Questions tagged [wick-theorem]

A combinatoric procedure in QFT of reducing arbitrary products of creation and annihilation operators to sums of products of pairs of these operators. A string of such operators is rewritten as the normal-ordered product of the string, plus the normal-ordered product after all single contractions among operator pairs, plus all double contractions, etc., plus all full contractions.

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Computing correlation function $\langle e^{i\beta \phi(x)}e^{-i\beta\phi(0)}\rangle$ for massless scalar field $\phi$

I am currently reading Shankar's "Bosonization: How to make it work for you in condensed matter" (http://inspirehep.net/record/408901/). In page 9, I am stuck with computing the correlation function ...
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How one goes to derive equation (2.4.19) from Polchinski's String Theory Volume 1?

Equation (2.4.19) states that an exponential times a general product of derivatives $$:(\Pi_i \partial^{m_i}X^{\mu_i})(\Pi_j \bar{\partial}^{n_j}X^{\nu_j})\exp(i k \cdot X ):\tag{2.4.18}$$ has weight ...
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Why in Wick theorem the expectation values of products of field operators is equal to the sum of expectation values of pairs of operators?

As stated in the title, I understand the expectation value of uncontracted operators are zero, and there are only certain type of pairs of operators remaining in the time ordered product of operators. ...
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The overlap of two Gaussian states

According to e.g. Serafini (Quantum Continuous Variables), the Hilbert-Schmidt product ('overlap') of two multimode Gaussian states $\rho_1,\rho_2$ is $$\text{Tr}[\rho_1\rho_2]=|\langle\psi_1|\psi_2\...
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Generalization of Wick's Theorem

Wick's theorem allow us to write a time-ordering of creation and annihilation operators as a normal-ordering of contractions of these operators. I am studying a system that consists of two kinds of ...
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How to obtain time-ordered density correlation function of free Bosonic system via Wick's theorem?

Consider a free Bosonic system. The Hamiltonian is given by $$ H=\sum_k \frac{k^2}{2m}a_k^\dagger a_k. $$ Since the spectrum is gapless, the ground state can be of any particle number (or even ...
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What happens if I Wick contract a trace operator internally?

In theories such as $\cal{N}=4$ supersymmetric Yang-Mills, we often consider operators such as $\cal{O}(x_1)=$Tr$(\phi(x_1)\phi(x_1))$, with $\phi$ the scalar field(s) of the theory. Then we go on ...
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Is there a program or a website able to perform all Wick contractions for a given expression?

Imagine I have an expression of the type: $$\langle \phi_{x_1} \phi_{x_1} \phi_{x_2} \phi_{x_2} \phi_{z_1} \phi_{z_1} A_{z_1} \phi_{z_2} \phi_{z_2} A_{z_2} \phi_{z_3} \phi_{z_3} A_{z_3} \phi_{z_4} \...
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Perturbation expansion with path integrals

This is from Hugh Osborn's 'Advanced Quantum Field Theory' notes, Lent 2013, page 15. I want to evaluate the expression $$ Z = \exp\Big(\frac{1}{2} \frac{\partial}{\partial \underline{x}} . A^{-1} \...
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Factor of $1/2$ in $TT$-OPE [closed]

I'm trying to calculate the TT OPE in a bosonic theory. I'm missing a factor of 1/2 in the least-singular term. We have (following Di Francesco) $$\langle \partial \phi(z) \partial \phi(0) \rangle = \...
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Normal ordering by contour integral in CFT

In chapter 6 of Di Francesco, they introduce the normal ordering $$ (AB)(w) = \oint_w \frac{ dz }{ 2\pi i (z-w) }A(z) B(w)\ .\tag{6.130}$$ So far so good. But then starting eq (6.139) $$ \oint_w \...
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Baker-Hausdorff for normal ordering exponential

Let $A=A^+ +A^-$ where $A^+,A^-$ denote the creation and annihilation portion of the field. Then in Eduardo Fradkin, Field Theories of Condensed Matter Physics, equation (5.284), it states that $$ :e^...
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Wicks contractions of stress-energy tensor and plane partitions

I am working out the number of wick contraction of a number $n$ of stress-energy tensor in 4D CFT. The strategy is as follows: For 1 stress energy tensor $T_{\alpha\beta}$, you have only one ...
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Factor of $1/2$ in the Sugawara construction

I'm trying to reproduce the Sugawara construction calculation using this reference (page 14). The normal-ordering of two local operators is defined as $$ N(XY)(w)=\frac{1}{2\pi i} \oint_w \frac{dx}{...
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How to derive equation (N.15) in Ashcroft and Mermin's Solid State Physics?

