Questions tagged [terminology]

Use this for questions relating to the proper use of physics terminology or nomenclature.

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77
votes
14answers
151k views

What is the difference between “kinematics” and “dynamics”?

I have noticed that authors in the literature sometimes divide characteristics of some phenomenon into "kinematics" and "dynamics". I first encountered this in Jackson's E&M book, where, in ...
73
votes
19answers
37k views

Is weight a scalar or a vector?

My professor insists that weight is a scalar. I sent him an email explaining why it's a vector, I even sent him a source from NASA clearly labeling weight as a vector. Every other source also ...
65
votes
8answers
35k views

Are matrices and second rank tensors the same thing?

Tensors are mathematical objects that are needed in physics to define certain quantities. I have a couple of questions regarding them that need to be clarified: Are matrices and second rank tensors ...
53
votes
3answers
37k views

What does Enthalpy mean?

What is meant by enthalpy? My professor tells me "heat content". That literally makes no sense. Heat content, to me, means internal energy. But clearly, that is not what enthalpy is, considering: $H=U+...
51
votes
6answers
7k views

What is the connection between special and general relativity?

What is the connection between special and general relativity? As I understand general relativity does not need the assumption on speed of light constant. It is about the relation between mass and ...
49
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4answers
10k views

Is Pauli-repulsion a “force” that is completely separate from the 4 fundamental forces?

You can have two electrons that experience each other's force by the exchange of photons (i.e. the electromagnetic force). Yet if you compress them really strongly, the electromagnetic interaction ...
33
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5answers
4k views

Hilbert space vs. Projective Hilbert space

Hilbert space and rays: In a very general sense, we say that quantum states of a quantum mechanical system correspond to rays in the Hilbert space $\mathcal{H}$, such that for any $c∈ℂ$ the state $\...
33
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2answers
5k views

Definitions: 'locality' vs 'causality'

I'm having trouble unambiguously interpreting many answers here due to the fact that the terms locality and causality are sometimes used interchangeably, while other times seem to mean very different ...
31
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3answers
3k views

What is a “decade” as a unit of measure (ex. a decade of the EM spectrum)?

Reading through papers and online sources about radio galaxies, I kept stumbling across a term--a "decade" of the electromagnetic spectrum. Radio galaxy emission encompasses "11 decades of the EM ...
31
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6answers
4k views

Is the Big Bang defined as before or after Inflation?

Is the Big Bang defined as before or after Inflation? Seems like a simple enough question to answer right? And if just yesterday I were to encounter this, I'd have given a definite answer. But I've ...
31
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4answers
3k views

“Slightly off-shell”?

I'm not new to QFT, yet there are some matters which are quite puzzling to me. I often come across the statement that real particles (the ones we actually measure in experiments, not virtual ones) are ...
30
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5answers
4k views

Why are the number of magnetic field lines finite in a particular area?

One can draw/imagine as many unique (curved/straight) lines as he/she wants in some specified finite area (assuming that each line is unique if it doesn't overlap with another line). Then how can the ...
28
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5answers
31k views

Difference between theoretical physics and mathematical physics?

I'm a huge fan of mathematical physics and I know what the formal definitions of those two areas are, I've seen them. But I still get completely baffled when someone asks me to explain it simply. The ...
28
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3answers
17k views

What's the difference between inclusive and exclusive decays?

For example, why is the semileptonic $B$ decay $B \to X\ell\nu$ inclusive? I can't find any definition of these frequently used terms, strange.
27
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5answers
7k views

What is a state in physics?

What is a state in physics? While reading physics, I have heard many a times a "___" system is in "____" state but the definition of a state was never provided (and googling brings me totally ...
26
votes
4answers
87k views

What is difference between homogeneous and isotropic material?

When do we say a material is isotropic? When properties such as density, Young's modulus etc. are same in all directions. If these properties are direction-dependent then we can say that the material ...
26
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3answers
14k views

What is a mode?

