disregarding snail contributions, the ...
2
votes
0answers
100 views

Physical Meaning of the Gutzwiller Constraints

I have a doubt on the constraints for the expecation values obtained by Bünemann et all. First i want to introduce my notation To analytically solve a tight-binding model, \begin{equation} \hat{H}= ...
-1
votes
1answer
110 views

Computing the OPE of $T : \mathrm{e}^{ikX} : $ [closed]

I've hit a stumbling block where I'm just not seeing how to get from line to line in the following calculation from David Tong's strings notes. Can someone spell out how line 1 becomes line 2 in the $\...
19
votes
2answers
642 views

There are too many Wick's Theorems!

This is a follow-up question to QMechanic's great answer in this question. They give a formulation of Wick's theorem as a purely combinatoric statement relating two total orders $\mathcal T$ and $\...
6
votes
2answers
1k views

Actually calculating something using Wick's Theorem

I am still struggling to get my head around QFT and whilst I think I understand the method of generating functionals to compute correlation functions (as in my question here), my course notes often ...
6
votes
1answer
372 views

Klein factors and Conformal Field Theory

Consider the mode expansion of a (chiral) scalar field confined to a disc with circumference L: $$ \phi(x) = \phi_{0} + p_{\phi} \frac{2\pi}{L} x + \sum_{n=1}^{\infty} \frac{1}{\sqrt{n}} e^{-(k_{n}a)...
4
votes
2answers
155 views

Radial ordered commutation relation

In the book Conformal Field Theory of Francesco, Mathieu and Sénéchal, in Sec. 6.1.2, the authors state that the integral $$ \oint_w \mathrm{d}z~ a(z)b(w) ~=~ \oint_{C_1} \mathrm{d}z~ a(z)b(w) - \...
5
votes
1answer
340 views

The basic equation of bosonization

[..quoting from Page 11 of Polchinski Vol2..] Given $1+1$ conformal bosonic fields $H(z)$ one has their OPE as, $H(z)H(0) \sim -ln(z)$ Then from here how do the following identities come? $e^{iH(z)}...
4
votes
1answer
4k views

Wick's Theorem examples

Does anyone know of websites or texts that have an abundance of examples of computing time-ordered products of fields using Wick's Theorem for both bosons and fermions? I'm not just talking about the ...
1
vote
1answer
64 views

Factor of $1/2$ in the Sugawara construction

I'm trying to reproduce the Sugawara construction calculation using this reference (page 14). The normal-ordering of two local operators is defined as $$ N(XY)(w)=\frac{1}{2\pi i} \oint_w \frac{dx}{...
2
votes
3answers
1k views

Wick Theorem, ordering & CFT

I'm having a little trouble with correlation functions wick theorem and ordering in the context of OPE and CFT, for string theory. (1) My first question, the propagator is: $$<X(z) X(w)> = \...
2
votes
1answer
432 views

What is a contraction in QFT?

I have been reading QFT and I am stumbling upon the idea of Wick's theorem. The correlation functions have something to do with "contractions". I want to understand what the physical meaning of a ...
1
vote
1answer
75 views

Perturbation expansion with path integrals

This is from Hugh Osborn's 'Advanced Quantum Field Theory' notes, Lent 2013, page 15. I want to evaluate the expression $$ Z = \exp\Big(\frac{1}{2} \frac{\partial}{\partial \underline{x}} . A^{-1} \...
0
votes
1answer
75 views

What is the calculation rule of the normal ordering operator?

Here $\phi_I$ is just the free Klein-Gordon field. So, this field is decomposed of two components shown above. Now let $N$ be the normal ordering operator. Then, I think that $N(\phi_I^+(x)\phi_I^-(y))...