They state in their book on page 792 the following: It can be proved, however, that if $A$ and $B$ are operators linear in the $u(R)$ and $P(R)$ of a harmonic crystal, then: $$\langle e^A e^B \...
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Problem with expansion of normal ordering

I am reading normal ordering..and far now I'm able to understand. I am stuck in third line from second expression in the book Lectures On Quantum Field Theory By Ashok Das in page no. 237. It is ...
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What is Wick's theorem and what this is use for? [closed]

I am reading Wick's theorem but although I look for it to clearly understand in some textbooks and youtube videos but still it is unclear to me. I cannot get my head over what is normal ordering ...
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How to apply Wick's theorem in Anderson model

I'm trying to solve the non-interacting single impurity Anderson model where we consider free electrons in a conduction band: $$H_{cond} =\sum_k \varepsilon_k c_k^\dagger c_k$$ and an impurity with ...
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Which orderings are commonly used in modern physics?

I am curious as to which mathematical orderings are used in contemporary theoretical physics, and in what context/situations. So far, I have encountered the following: Time ordering: Commonly used ...
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OPE Kac-Moody Currents

We have the following operators: \begin{align} J^a(z) = \frac{1}{2}\psi_s^{\dagger}(z)\sigma^a_{s s'}\psi_{s'}(z), \hspace{10 mm} \bar{J}^a(z) = \frac{1}{2}\psi_s^{\dagger}(\bar{z})\sigma^a_{s s'}\...
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Euclidean Feynman Rules derivation using Wick Theorem

When studying perturbation theory and Feynman rules, the standard derivation seems to start from the S-Matrix element in the interaction picture, and expands it into some series, after which Wick's ...
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Error in proof of Wick's theorem

I am having a little trouble proving wick's theorem. I'll start from the last step that I know is correct. We define $$\left\langle \prod_{j=1}^{2m}x_{i_j}\right\rangle:=\left.\frac{\partial^{2m}}{\...
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Feynman diagrams in Gaussian integrals

I am looking for suggestions for material regarding Feynman diagrams for gaussian integrals. I am looking for something of the sort of: Pedro Vieira, Statistical Physics Applied to Quantum Field ...
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How does one calculate Fourier transform of Feynman propagator?

I am struggling with calculating the following integral on Sredinicki: How did he get the second line of (10.6)? That is, how did he calculate the Fourier transform of Feynman propagator?
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How to solve this particular problem of Wick's theorem?

So I know the basics of Wick's theorem, but unsure about how to solve this time ordered product of a term that involves normal ordering. Is it just simply the sum of all possible contractions, but no ...
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Gutzwiller renormalization factors

I am computing the expectation value of the kinetic term of a tight-binding model, respect to the Gutzwiller wavefunction, in the limit of infinite lattice-coordination, i.e using these constraints (...
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$\psi\psi \longrightarrow \psi\psi$ scattering in Scalar Yukawa model

In David Tong's lecture notes, Equation 3.48 In line 2, how is $|0\rangle \langle 0|$ introduced between $\psi^{\dagger}(x_1)\psi^{\dagger}(x_2)\psi(x_1)\psi(x_2)?$ Why is $\langle p_2',p_1'|\psi^{\...
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Expectation Value Of The Double Occupancy Operators' Product

I want to prove the relation \eqref{eq:Metz_relation} that i found in this article. \begin{equation} \left\langle\varPhi_0\right|\prod_{i} \hat{D}_i\left|\varPhi_0\right\rangle= \left\langle\varPhi_0\...
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Physical Meaning of the Gutzwiller Constraints

I have a doubt on the constraints for the expecation values obtained by Bünemann et all. First i want to introduce my notation To analytically solve a tight-binding model, \begin{equation} \hat{H}= ...
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What is radial ordering?

In my String theory lecture radial ordering was introduced and I don't understand what it is. My first guess was $$R(A(z)B(w)) = A(z)B(w)\Theta(|z|-|w|) + B(w)A(z)\Theta(|w|-|z|).$$ But then we have ...
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Expectation value of a path-ordered exponential

Let us define our path-ordered operator $\overrightarrow{U}\left(t_1,t_2\right)$: $$ \overrightarrow{U}\left(t_1,t_2\right)=\overrightarrow{\mathcal{P}}\exp\int_{t_1}^{t_2}dt\,\mathcal{O}\left(t\...
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Symmetry factor in $\phi^4$ theory

I'm having trouble while trying to understand what the symmetry factor of a Feynman diagram really is. From books I get that it is a geometrical factor that you get by the number of ways in which you ...
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Calculation of a 4-point function by path integrals

In Srednicki's book in chapter 8 a four-point function is computed as a sum of products of propagators: $$<0|T\phi(x_1)\phi(x_2) \phi(x_3)\phi(x_4)|0> = \frac{1}{i^2}[\Delta(x_1 -x_2)\Delta(...
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Time ordering, normal ordering and Wick's contraction