The word mode pops up in many fields of physics, yet I can't remember ever encountering a simple but precise definition. After having searched fruitlessly on this site as well, I feel that even ...
26
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4answers
1k views

What precisely is a *classical* spin-1/2 particle?

I was recently having a Twitter conversation with a UC Riverside Prof. John Carlos Baez about Geometric Quantization, and he said (about his work) that "Right. For example, you can get the ...
25
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3answers
2k views

Quantum field theory variants

Wikipedia describes many variants of quantum field theory: conformal quantum field theory topological quantum field theory axiomatic/constructive quantum field theory algebraic quantum field theory ...
25
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1answer
4k views

Difference between 1PI effective action and Wilsonian effective action?

What is the simplest way to describe the difference between these two concepts, that often go by the same name?
25
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2answers
82k views

What exactly is the difference between advection and convection?

After reading Wikipedia articles on advection and convection, I still cannot determine whether there is a consensus on a difference between these two terms. Sometimes, the term convection seems to ...
24
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7answers
4k views

Gibbs free energy intuition

What is Gibbs free energy? As my book explains: Gibbs energy is the energy of a system available for work. So, what does it want to tell? Why is it free? Energy means ability to do work. What is ...
24
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4answers
3k views

What does “Relativistic” mean in Quantum Mechanical Terms?

I was reading recently how the compatibility of quantum mechanics with special relativity was initially a problem for physicists and then Dirac succeeded in formulating a relativistic, quantum-...
24
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5answers
7k views

Is there a rigorous definition of 'much greater than'?

I have encountered $\gg$ in many physics text books where it's used as a relation between constants or functions but in none of the text books I have read is it properly defined anywhere. If $A \gg ...
24
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3answers
3k views

What does it mean for a law to be fundamental?

I was recently reading up about Coulomb's law and Gauss law and several sources seemed to state that the Gauss law was more "fundamental" than Coulomb's law even though one is deducible from the other,...
24
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5answers
2k views

Should it be obvious that independent quantum states are composed by taking the tensor product?

My text introduces multi-quibt quantum states with the example of a state that can be "factored" into two (non-entangled) substates. It then goes on to suggest that it should be obvious1 that the ...
23
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7answers
3k views

Terminology confusion - “particle”

I am confused about the word "particle" being used in academic contexts. Some professors at my university are adamant on the fact that particles do not exist, and only fields, as per QFT. One of them ...
23
votes
5answers
66k views

What's the difference between Fermi Energy and Fermi Level?

I'm a bit confused about the difference between these two concepts. According to Wikipedia the Fermi energy and Fermi level are closely related concepts. From my understanding, the Fermi energy is the ...
23
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2answers
4k views

Why is the cut off mass for massive stars 8 solar masses? Why can't it be 10-11 solar masses or so?

I know that stars having a mass greater than or equal to 8 solar masses are termed "massive stars". But why is the cut-off 8 solar masses?
23
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3answers
20k views

What is meant by the term “completeness relation”

From my humble (physicist) mathematics training, I have a vague notion of what a Hilbert space actually is mathematically, i.e. an inner product space that is complete, with completeness in this sense ...
22
votes
12answers
5k views

Escape velocity - Won't the orbital path just become larger with higher initial velocity?

Escape velocity is the minimum speed needed for an object to escape from the gravitational influence of a massive body. However, gravity has infinite range. Object $A$ is always getting pulled by the ...
22
votes
3answers
11k views

What is the difference between maximally entangled and maximally mixed states?

To my understanding, mixed states is composed of various states with their corresponding probabilities, but what is the actual difference between maximally mixed states and maximally entangled states?
22
votes
4answers
152k views

What exactly is the difference between radiation, conduction, and convection?

Okay, so everywhere I've read, I hear the main difference is the requirement of a medium. But for example, if you take the case of heat 'radiating' from a red-hot iron, isn't that actually convection ...
22
votes
11answers
31k views

What is the difference between electric potential, potential difference (PD), voltage and electromotive force (EMF)?

