Questions tagged [waves]

Waves are disturbances that propagate through space and time. Classically, they travelled through a medium, disturbing the particles but not changing their mean position. Electromagnetic waves/particle-waves need no medium; they are disturbances in their respective fields.

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How do I compute the momentum of a Gaussian wave?

I'm very familiar with how the wave-vector is described in the case of plane waves, $$ f(\vec{r},t) = f_0 \cos\left(\vec{k} \cdot \vec{r} - \omega t \right)$$ Where we see that if we define some phase ...
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How can the particle in plane progressive harmonic wave have minimum potential energy at one of the extreme position?

consider this image context: These are fill in the blanks sort of questions, the above image contains solution. My reasoning A and B should be in SHM and we know that in SHM Kinetic Energy is max at ...
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Why do wave equations produce single- or few- valued dispersion relations? Why no continuum of possible $\omega$ for one $|\boldsymbol{k}|$?

This question is pretty much the same as What ties high frequency electromagnetic waves to short wavelength and converse? but much more technical, and seeking a more technical answer than any provided....
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What's the mechanism of addition of different frequencies of light?

I suddenly thought of a interesting thing: say there are two light rays with the exactly the same colour, for example, purple. Red light ray and blue light ray add up to purple. Also, there is a ...
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Application of side lobes of the Airy beam

We know that the infinite-energy Airy beam is completely non-diffracting, which means that its side lobes will always exist. When it comes to the finite Airy beam, we can see from the experiments that ...
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3D Point Source Attenuation Equation

I was given the following equation to measure the intensity of a point source where $r_o$ is the reference and $r$ is the distance away. I do not understand what to do if I make the coordinate origin ...
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How are electromagnetic waves in fact produced? [duplicate]

I mean, I thought the radiation of electromagnetic waves is produced by rapid oscillation of an electric charge, which would produce an elastic field, right? So, can anyone explain me why it produces ...
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How to simulate 1D waves starting from the acceleration (second derivative)?

Knowing that a 1D wave with the physical form parametrized by x and t $$u = \sin(x-t)$$ will yield us the first time derivative $$\frac{\partial u}{\partial t} =-\cos(x-t)$$ and the second time ...
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How are electromagnetic waves actually produced?

Can anyone explain me in baby steps how is an electromagnetic wave produced? I know this question is way too simple and, before you ban my question, I wanna add that I searched everywhere and I couldn'...
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What ties high frequency electromagnetic waves to short wavelength and converse?

Why is it not possible to have waves with high frequency (high energy) and great wavelength and converse? What physical quantity ties frequency to wavelength in an inversely proportional way?
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Period of a stationary wave VS Period of vibration of a stationary wave

Is there any difference between these terms? I tried to find on Google, but couldn't. In a question I was attempting, it stated the period of vibration of stationary wave and in the answer, it implied ...
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2answers
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How does one calculate the Bohr energy of an electron in a non-atomic systems?

When calculating the orbital energy of an electron in a hydrogen-like atom, the orbital velocity is required. However, to derive this value, the equation given is: \begin{equation*} ZK_{e} e^{2}/r^{2} ...
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Signal Generated from Transmitter [closed]

Suppose that we have a transmitter of $150.100\ \mathrm{ MHz}$. We also have a receiver at a fixed point. The transmitter constantly generates signals toward the direction of the receiver. Based only ...
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Why is there a single slit in the Young double-slit experiment? [duplicate]

I am studying waves these days and my teacher just introduced Young double-slit experiment, which has always been brilliant (see picture below). However, I have a question: why is there a single slit ...
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Do Eigenmodes of higher order always have a higher temporal oscillation frequency?

When solving the 1D wave equation for a string with fixed ends the eigenmodes are sine-functions with different spatial wavelengths. The spatial wavelengths and the temporal periodic times become ...
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Pipe Open or closed from a Standing Wave Equation

Here is the full question: The part in the brackets are the answers. I am still terribly confused. Lets say we are given an equation for a standing wave in a pipe: $$y(x,t) = A\sin\left(\frac{3\pi x}{...
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Probability Waves vs. Amplitude Waves

It is often asserted, and it is common knowledge, that the waves associated with a particle are probability waves. This seems reasonable. But what about $E=hf$? This does not seem to be about ...
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Superposition equation for a tilted diffraction grating

When we have a diffraction grating that is tilted at an angle, would the formula d sin θ = mλ still work?
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Why is $v ≤ c$ but $\Delta \lambda \, \Delta f ≥ c$? [closed]

I know this is a simple, almost stupid question about waves. But what is the best way to explain why the "smaller than" becomes a "larger than"? All waves have a (front) velocity (...
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Why cosine basis for determining bandwidth?

Instead of Fourier transform with cosines for example, one could use a square waves basis, then a pure cosine wave would have a broad bandwidth. The question is why the cosines seems more fundamental ...
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How to determine the type of wave and wave speed in a membrane type material?

I have a PET foil and I attach it to a frame with sensors pasted on the foil edges to detect impacts on the foil. Since it is a really thin material, I categorize it as a membrane and not as a bulk ...
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How does x-ray attenuation compare to sound wave attenuation?

When it comes to medical imaging (x-ray and ultrasound specifically) there seems to be a difference between the attenuation of sound and x-rays. What I am gathering is as follows: When it comes to x-...
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Is alternating current a wave like a sound wave? [closed]

Is alternating current also a wave like sound waves? And why?
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Find the steady state solution of a undamped single harmonic oscillator

I know how to do pt 1, but I'm stuck on pt 2 since I'm not sure what a steady state solution is. So any help would be appreciated.
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Double slit experiment, relation between path difference and wavelength [closed]

We have a double slit experiment, with two coherent wave sources. We are given the positions of maximum intensity ( maximum interference ) as some $K$. The path difference between the sources is given ...
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1answer
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What is the boundary conditions for infinite elastic isotropic medium in Navier's Equations?

