Questions tagged [terminology]

Use this for questions relating to the proper use of physics terminology or nomenclature.

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36 views

What is the use of $g$-factor for magnetic moment of electron?

$g$-factor is also called the spectroscopic splitting factor according to "Introduction to Solid State Physics" by Charles Kittel. So it can be presumed that it is related to the splitting of levels ...
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4answers
630 views

If velocity in forward and backward directions is positive and negative respectively, then what is it in left and right directions? [closed]

I have defined velocity in forward direction to be positive and negative in the backward direction. So what is the velocity if the body is moving right or left?
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2answers
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What is difference between periodic & oscillatory motions?

I read about two motions of objects Periodic motion & Oscillatory motion. Are they same motion? If not what is the basic difference between these two motions?
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2answers
93 views

More appropriate statement for the SHM

I know that the energy of SHM is given by $$E=\frac 12 kA^2$$ So which of these is more appropriate to say? Energy is increases because amplitude is increased. Amplitude is increased because ...
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2answers
78 views

Why Pauli called the swap matrix $σ_x$? Why not $σ_y$?

Why Pauli called the following matrix $\:\sigma_x\:$ and not $\:\sigma_y$? \begin{equation} \sigma_x\boldsymbol{=} \begin{bmatrix} 0 & 1 \vphantom{\tfrac{a}{b}}\\ 1 & 0 \vphantom{\tfrac{a}{b}}...
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1answer
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Is there a name for the way parallel resistors (and others) are added?

I find this formula appears often in physics, To add resistors in parallel, we do $\frac{1}{R_e}=\frac{1}{R_1}+\frac{1}{R_2}+...$ To add springs in series, we do $\frac{1}{k_e}=\frac{1}{k_1}+\frac{1}...
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2answers
27 views

Is angle of friction and angle of repose one and the same?

$$\theta=\tan^{-1}\mu_s$$ Are they both same ? If they are same then what is the reason/history behind this redundant nomenclature?
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1answer
30 views

What is the difference between elastic and acoustic waves?

On Wikipedia, it is written that acoustic waves are elastic waves. If they are the same then why do we have two different names? Can someone please explain the difference between these two types of ...
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1answer
35 views

What is aperture of a lens?

I read that aperture of a lens is the surface from which refraction takes place and it is represented by the diameter of the lens. So, by saying that the aperture refers to the surface from which ...
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3answers
80 views

What is a 'statistical operator' in quantum mechanics?

What is a 'statistical operator' in quantum mechanics? How is it different from just an operator? Are there any operator properties (e.g., normal, Hermitian, unitary, etc.) universally attributable to ...
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Understanding Nomenclature in Streamline-Upwind-Petrov-Galerkin (SUPG) Stabilization

I'm working with the Navier Stokes equation for unstable incompressible fluids. $$\frac{∂u}{∂t} + (u∇)u - ∇δ = f$$\ where: $\frac{∂u}{∂t}$ -variation field\ $(u∇)u$ -convection term\ $∇δ $ - ...
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Why are luminous intensity, luminous flux and illuminance physical quantities if they are based on the sensitivity of the human eye?

If luminous intensity and other derived quantities are based on the luminosity function, which is based on the sensitivity of the human eye, why are they physical quantities? Why is luminous intensity ...
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2answers
27 views

What is the term to describe when pressure exerted between two obejcts is balanced?

I'm searching for a term here. All materials compress (some more than others). Newton's Third law states: ...all forces between two objects exist in equal magnitude and opposite direction: if ...
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30 views

What's the antonym for Tidally Locked?

Is there a specific term to refer to celestial bodies that are NOT tidally locked?
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1answer
42 views

Terminology about the tensorial represention of a group

This could be extremely trivial but i need to be sure I am not wrong. I am encountering many times statements where the author says "Tensors are examples of representations for the Lorentz group". ...
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3answers
70 views

What is meant by transmission voltage?