This is a confused part ever since I started learning electricity. What is the difference between electric potential, potential difference (PD), voltage and electromotive force (EMF)? All of them have ...
21
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2answers
10k views

Differences between symmetric, Hermitian, self-adjoint, and essentially self-adjoint operators

I am a physicist. I always heard physicists used the terminology "symmetric", "Hermitian", "self-adjoint", and "essentially self-adjoint" operators interchangeably. Actually what is the difference ...
21
votes
1answer
1k views

Why are gauge theories called so?

Why are gauge theories called so? I guessed it was because gauge also means to estimate, so when one is trying to find the gauge theory for such and such interactions one has to estimate what might be ...
21
votes
2answers
3k views

What is crossover?

It is known that electroweak and QCD phase transitions in the standard model are so-called “crossovers” [1]. What is the difference between a crossover and a phase transition of the second kind? [1] ...
21
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3answers
3k views

What is “code” in “toric code”?

When I first heard people talking about using Kitaev's toric code to do topological quantum computation, I was thinking how many lines does the toric code have. Then I was told that the "code" really ...
20
votes
3answers
60k views

Is time a Scalar or a Vector?

In Wikipedia it's said that time is a scalar quantity. But its hard to understand that how? As stated that we consider only the magnitude of time then its a scalar. But on basis of time we define ...
20
votes
3answers
3k views

What does “the ${\bf N}$ of a group” mean?

In the context of group theory (in my case, applications to physics), I frequently come across the phrase "the ${\bf N}$ of a group", for example "a ${\bf 24}$ of $\mathrm{SU}(5)$" or "the ${\bf 1}$ ...
20
votes
2answers
14k views

What is the difference between configuration space and phase space?

What is the difference between configuration space and phase space? In particular, I notices that Lagrangians are defined over configuration space and Hamiltonians over phase space. Liouville's ...
19
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1answer
2k views

Why is quantum mechanics called 0+1 dimensional QFT?

I know that quantum mechanics is sometimes called 0+1 dimensional quantum field theory. What is the meaning? How should we understand it?
19
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1answer
4k views

What came first, Rice Crispy or “Snap,” “Crackle,” and “Pop”? [closed]

The fourth, fifth, and sixth derivatives of position are called "Snap" "Crackle" and "Pop". What came first, the rice crispy characters, or the physics units?
19
votes
1answer
216 views

Is there an official name for “Lorentz Pairs” like energy and momentum?

In learning about relativity I've noticed that in the construction of Lorentz invariants (specifically four-vectors) two physical quantities that were previously considered distinct are instead ...
18
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9answers
7k views

The instant an accelerating object has zero speed, is it speeding up, slowing down, or neither?

This problem is from Khan Academy. Specifically for the blue point circled in red, the answer is that at this blue point, the object is neither speeding up nor slowing down. When I think about the ...
18
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7answers
2k views

What is “special” and what is “general” in Relativity?

Initially I thought in special relativity the velocity was constant, whereas general relativity allowed treatment of accelerated frames as well. But now I have heard that SR is only valid locally?
18
votes
2answers
8k views

What is a non linear $\sigma$ model?

What exactly is a non linear $\sigma$ model? In many books one can view many different types of non linear $\sigma$ models but I don't understand what is the link between all of them and why it is ...
18
votes
2answers
3k views

What is “Dynamical phase transition”?

What is "Dynamical phase transition"? It is a fancy notion now. But what exactly does it mean? What is the difference between it and the conventional phase transition?
18
votes
6answers
4k views

Difference between discretization and quantization in physics

I am just trying to understand the fundamental difference between these two concepts in physics: From discreteness of some quantity: one usually interprets it as a quantity being only able to take on ...
18
votes
5answers
71k views

How do the terms comet, asteroid, meteoroid, meteor and meteorite differ?

These terms are frequently used interchangeably by the uninitiated to mean approximately a “space rock”. In practical terms, how do their meanings differ?

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