I'm reading chapter 4 of Peskin & Schröder, and I'm confused how they express the time ordering of two fields: let $T$ denote time ordering, $N$ the normal ordering and I use $C$ for the ...
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Kac-Moody algebra, proof of parameters calculation

I'm following the notes "Ginsparg - Applied Conformal Field Theory" (https://arxiv.org/abs/hep-th/9108028) and I'm stuck on a proof at page 140 about Kac-Moody algebras. I would like to prove that $\...
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Conformal transformation of a vertex operator before normal ordering

Let us consider a free scalar boson $\varphi(z,\bar{z})$ on the complex plane and assume the following two-point correlation function \begin{eqnarray} \langle\varphi(z,\bar{z})\varphi(w,\bar{w})\...
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Apparent problem in using Wick's theorem to calculate matrix elements of two body operators

In the second quantized notation, a two body operator $\hat{O}$ can be written as $$\hat{O} = \sum\limits_{x_1,x_2,x_3,x_4} O_{x_1,x_2,x_3,x_4} a^\dagger_{x_1}a^\dagger_{x_2}a_{x_4}a_{x_3} ,$$ where ...
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Operator product expansion of more than 2 operators in CFT

I’m confused about OPE in 2d CFT. I’ve found difficulties in taking OPE of the product of 3 operators. Consider the following operator product. \begin{align*} O_1(z) :O_2(w) O_3(w): = O_1(z)\frac{1}{...
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What exactly are we doing when we “invent” Feynman Diagrams?

So, I am trying to derive the Feynman rules for Yukawa theory (following the section in Peskin). Specifically, for the process 2 fermions $\rightarrow$ 2 fermions. To second order, I then have that ...
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Problem with Wick's theorem (normal ordering of a contraction)

Taking the example of two bosonic fields, Wick's theorem is \begin{equation} T\{\phi(x_1)\phi^\dagger(x_2)\} = N\{\phi\phi^\dagger\} + N\{(\phi\phi^\dagger)_c\} \end{equation} where the subscript $c$ ...
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Radial ordered commutation relation

In the book Conformal Field Theory of Francesco, Mathieu and Sénéchal, in Sec. 6.1.2, the authors state that the integral $$ \oint_w \mathrm{d}z~ a(z)b(w) ~=~ \oint_{C_1} \mathrm{d}z~ a(z)b(w) - \...
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There are too many Wick's Theorems!

This is a follow-up question to QMechanic's great answer in this question. They give a formulation of Wick's theorem as a purely combinatoric statement relating two total orders $\mathcal T$ and $\...
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OPE double-contractions between $T$ and $e^{ikX}$

I am reading David Tong's lecture notes chapter 4 http://www.damtp.cam.ac.uk/user/tong/string.html On the top of page 82 in the eq. before eq. (4.27), we are computing the OPE between $T$ and $e^{ikX}...
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What is the calculation rule of the normal ordering operator?

Here $\phi_I$ is just the free Klein-Gordon field. So, this field is decomposed of two components shown above. Now let $N$ be the normal ordering operator. Then, I think that $N(\phi_I^+(x)\phi_I^-(y))...
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What is a contraction in QFT?

I have been reading QFT and I am stumbling upon the idea of Wick's theorem. The correlation functions have something to do with "contractions". I want to understand what the physical meaning of a ...
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Wick contraction and propagator confusion

I am having trouble understanding the how the Wick contraction leads to the Feynman propagator for scalar fields. The Feynman propagator can be written as $$ D_F(x-y)=\langle 0 | T(\phi(x) \phi(y)) | ...
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Computing the OPE of $T : \mathrm{e}^{ikX} : $ [closed]

I've hit a stumbling block where I'm just not seeing how to get from line to line in the following calculation from David Tong's strings notes. Can someone spell out how line 1 becomes line 2 in the $\...
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Why do we have $[\phi_1^+,:\phi_2\phi_3:]=:[\phi_1^+,\phi_2^-]\phi_3:+:\phi_2[\phi_1^+,\phi_3^-]:$?

How $$[\phi_1^+,:\phi_2\phi_3:]=:[\phi_1^+,\phi_2^-]\phi_3:+:\phi_2[\phi_1^+,\phi_3^-]:$$ with $\phi_i=\phi(x_i)$ field operators ($\phi_i^+$ is the annihilation part while $\phi_i^-$ is the creation ...
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Time ordered product of bilinear functions for Dirac-field

If we have two Observables (bilinears of Diracfield $\psi(x)$) $O_1(x)=\bar{\psi}(x)\Gamma_1\psi(x)$ and $O_2(y)=\bar{\psi}(y)\Gamma_2\psi(y)$ and if we calculate their time ordered product $T(O_1(x) ...
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Wick Theorem: Performing contractions in the right order

The first line is one of four terms that one gets after applying Wick theorem to the time-ordered product of these field operators and as far as i understand it is just a short-hand notation for which ...