Navier's equations of motion in seismic has 3 solutions, according to how it is resolved (boundary conditions): for P waves (compression waves) for S waves (shear waves) for Rayleigh (surface waves) ...
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Waves as propagation of the deformation of the geometry of a continuum

In electromagnetism, accelerated charges radiate as electromagnetic waves. In general relativity, accelerated masses radiate as gravitational waves, which correspond to the propagation of the ...
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Why the center of circle is dark in this interference experiment?

As the image you can see, a lens with focus length of $f$ was cut into 2 parts, L1 and L2, a distance of $f$ between them. A monochromatic point source of light $S$ was put in the left of L1 with a ...
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Measurement of the quality of finite non-diffracting beam

All sorts of non-diffracting beams have been observed nowadays, e.g., the classic finite Airy beam (by Siviloglou et. al. [2007]). In the past decade, lots of variants of finite Airy beam appear, ...
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Decompose complex shear wave field into propagation directions

Using phase contrast MRI, I recorded images of harmonic propagating shear waves in in vivo brain tissue in a 2D axial slice (126x126 pixel at 1.6mm x 1.6mm resolution). I recorded 8 images over one ...
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Ripples through a uniform ball of water

Let's say the earth was a giant blob of water, with a still surface. Now, suppose I drop a drop of water at the north pole. What happens next? I don't know how gravity is going to influence this. ...
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92 views

Amplitude of a wave [closed]

The wave equation $$y= A \sin^2(kx-\omega t)$$ should have an amplitude $A$. But in textbook, it is given that amplitude is $A/2$. Can anyone explain?
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Does the quantum nature of light arise from its interaction with matter? [closed]

I have a desire to reconcile the results of the photoelectric effect with the Maxwellian picture of electromagnetic radiation. I wish to explore, the possibility that the quantum nature of the photon ...
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Does electromagnetic wave violates conservation of energy when passing between two dielectric mediums at oblique angles, is there a derivation?

how can we prove that poynting theorem works for an Electromagnetic waves which incident at an oblique angles between two dielectric medium?
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Group - and phase velocity in communication via electromagnetic waves (radio)

I'd like to present the way I see group and phase velocities in the context of radio waves, and see whether or not my understanding is in some way flawed or lacking. I will summarize with a specific ...
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1answer
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If we increase and decrease gravity periodically, what is the name of the resulting wave?

The gravitational waves, as in the case of merging black holes, expand like water ripples in spacetime (this is how they are depicted in general), and they affect everything in the vicinity, including ...
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Minimum distance for two parallel beam to interfere effectively

Following is an illustration of two parallel monochromatic beams interfering in Bragg's law experiment. For these two rays to interfere, what is the minimum distance OF required? I understand that the ...
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Speed of sound in fluids

The speed of sound varies in different fluids https://www.engineeringtoolbox.com/sound-speed-liquids-d_715.html Can the value be derived from other physical parameters -- vapour pressure, viscosity ...
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1answer
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Is electron a wave with a position?

I am learning Quantum Mechanical model of atom.There is a statement in my textbook which says "We consider the electrons to not revolve around the nucleus but as a wave present around the ...
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Infer 3D location (Height, Latitude, Longitude) based on Signal Strength

Sorry if my question is irrelevant. Let's consider two cases: $1)$ Suppose that we have an Antenna and a tagged individual that can be pinged from the Antenna. Suppose that the individual is pinged ...
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4answers
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How does mixed-frequency light "remember" its component frequencies when refracting?

Combining multiple arbitrarily chosen frequencies of sound makes a complicated wave, not a new sine wave. Doesn't light also do this? If I add a 650nm (reddish) wave and a 550nm (greenish) wave, I get ...
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Do electromagnetic waves contain electrons?

I understand that EM waves are oscillating electric and magnetic fields. But doesn't this mean that the wave itself contains charged particles that generate the fields?
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Does the fact a charge experiences a perpendicular force when moving perpendicular to a magnetic field have anything to do with EM waves?

Does the fact a charge accelerates perpendicular to a uniform magnetic field when moving perpendicular to it have anything to do with the form of an EM wave? I thought this might link because the ...
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1answer
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Is light a single wave when we refer to frequency?

When we say that light oscillates $n$ times (frequency) in a second do we mean that the same electromagnetic field travelling through space oscillates $n$ time's? As i have seen diagrams suggesting ...
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Frequency of superimposed wave

If two waves with frequency $f_1$ and $f_2$($f_1≠f_2$) are added together to form a superimposed wave then what will be the frequency of the resultant wave if - the velocity of the two wave is same ...
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Why does it not matter that the material wave equation is not invariant under the Galilean transformation?

I have a doubt, when the Galileo transformations are applied to the electromagnetic wave equation, more terms appear and to solve it the Lorentz transforms are used, however, what does not comply with ...
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Cam waves travelling at same direction interfere?

Can two waves travelling in same direction interfere?
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Behavior of electron in free state and bound state

Why does a free state electron totally behave like a particle? also what will be the behavior of electrons in bound state?
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From a co-moving frame, what does a free electron look like, is it a wave or a point?

I am not asking about an electron around a nucleus, whether it is a standing wave or not. I am specifically asking about a free electron, viewed from a co-moving frame. I am not asking whether an ...

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