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Questions tagged [thermodynamics]

Covers the study of (mostly homogeneous) macroscopic systems from a heat/energy/entropy point of view. Consider also using tag: [statistical-mechanics].

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Can Lee-Yang zeros theorem account for triple point phase transition?

Now the prominent Lee-Yang theorem (or Physical Review 87, 410, 1952) has almost become a standard ingredient of any comprehensive statistical mechanics textbook. If the volume tends to infinity, ...
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Demystifying jamming in many-body systems

From a theoretical point of view, what has been the most successful approach to understanding jamming phenomena? I understand there's still a lot of debate around this subject, namely whether a ...
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What are good books covering information theoretic approaches to theoretical physics?

I am about to finish my undergraduate studies and am very interested in going into the applications of information theory to either general relativity, or quantum mechanics. However I have been ...
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Why there is no chemical potential on this thermodynamic relation?

I was following the book by Landau and Lifshitz, Fluid Mechanics (2nd edition) and got stuck trying to understand one of their arguments. On the chapter about Relativistic Fluid Dynamics it is stated ...
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Phil Anderson's Criticism of Existence of Stable Dissipative Structures

In this book chapter (1987), titled "Broken symmetry, emergent properties, dissipative structures, life," Phil Anderson and Daniel Stein criticize defining life as a dissipative structure (a ...
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Radiative equilibrium in orbit of a black hole

According to Life under a black sun, Miller's planet from Interstellar, with a time dilation factor of 60,000, should be heated to around 890C by blue-shifted cosmic background radiation. How they ...
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Can a substance have zero vapour pressure above absolute zero?

According to this Reddit thread, the answer is no, vapor pressure can't be zero when temperature is above absolute zero. I suspect the answer might actually be yes according to a precise definition I ...
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176 views

On Ricci flow and 'nonlinear relativistic heat equation

This is somewhat related to a previous question, but is different at the core. I proposed a Relativistic Ricci flow equation that takes the form $$\frac{\partial R}{\partial t} = \alpha \Box^2 R = -...
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A theoretical model for evaporation occurring when wind is blowing over the surface of water

I've recently done an experiment in which I was studying the variation of the cooling rate of hot water in a draft (wind). The air was blow directly over the surface of the water (kept in a ...
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Nose-Hoover Barostat

Much can be found about the Nose-Hoover Thermostat. However I seem to be having difficulty finding out details about the Nose-Hoover Barostat, and how it is implemented. Would anyone be able to give ...
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Coarse graining on measurement vs phase space (second law)

I've followed Leonard Susskinds series on "the theoretical minimum". In the entropy/reversibility episode in statistical mechanics, he explains (at least one way of) how the apparent paradox of ...
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The surface area to volume ratio of a sphere and the Bekenstein bound

I am trying to relate the surface-area-to-volume-ratio of a sphere to the Bekenstein bound. Since the surface-area-to-volume-ratio decreases with increasing volume, one would surmise that, per unit of ...
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How to obtain the free energy of the canonical ensemble in Euclidean general relativity?

If the gravitational field couples with matter fields, such as a charged scalar field, I know the partition function of the grand canonical ensemble naturally relates to the path-integral expression ...
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Lattice model completely constrained by boundary data

I am dealing with a lattice model that has the peculiar property that if I specify all the spins on the boundary, by local conservation laws, the whole lattice configuration (throughout the whole ...
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experiment proposal to validate microcausality

I've been wondering about microcausality for some time now (a recent question of mine regarding the topic) and i'm wondering if its possible to devise an experiment to detect potential violations I ...
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Bose Condensation; interacting vs. non-interacting

I have some problems unifying, the two way I learned how a Bose condensate appears. The main problem is that the observables seem to be quite different. In statistical physics lecture one starts with ...
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Is there a difference in the infrared absorption spectrum of a greenhouse gas when pure and when mixed with non-greenhouse gases?

