Questions tagged [tensor-calculus]

Tensor calculus (tensor analysis) is a systematic extension of vector calculus to multivector and tensor fields in a form that is independent of the choice of coordinates on the relevant manifold, but which accounts for respective sub-spaces, their symmetries, and their connections.

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Are there physical quantities constitute of magnitude, direction and rotation along that direction?

There are scalar quantities(magnitude) and vector quantities(magnitude and direction), but are there fundamental quantities that also depends on how it's oriented/rotated along the direction(magnitude,...
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Yang-Mills Bianchi identity in tensor notation vs form notation

I've seen the Yang-Mills Bianchi identity written as both $$0 = dF^a + f^{abc} A^b \wedge F^c$$ and, in tensor notation, as $$\epsilon^{\mu\nu\lambda\sigma}D_{\nu} F^a_{\lambda\sigma} = 0.$$ Here ...
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Trace of second-order tensor and its invariance under coordinate transformation

Let's consider an arbitrary scalar field. If I act twice on the scalar field with a gradient operator, I will obtain second-order tensor. If I will take a trace of this tensor, I will obtain another ...
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Upper bound for norm of 1-body correlation tensor of qubit

Any $n$-qubit state can be expressed as $$\rho=\frac{1}{2^{n}} \sum_{\mu_{1}, \ldots, \mu_{n}=0,1,2,3} T_{\mu_{1}, \ldots, \mu_{n}} \sigma_{\mu_{1}} \otimes \ldots \otimes \sigma_{\mu_{n}}$$ where $...
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What is the magnitude of a tensor property in a fixed direction?

If I have a physical property represented by a $3 \times 3$ tensor, how can I find its magnitude in a particular direction, say $(\phi, \theta)$ in spherical coordinate system?
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Dirac matrices for generalized metric tensors

The Dirac matrices are defined by the relations $$\left [\gamma^{i},\gamma^{j}\right]_{+}=2\eta^{i,j}\mathbb{1}$$ where $[\cdot,\cdot]_{+}$ is the anti-commutator. What happens if I replace $\eta^{i,...
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Vector Calculus Recommendations [duplicate]

Is there any book which teaches multivariable calculus from a physics perspective? I understand math a lot better when it is applied to physics, and I was wondering if there is a "physical" approach ...
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159 views

Varying covariant derivatives

If we take a variation of a covariant derivative, we must take into account the connections, so we get: $$ \delta (\nabla_\beta T_{\mu \nu}) = \nabla_\beta \delta(T_{\mu \nu}) -\delta (\Gamma_{\beta ...
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Riemann Dual Tensor and Scalar Field Theory

I'm trying to find the component equation of motion for the action in a paper. The action for the system is, $$S=\frac{m_P^2}{8\pi}\int d^4x\sqrt{-g}\bigg(\frac{R}{2}-\frac{1}{2}\partial_\mu\phi\...
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Tensors time derivative in moving frames

I know that the following relation exists between the time derivative of a proper vector "v" in an "absolute" frame A and the time derivative of the same vector in a "relatively moving" frame B: $$ \...
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How do you work out the coefficients of the metric tensor?

The definitions of covariant and contravariant tensor quantities are that they transform as $A' ^i=\frac{\partial x_j}{\partial x'_i} A^j$ and $A'_i=\frac{\partial x'_i}{\partial x_j}A_j$ respectively,...
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Identity for the inverse metric tensor using its determinant

I would like to prove this relation: $$g^{\mu\nu} = \frac{1}{3!} \frac{1}{g} \epsilon^{\mu\rho\sigma\kappa}\epsilon^{\nu\alpha\beta\gamma} g_{\rho\alpha} g_{\sigma\beta} g_{\kappa\gamma}, \tag{1}$$ ...
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How does the stress energy tensor change in different reference frames?

Is the Stress-Energy tensor invariant in all RFs? If not (which is highly probable) how does it change? EDIT: does the Einstein equation help? Since (without $\Lambda$) $$ R_{\alpha\beta} -\frac{1}{2}...
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Can we generalize matrix model theory?

As in the question, can matrix model theory be generalized to a tensor model theory? Will the results be different or useful in describing real world phenomena? Details: in matrix model theory we ...
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Is the inertia tensor a tensor field?