I had a question in class that went : $120$kW of power is generated at a power plant and is then transmitted. The resistance in the transmission lines is $0.4 \Omega$. Calculate the power lost as ...
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Is hidden valley theory a subset of hidden sector theory or is it synonym?

Is hidden valley theory a subset of hidden sector theory or is it synonym ?
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1answer
21 views

How does one draw and notate a pressure gradient vector arrow?

How does one draw and notate a pressure gradient vector arrow? In the figure below I drew two options that came to mind: Arrow (1) and associated notation Eqn (1), and Arrow (2) and associated ...
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1answer
62 views

The eigenstates, basis states, and the ground state on two-state quantum system

In the quantum mechanics, special states such as eigenstate, basis states, and ground state are defined. I may be know these definitions, but I'm very confusing; this confusion occurred when I ...
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1answer
31 views

Is there any difference between expectation value and average value in quantum mechanics?

Is there any difference between expectation value and average value in quantum mechanics? If there is no difference then why give them different names?
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2answers
835 views

Name of concept: Replace classical variables by quantum operators

I feel like there was a name for this sleight of hand approach and I've been unsuccessfully trying to google it for a while. I think Heisenberg introduced it and it's basically "putting hats on all ...
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1answer
69 views

Conjugate relations?

I was going through time reversal symmetry and came across the term 'conjugate relation'. The text is Next, in classical mechanics, the initial conditions of a motion $x(t)$ transform under time ...
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2answers
101 views

What is global Lorentz transformation and what is local Lorentz transformation?

I will consider $\textbf{spacetime}$ as $(M,\eta)$ where $M$ is a four dimensional $\textbf{manifold}$ and $\eta$ the metric which in this coordinates $$ \begin{align*} x \colon M &\...
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2answers
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What makes materials soft/bendy? What is the specific name for this property?

What is the name of the property that materials like cloth have that allows it to be bent or folded on itself without any significant elasticity, but also not permanently deformed either? Softness? ...
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Can an affine first-order polynomial system be chaotic?

While studying chaos theory, one of the basic principles presented to me was that chaos only occurs in deterministic nonlinear systems. This pointed me to learn more about the differences between ...
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1answer
21 views

I want to know about the synodic and sidereal months. Why is there a difference between the two? [closed]

I want to know about the synodic and sidereal months. Why is there a difference between the two?
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1answer
116 views

Is there a difference between a field and a function? [duplicate]

Any field (in the physics sense of the word) is a function. But is any function a field? It seems that one might construct a function that returns a tuple consisting of $6$, temperature and electric ...
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1answer
78 views

What is the definition of the Potential of Mean Force (PMF) in physics jargon?

What's the common term for PMF in statistical physics? Is it plausible to use the chemists' PMF even in non-equilibrium systems that don't follow the canonical ensemble rules or Maxwell-Boltzmann ...
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1answer
27 views

Name for pouring water oscillations?

When you pour a container of water but then it starts to push against itself and then starts pouring in pulses, what is that phenomena called and is there a way to get rid of it?
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2answers
25 views

Understanding error analysis terminology

I'm working in a lab, and the terminology in error analysis is confusing me. Lets say I have a theory that claims the fine structure constant is exactly 1/137. My current reference tells me that the ...
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3answers
152 views

Is torsion a property of a manifold or of a connection?

In the standard presentation of general relativity, one adopts the Levi-Civita connection and the Christophel symbols; one has $\Gamma^a_{bc} = \Gamma^a_{cb}$ and the torsion tensor is zero. But of ...
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1answer
28 views

Correlation among the terms “convergence”, “accumulation” and “explosion” [closed]

I am developing an essay on music perception by approaching some mathematical and physical notions. As such, the term I am addressing and interested in is the "convergence", which pairs in mathematics ...
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1answer
65 views

Meaning of “interpolating field”

I have a doubt about an expression largely used in Physics: "Denote $\phi(x)$ a field that interpolates the particle $A(p)$, i.e. a field such that $\langle A(p)|\phi(x)|0\rangle \neq 0$". What ...
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1answer
374 views

What's the difference between Laplace Force and Lorentz force?

