Questions tagged [wave-particle-duality]

Use this tag for questions relating to the "wave-nature of particles" or the "particle-nature of waves" as they are often discussed in quantum mechanics, where a single object has properties of both classical particles and classical waves.

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Interpretation of position in quantum field theory and correlation functions

In quantum mechanics, asking where the particle is located after measurement is a well defined question because we have an associated position operator $X$ whose eigenvectors are the states that a ...
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Observables and local observations in quantum field theory

I have recently taken a quantum field theory course at my university but it focused heavily on the mathematics of the theory and not the physics. So I am left with a few questions on observables and ...
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Double slit experiment - what is the amplitude of the interfering waves?

I would like to consider a situation in which we fire single particles, one after another. If I understand correctly asking about the amplitude does not necessarily make sense. Unless I am wrong, the ...
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Is there any upper limit for de broglie wavelength due to zero point energy?

We know that the lower the momentum a particle has the higher will be its de Broglie wavelength, so is there any upper limit to the de Broglie wavelength of electron or any other particle due to the ...
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What is electromagnetic radiation (when it is not a 'wave' of EM fields or interacting locally as a photon)?

My questions are related to the question asked at Are EM radiation and EM waves the same thing?. My background is in math (my Ph.D. thesis was in geometric analysis), and I have only taken basic ...
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de Broglie formula inconsistency

I recently stumbled across a small peculiarity I don't understand: According to de Broglie, the frequency of a matterwave can be written as $f=\frac{E}{h}$, and its wavelength as $\lambda = \frac{h}{...
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An accelerating charge emits EM waves, but how can this be explained in terms of photons?

I was reading this response to a question involving EM radiation due to an accelerating charge. A charge's oscillations disturb its electric field, and this effect propogates at the speed of light. If ...
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Double slit experiment and sensors/instruments influence

In double-slit experiment, it is said when we turn on the sensor/detector/instrument to measure/detect the behaviour of the particle, it shows particle behaviour (otherwise, it shows wave behaviour). ...
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Hologram: At the "crux" of the hologram, is there any potential for wave-wave interaction?

Starting with Gabor's original 1948 paper: https://www.nature.com/articles/Art56 And continuing where that paper left off with Gabor's Nobel Prize paper, https://www.nobelprize.org/uploads/2018/06/...
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Coherent states and QM, Double slit and measurements

In the thread Localization of Electron Matter Field Excitation in Simple Electron QFT Model a vital question about QFT is asked namely ´what keeps the electron matter field excitation localized ...
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Are phase and particle (photon) number in QED conjugated variables?

I found in A. Zee's book "QFT in a nutshell" (1.edition) the interesting relation (8) respectively (9) in chapter III section 5 (p.173) which states that in a collective of non-relativistic bosons the ...
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Distinction between actions of fields vs. waves

When a magnet attracts a nail, it is an action of a field. However, wehen electrons move in a radio antenna, it is an action of a wave. At the quantum level, we often hear that an electromagnetic wave ...
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What would happen if very light particles (of large de Broglie wavelength) encountered a neutron star?

I want to consider the possibility of a very light particle being captured by a neutron star. (For the purpose of discussion, let us allow the neutron star mass (or radius) a tunable parameter, so ...
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A basic question about the derivation of Dirac equation and other relativistic wavefunction equations

It is well-known that the Dirac equation is a "Relativistic wave equation" which describes all spin-1/2 massive particles such as electrons and quarks. The Dirac equation, as a system of linear ...
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Light passing through two sets of double-slits in tandem

Has anyone ever set up a double double-slit experiment - one in which a second double-slit is inserted at one of the bright spots of the interference pattern produced by the first one? The intensity ...
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Why call it a particle and not a wave pulse?

My physics textbook says that photoelectric emission provides conclusive evidence for the particle theory of light. Apparently, since photoelectric emission only works at certain frequencies, we can ...
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Constructive and destructive interference in De Broglie matter waves

I'm a little confused about matter waves and especially interference. $\lambda = h/p$ The denominator is momentum and is thus reliant on mass. If we assume that the property holds for particles ...
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Traversing between nodes (Zero Probability) in Quantum Mechanics

To elucidate the question I have in mind, let us consider a very simple QM system that has exact solution, say Particle in a 1D Infinite Well. Since this is a well studied problem I will simply state ...
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Particle associated with material waves according to Wave particle duality

What would be the particle associated with the material waves (like water waves, sound waves) according to Wave particle duality and de Broglie hypothesis? Are those the medium particles (or ...
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In what physics scenarios is it appropriate to consider an electron a ball, vs. a cloud, vs. a probability distribution?

These articles says the electron is a near perfect sphere: https://futurism.com/electron-edm-experiment So, what is our intuitive answer to the question? In all artists’ impressions of the atom, we ...
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Quantum Mechanical Interpretation of Rutherford Experiment

Ernest Rutherford performed the gold foil experiment; alpha particles were fired at a gold foil and the alpha particles were scattered. This result disproved Thomson's plum pudding model of atoms. ...
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Why the photomultiplier experiment proves that photon is a particle, not a wave?

In QED Feynman describes the photomultiplier experiment as a proof that a photon behaves as a particle. The logic is as follows: with monochromatic single photon light source a photomultiplier coupled ...
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Partition design in regard to double slit experiment

Has a totally blocking physical partition ever been used in between the slits in order to keep a particle waves to join after having gone through the two slits?
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How the wave functions of large molecules behaves in the double slit experiment?

