# Questions tagged [thermoelectricity]

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### Best direction of air flow in peltier based air dehumidifier?

I'm currently designing a peltier element based air dehumidifier and need to decide which direction of air flow trough the device makes more sense. The possibilities are either directing the intake ...
1 vote
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### What is the fastest (fast time response) peltier module commercially available and where can I buy it? [closed]

I am searching for a peltier module which has a time response of at least 0,1 seconds. I looked around in the market but this is not usually a characteristic shared by the manufacturer in the data ...
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### Callen's Statistical and Thermo approach

In the Callen's paper pointed out two approaches for evolution of systems out of equilibrium. In one part he says The statistical approach consists of generalizing the methods of statistical ...
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### Can we just consider thermionic emission as a kind of thermoelectricity?

I read some thermionic applications, specially the magnetron one with a cathode and an anode. Technically, it seems that the emission of electrons will go towards the anode (cold temperature) whenever ...
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### Is there a steady state for two conductors at different temperatures connected to a battery?

In order to understand better nonequilibrium statistical physics I came up with the following thought experiment. I wonder what are the requirements to obtain a steady state. Let us consider two ...
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### Will Heat transfer through a metal be faster, if an electrical frequency is applied to the metal

Will a metal conduct heat faster if an electrical current is applied to the that metal ? For instance if a frequency current such as the same that would go to a speaker - so like 30 hz or 50hz or 1khz ...
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### What is the energy in a circuit with a temperature difference and no potential difference

Suppose I have some kind of thermoelectric effect, where there is an electric current flowing from a hot to a cold electrode. If there is no bias voltage $V$ and there is a current $I$, the energy ...
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### Calculating Peltier efficiency

This is half Skeptics SE , half here. Please help me proving this Kickstarter is baloney. Besides the stupid marketing claims what we have here is a neck band shaped portable device of 180x177x45mm ...
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### Thermoelectric Thomson effect as generator

In thomson effect we need an electrical current and a temperature difference at the same time. So it is possible use Thomson effect to generate an electric current? That is, how I generete an electric ...
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### Seebeck and Peltier effect vs Thomson effect - conductors difference

Both Seebeck effect and Peltier effect we have the need of two dissimilar conductors to break the symmetry of the system to produce a current. But, why in the Thomson effect we just need one conductor,...
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### How might the hypothetical "Dyson sphere" convert the energy from the sun to usable electricity?

I have tried to find the answer but it appears that this question was never asked. I consulted my teachers but they do not have any knowledge of this either.
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### Absolute Seebeck coefficient of metals

Note: In literature, the Seebeck coefficient is most often given to platinum as a reference point, because it is challenging to measure the absolute Seebeck coefficient. It is however possible, this ...
1 vote
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### Using simple logic instead of the thermoelectric series

A thermocouple is made from two metals, Antimony and Bismuth. If one junction of the couple is kept hot and the other is kept cold then, an electric current will The answer is - Flow from Antimony to ...
1 vote
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### Efficiency of thermoelectric material and Carnot

Is Carnot efficiency also relevant for "open systems"? Example - If we take a thermoelectric material with the hot side connected to a stable heat source and the cold side to an infinite ...
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### Thermal power station powered by temperature difference between high and low altitude air

Would it be feasible to build a system where warm air from sea level is pumped to the top of a mountain to power a thermal power station? With a lapse rate of ~ 1°C / 100 m there should be plenty of ...
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### The opposite of thermionic emission

"Thermionic emission is the liberation of electrons from an electrode by virtue of its temperature (releasing of energy supplied by heat). This occurs because the thermal energy given to the ...
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### Is Seebeck coefficient for a metal related to Fermi level as it is the case for contact potential?

When putting together two different metals a so called "contact potential" will be built up. So far I understand this is because the combined system wants to reach an equilibrium where free ...
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### Is there a theoretical efficiency limit for thermoelectric generators?

Typical Thermoelectric/Seebeck generators operate at 5-8% efficiency. Is there an upper limit to the conversion of heat flux (temperature differences) directly into electrical energy?
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### Joule heater physics

Why does a joule heater element heat up from the middle outwards to the ends? In the picture below, the kanthal mesh heating element is shown heating up from the middle outwards. I'm looking for an ...
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### Will withdrawing electricity via a thermoeletric device cool a whole closed system?

If a hot and a cold container are placed thermo sealed system, and a thermoelectric device is used between them and electricity is withdrawn that way, will the resulting entropic temperature in both ...
63 views

### Is it theoretically possible transfer thermal energy to electrical?

I was searching web trying to find answer, but all I found are thermoelectrical generators which work on principle flowing electrons from heat to cold material and efficient is very low. I am ...
1 vote
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### How can I experimentally check that the voltage in a thermocouple is generated be the gradient in the wires and not by the junction themselves?

I just found out on Wikipedia (also here and there) that the voltage in a thermocouple in not generated by the cold & hot junctions, but by the temperature gradient in the wires which generates a ...
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### What is the best way to generate electricity using fresnel lens? [closed]

I have a fresnel lens which I want to put to use for generating electricity. My house receives ample sunlight. What is the best way of going about it? Stirling engines, steam driven turbines are some ...
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### Why did my peltier modules stay warm inside vacuum?

My problem is a bit more complex, but I will do my best to describe it. I have assembled the following setup: I want to acheve the lowest possible temperature in vacuum on top of my stacked Peltier ...
480 views

### Could you electrically charge a liquid or granules to refuel EVs with it?

Is there a physical law that would make an electrically charged liquid or granules impossible to produce? Theoretically it should be possible to refuel an EV by adding two different liquids to it in ...
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### Formula for Temperature Gradient due to Joule Heating [closed]

I was wondering how to calculate how much the temperature will increase in a cylindrical wire due to current passing through it, I did some googling didn't find anything so I came up with the ...
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### Polarity definition of thermoelectric effect

After a brief search of the internet the polarity definition for thermoelectric voltage is not found. Let conductor X cross a temperature gradient where temperature A is higher than temperature B. ...
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1 vote
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### Can waste heat in specific environments be collected into photons and converted to electricity? [closed]

Crossposted on Engineering SE Here and here show possibility to combine photons of lower energy to one higher. Thinking of an application, it could be used to dissipate heat from laptop. Liquid ...
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### What does a voltmeter real measure in case of a pn junction?

I recently learned, that a voltmeter doesn't measure difference of electrical potential but difference of electrochemical potential $\tilde{\mu} = \mu/e + \Phi$. My original question was about ...
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### What voltage is needed to ionize oxygen at the centre of this ball and would we hear any noise from thunder?

The outer ball is 10 metres in diameter (its surface is the Earth's atmosphere) and a vacuum separates the outer ball from a 1 metre ball of atmospheric air which exists at atmospheric pressure. The ...
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### Could this imaginary cooling solution work?

Imagine a perfectly insulated ideal closed cylinder. Inside, at the two ends there are two bodies, one with the temperature of T the other with temperature -T. Between the almost touching bodies with ...
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### Seebeck Coefficient variation with Fermi Energy at different Temperartures for the Same Material

So we have been recently introduced to the Seebeck Coefficient in thermoelectrics, however, I had some questions on it, and I kept finding contrasting information online, maybe because I don't know ...
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### Reaction to increase and diminish mass at will (forward and reverse reactions) [closed]

Non-professional question... Is there currently a method for converting mass to/from another form of energy? This would be like an exothermic reaction in that mass is consumed, but it would also have ...