According to the standard IPCC greenhouse climate change hypothesis a doubling of the preindustrial CO2 concentration of 285 ppm in the atmosphere - the current value is 405 ppm - would lead to an ...
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Can any element be a metal?

I was reading that hydrogen can become a metal in some cases, like in Jupiter, and the same for helium. Is this true for all non-metals?
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Is it possible to derive Liouville's Theorem purely from maximum differential entropy?

Typically in physics (at least the way I learned mechanics), this is derived using the multi-dimensional divergence theorem on the $2N$-dimensional phase space i.e. $0=\partial_t \rho + \sum\limits_{...
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Why only even powers of the order parameter in the Ginzburg-Landau theory for superconductivity

Why when applying the Ginzburg-Landau theory for superconductors and expanding the free energy in terms the order parameter $\psi$ one has to consider only the even powers of $|\psi|$? I suppose it ...
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How to calculate the energy transfer between working coil and working piece and dissipated energy of working piece in induction heating?

For who don't know how does induction heating work, a short description can be found here. However, my question is about physics. Assume I have a coil inductor calculated carefully 50 uH as below: ...
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Violations of Onsager reciprocity?

As far as I understand it, the modern statement of Onsager reciprocity is that the linear-response transport coefficient matrix, when transposed, is equal to that of the time-reversed system (reversed ...
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Thermodynamic equilibrium or thermal equilibrium and equipartition theorem

In all derivations of the equipartition theorem I can find a thermodynamic equilibrium distribution is used to show it's validity. But more vague sources (physics.stackexchange answer by Luboš Motl, ...
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Dimensional inconsistency in first law of black hole thermodynamics

The first law of black hole mechanics (let's simplify by considering a uncharged and non-rotating black hole) can be written as $$\delta M = T \delta S$$ If I use the definition of Hawking ...
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What is the link between free energy and lagrangian?

Free energy is a generalization of energy when the system exchanges heat with the environment. Energy, in its turn, can be extracted from lagrangian under the symmetry of time $(\frac{\partial L}{\...
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What groups of symmetry are most suited for filling uniformely a spherical 3D space, whilst possessing the lowest possible surface-to-volume ratio?

I am looking for the closest known approximate solution to Kelvin foams problem that would obey a spherical symmetry. One alternative way of formulating it: I am looking for an equivalent of Weaire–...
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An explanation for the Landauer's principle

Has anyone understood the Landauer's principle? What is the current status? In specific, is there a theoretical derivation of the Landauer's Principle?(not the heuristic one based on Salizard's ...
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What happens to topological insulators at finite temperature?

There is a similar question here, but I had a few things I wanted to ask. So basically pretty much all analysis/ theory of topological insulators is for pure wave-functions and conservative ...
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How does renormalization relate to emergence?

In statistical mechanics renormalization is often related to coarse-graining which in turn allows to calculate some macroscopic states. The resulting macroscopic description is sometimes called ...
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Weird and unintuitive results from thermodynamics/hydrostatics for an isothermal atmosphere and possible explanation(?)

It is known from hydrostatics that for a fluid in equilibrium in a gravitational field, $$\frac{dP}{dz} = -ρg$$ Let us from now on suppose the atmosphere is isothermal and has temperature $T$. We ...
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Pitch change opening thermos flask

If I return to my (closed) thermos flask for some more coffee, I hear a ringing sound as I open the flask (it is all metal), but the pitch of the ring increases as the sound fades - duration on the ...
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What are some good articles on trend to equilibrium?

I am interested in studying systems out of equilibrium that are trending to equilibrium. Trend to equilibrium, entropy production, etc. seem to be very tricky topics. Any suggestions will be ...
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Is there any example of a real-life system which violates the “third law” of thermodynamics while remaining at equilibrium?

I assume the following statement for the "third law" of thermodynamics: $$\lim_{N \to \infty} \lim_{T \to 0} \frac{S}{N} = 0 \tag{1}\label{1}$$ That is to say, I am considering those systems with a ...
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Do information entropy and thermodynamic entropy evolve the same way?