I recently saw an article which described how researchers had gotten a molecule with hundreds of atoms to preform the the double slit experiment and confirmed that even structures of that size had ...
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3 answers
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Coulombs law and the Dual nature of subatomic particles

Coulombs law states that, 'The force between two particles acts along the line joining the centers of the charges' The Quantum Model says that subatomic particles are waves. How can there be a 'center'...
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Wave-particle duality for Higgs boson

I know that all matter particles have a dual nature, particle and wave. And apart from matter, photons also have dual nature. But what about bosons, specifically Higgs bosons? Do they show both wave ...
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Finding the distance from source in triple slit interference

I was wondering about the nature of the 3 slit interference pattern, as shown in fig 1. The line labelled LT/2, matches with fig 2 and all other diagrams I have seen depicting the same thing. I was ...
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Does velocity make sense if it is small relative to the de Broglie wavelength?

What does it mean if a particle has, say, de Broglie wavelength of $100m$ and a velocity of $1 m/s$? Is it even possible to have such a setup? I don't see why not, since we can always slow the ...
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Is proton diffraction more difficult to obtain experimentally?

I was studying the phenomena of particle diffraction and saw that any particle can be associated to a de Broglie wavelength, given by $$λ=\dfrac{h}{p}$$ Experimentally, we commonly talk about the ...
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How is the equation for de Broglie wavelength actually derived?

I have seen the equation for de Broglie wavelength derived through equating Einstein's $E=mc^{2}$, and Planck's $E=hf$, using a substitution from $c=f\lambda$ to make things in terms of wavelength. ...
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How will detectors effect the inteference pattern in a double-slit experiment?

We know that if you put a detector at the slits in the double-slit experiment, no matter before slits or behind slits, it'll destroys the interference pattern and resulting chunk pattern (particles ...
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is there a minimum speed for particles for the double slit experiment?

I am working on some calculations and seems there must be a cutoff speed for each slit distance for the interference pattern. In other words, for a slit distance of “d” , by reducing the anode voltage ...
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Why do electric fields and magnetic fields behave as waves or particles in certain property?

The idea of electric field was initially developed as a substitution to force vector, we then attached energy associated with the system with them as we didn't had much of a choice to explain the "...
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1 vote
1 answer
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Quantum objects duality between waves and particles

i am reading an intresting book titled "Life on the edge: the coming age of quantum biology". And the subject of "quantum objects duality between waves and particles" takes a big part of this book. I ...
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1 vote
2 answers
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In a pilot-wave model, is knowing the position of the particle sufficient for predicting its behavior?

Suppose that we somehow exactly know the position of an electron before hitting the double-slit structure (for example we know it's 20cm away from the structure and it's closer to the left slit). In ...
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1 vote
1 answer
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Is electron/photon wave or particle in Feynman sum over histories formulation?

In the famous double slit experiment, a photon (say) can behave as wave or particle depending on whether there is (or how) an outside observer measuring the experiment. Copenhagen interpretation ...
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Confused about de Broglie's wavelength

De Broglie relations state that for frequency $f$ and length $\lambda$ of a matter wave corresponding to (non-relativistic) particle of mass $m$, momentum $p$ and energy $E$ are given by: $$ \lambda=\...
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How do quantum field theories relate to one by one particle diffraction experiments through two or more slits?

In particles diffraction experiments in which the particles are fired one at a time through two or more slits how second quantization and path integrals approach the fact that the minimum uncertainty ...
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How to explain the process of image formation with the help of wavefronts (Huygen's principle)?

For example, in this picture, how do we show that the image A'B' will be shorter than the real object AB? (In case of the plano-convex lens placed between the object AB and the screen S such that ...
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Finding the lowest energies of electrons in a box with a delta separator with a tight-binding model

I am asked to find the two lowest energies of a 1D situation with two electrons in two adjacent $0$-potential wells of width $L$ with infinitely high barriers and a 'coupling potential' of $V(z)=\...
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possibility of interference of electrons during its transition from higher to lower state

They say an electron possesses dual nature (what we call wave-particle duality in order to relate with our everyday world). If it is an electron (definite particle) it too shows wave-like phenomenon ...
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Subnuclear physics vs wave function

This question is more a philosophical question than a physics one. When we appreciate particle physics we study that in order to explain some experimental results we have to introduce a new particle (...
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Wave Particle duality because of discrete time?

If time is discrete, such as the Planck's length, would the transition from one frame of time to the next explain why it appears matter changes from a particle to a wave? During that infinitely small ...
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Splitting light into colors, mathematical expression (Fourier transforms)

I am trying to solve a problem that includes a function of the light hitting a certain area. My question is, how would I change a function $G(x)$ of photons hitting a certain area to include just ...
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1 vote
3 answers
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Is my understanding of the double-slit experiment correct?

I'm no quantum scientist. I'm just a software engineer with a healthy (?) fascination with quantum mechanics and knowledge gained from Googling. :) I've read many different articles about the double-...
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Is A Photon A Wave Or Does It Emit/Create A Wave?

In my search for more clarification about photons being a wave or particle, I found a response here Photon's create waves that said that photons don't become a wave but rather create a wave. This ...
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1 vote
1 answer
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How does the interaction between individual electrons of beams affects the diffraction pattern?

Consider the diffraction of an electron beam. How does the interaction between individual electrons of beams affects the diffraction pattern? If it really affects the diffraction pattern, then is it ...
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In the de-broglie's model of atom, what he said about the path of electrons?

I saw animations in which electron is revolving around the nucleus in a sinusoidal wave like path. And I saw animation in which a standing wave is shown (no electron) So what actually de-broglie ...
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De Broglie's relation under gravitational force

Does gravitational force affect the wavelength produced due to movement of an object?
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How to reconcile diffraction with the Heisenberg Uncertainty Principle?

When a particle of momentum $p$ (say $10^{-23}$ kg m/s e.g. an electron moving at 10 000 km/s) falls on a slit and passes through, what is its momentum after the slit? (One can also have a flux of ...
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