Currently we are studying Laplace force, when I searched, I found also the Lorentz force, and I'm lost right now, I tried to understand it but I could not ! $$F=I\vec l \wedge \vec B$$ I didn't ...
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3answers
286 views

What does quantised mean?

I was reading an article (forgot the link) but it said "The energy levels of the electron in a hydrogen atom are quantised". What do they mean by the term quantised?
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1answer
51 views

Expected value of operator or expected value of observable?

A question about terminology. I have seen both $\langle p\rangle$ and $\langle\hat{p}\rangle$ to calculate the expected value of momentum (same thing with position, energy etc.). The first one would ...
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1answer
50 views

Why do some writers on EM theory call the displacement $\vec D$ a field? It's a hybrid quantity - a field ($\vec E$) plus a charge displacement vector

Gauss' equation for free space balances the number of charges in a volume with the amount of $\vec E$ field flux through the surface of the volume. When material is included in the volume, a new term ...
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1answer
75 views

Accelerator terminology: betatron coupling, $\beta$-beat, chromatic coupling and beam tune

While reading papers on HEP, I often come across the following terms. Unfortunately, Google is not always helpful as it returns only papers related to the topic(s) and not something like a Wikipedia ...
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1answer
22 views

What do the phrases “connected therewith” and “direct contact” in Clausius's law mean?

I have questions about Clausius's law. The specific questions are: 【My Questions】 (1)What and what is connected in “connected therewith” in 【Quote 1】 below? (2) Give me some specific examples of "...
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1answer
55 views

What does the resistance of same order means in wheatstone bridge means?

As we know that in order to increase the sensitivity of wheat stone bridge resistance are of same order but here what exactly order means can anyone give me an example of this order?
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2answers
109 views

What does it mean to say we have a QFT?

When can we say that the particular action/ Lagrangian we write is an QFT? Does it have to be perturbatively renormalisable? Not allow for negative norm states? The gauge theories we write in 4D, ...
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1answer
115 views

Nomenclature in QM textbook by Landau and Lifshitz

According to Landau and Lifshitz ["Quantum Mechanics non-relativistic theory", page 6], the probability of various results of any measurement is given, in general by the following expression: $$\iint \...
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2answers
161 views

What does meant AC corona? Any connection to coronavirus? [closed]

In the abstract of this paper Authors said in abstract of that paper entitled Simulation of the AC corona phenomenon with experimental validation : ".....,This phenomenon is also associated with ...
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1answer
47 views

Is there a difference between collision and a hit? [closed]

Is hitting and colliding the same? For example, a bat hitting a ball is the same as a ball colliding with another ball. Can we use the same mathematics to calculate them?
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2answers
114 views

What is the difference between circular and rotational motion? [closed]

I am asking what is the difference between circular and rotational motion. Please explain.
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1answer
38 views

Is instability + sensitivity to initial conditions = Chaos?

Please correct me where wrong. I am having trouble finding answers to these specific questions. (1) In chaotic systems, does the presence of chaos and a strange attractor indicate that there is no ...
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1answer
29 views

What is a notional measurement?

I was reading a paper which was discussing its experimental procedure: The measured slabs were a notional 25 mm wide and each sample was measured for width and thickness with a micrometer prior ...
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2answers
93 views

Differences between “cold” and “collisionless” plasma

I'm just stepping for the first time into plasma physics and I'm studying on Chen's "Introduction to plasma physics" and on the notes of professor Richard Fitzpatrick. I just seem to not have clear ...
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1answer
31 views

Chaos synchronization & Desynchronization- terms and concepts

I am new to the world of chaos theory & control. I am reading the paper, "Synchronization of chaotic systems " https://aip.scitation.org/doi/full/10.1063/1.4917383 I have some basic questions ...
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1answer
42 views

Is it a convention to take the dipole moment vector $\vec p$ in the direction opposite to the electric field?

Is it a convention to take the dipole moment vector $\vec p$ in the direction opposite to the electric field? Or it is proved by mathematics

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