Recently I asked a question about the relationship between Von Neumann entropy and heat transfer. The link is here. Is the Von Neumann entropy related to heat transfer? I feel as though the answer ...
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Entropy of a Bose-Einstein condensate

I would like to understand why Bose-Einstein condensation can occur only for $d>2$ dimensions. Therefore, I want to know what the entropy of a Bose-Einstein condensate is. The grand canonical ...
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Can BMS Supertranslations Make a Black Hole Naked?

I recently learned that the BMS supertranslations actually add hairs to black holes and physically change the metric. In such a scenario, I am very curious to know if the black hole can be overcharged ...
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Are there actual technical realizations of the Carnot cycle?

The Carnot cycle is composed of four steps: isothermal expansion, adiabatic expansion, isothermal compression and adiabatic compression. In the case of combustion engines, we have the idealized Otto ...
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What is finally entropy?

Let's say that a layman reads the definitions of entropy with the chronological order of their formulation. First definition: heat weighted by temperature inverted. Second definition: logarithm of ...
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Can dark energy be explained by 2nd law of thermodynamics?

The second law of thermodynamics states that entropy cannot decrease over time. If entropy is simply the description of how "uniformly" spread out energy is over space then doesn't it follow, as a ...
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Bekenstein bound and “dimensionality” of information (entropy)

The Bekenstein bound says that the maximum entropy which can be contained in a (spherical) volume of space with a given amount of energy is proportional to the amount of energy multiplied by the "...
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How can I test whether my cloud chamber is supersaturated or not?

Me and my friend are building a diffusion cloud chamber for a school project. In stead of using dry ice or a peltier, we have used the phase changer of a freezer to cool our plate. We were able to ...
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Unruh effect, temperature and energy density

The Unruh effect basically states that an accelerated observer will see warm gas of particles following a blackbody distribution with some temperature T, where as an inertial observer would see none. ...
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Is there an equation of state for a non-ideal Fermi gas?

For a gas of self-interacting electrons (i.e. a non-ideal Fermi gas), is there is there any sense in trying to define an equation of state? If so, what is the equation of state for a gas of electrons? ...
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Why isn't cosmic microwave background radiation on Earth drowned out by thermal noise

The Penzias/Wilson experiment, which detected the CMB, doesn't sound feasible given thermal noise. When Penzias and Wilson reduced their data they found a low, steady, mysterious noise that ...
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Merger of old black holes

On the eve of a possible announcement on the production of gravitational waves via a black hole merger, I think this question is quite aptly timed. I have a few questions regarding the evolution of ...
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Physical interpretation of the chemical potential in Bose and Fermionic gas

I understand that both Fermions and bosons have the chemical potential $\nu <0$ when it is T>0, but still behave classically, the fermions would increase its chemical potential at T=0, whereas the ...
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A problem with ADM mass in the derivation of 1st law of black hole thermodynamics

The definition of ADM mass is $$M=\frac{1}{16\pi}\lim_{r\rightarrow\infty}\int \left(\frac{\partial h_{\mu\nu}}{\partial x^\mu}-\frac{\partial h_{\mu\mu}}{\partial x^\nu} \right)N^\nu dA$$ according ...
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Material preventing nucleation, why is it not used for soda container?

I would like to know the answer to the question "why do materials preventing heterogeneous nucleation of $CO_2$ aren't used for soda bottles and glasses?". Two possible answers so far that I thought ...
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Is Gibbs free energy really a true energy that can be used to do work?

Gibbs energy came from the relation $$\Delta S_\text{universe}= \Delta S_\text{surroundings}+\Delta S_\text{system}\ge 0.$$ By little algebra, we can arrive at $$\Delta S_\text{universe}= \frac{-\...
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What happens to the observed thermal energy of objects at relativistic speeds?

When an object is observed to move near the speed of light, what difference in thermal energy is observed? Does time dilation imply that it's colder?