The inertia tensor seems like it cannot depend in any way on position, but every other tensor in physics is a tensor field (stress tensor, electromagnetic tensor...) so, which is it?
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Looking for physical intuition into the Electromagnetic Tensor:

I have done some work with the electromagnetic tensor and I'm fairly good at manipulating it and using it to transform the Maxwell Equations into tensored forms. Admittedly though, I have no physical ...
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Do the Christoffel symbols $\Gamma_{rn}^w\partial_sV_w = \Gamma_{sn}^w\partial_rV_w$?

In lecture 3 (about 97 min into the lecture) of Leonard Susskind's general relativity course, he suggests finding the Riemann curvature tensor in terms of the Christoffel symbols as an exercise. I ...
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How to prove that the covariant derivative obeys the product rule [closed]

In General Relativity the covariant derivative of contravariant vectors $A^\mu$ is: \begin{equation} \nabla_\mu A^\nu=\partial_\mu A^\nu+\Gamma^\nu_{\mu\alpha}A^\alpha \end{equation} where $\Gamma^\...
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Contracting Riemann Tensor Troubles

It has been several years since I looked at General relativity, and I am trying to brush up on it because it was always interesting and I am in need of it for my research. Specifically, I am looking ...
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General relativity: Principle of minimal coupling computations

I have a question about computations in general relativity and transition from a Lorentz frame to a general fame just by substituting the flat metric with a general one and ordinary derivatives with ...
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Thinking of the Faraday field-strength tensor as a 2-form

Background I'm familiar enough with the Faraday tensor $F_{\alpha\beta}$ to know that it's is a 2-form. Hence, at each point $P$ in spacetime $V$, it's a multilinear map $$F: T_PV\times T_pV\to\mathbb{...
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Are Lagrange's equations physical laws?

Well, I studied that a physical law is an equation between tensors that are function of position and time because when the frame is changed tensors change in order to leave the equation true: $$T_1(\...
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Still confuse about tensor

In special relativity, a four-vector $\mathbf{x}$ in an inertial frame is related to $\mathbf{\overline{x}}$ through a Lorentz transformation $\mathbf{\Lambda}$: \begin{align} \overline{\mathbf{x}}...
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Timelike and spacelike projections in General Relativity and associated conservation laws

For any timelike curve $p_\mu$ in General Relativity (section 3 of this review), we can project this into its timelike and spacelike components. Further, these projections are associated with ...
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Scalar coupled to Gauss-Bonnet invariant vs Horndeski theory

So here it is a somewhat tormenting question. The first statement will be a little specific but then I will make clear what the jargon indicates. How can we show that a Lagrangian made of a scalar ...
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Indices misprint in Sean Carroll's Spacetime and Geometry?

To my knowledge, 3 or more indices may not appear in a given term, as I've found in a video produced by "Faculty of Khan": However, on page 30, Sean Carroll writes: As obvious, the indices 0 and 1 ...
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Is $X\otimes X$ not the simultaneous position operator?

I had thought that $X\otimes X$ would be the operator on $H_1\otimes H_2$ to simultaneously measure the x-positions of two particles. But there seems to be something wrong with this -- for a given ...
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Orientation and sign convention in 2D electrodynamics using differential forms

I've been following this paper for a treatment of electrodynamics using differential forms. In particular, they demonstrate that Maxwell's equations expressed using differential forms are form-...
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Compact expression of Maxwell's equations: is there a missing minus sign?

The compact form of Maxwell's equations: $$\boxed{\square\, \boldsymbol{\mathsf{F}}=\mu_0 \boldsymbol{\mathcal{J}}} \tag{1}$$ where the current density quadrivector is given by the relation $\...
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Einstein summation in tensor calculus

I am looking at the Schaum's Outlines "Tensor Calculus" by David C. Kay, and on page 3, the following non-identity and identity are presented: $$ \begin{align} a_{ij}(x_i + y_j) &\neq a_{ij} x_i +...
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Electromagnetism on 3 torus

We all know Maxwell equations in 3+1 spacetime, where the "space" is $\mathbb{R}^3$ and time is $\mathbb{R}$. Moreover, it is easy to construct (using differential forms) the corresponding theory in a,...
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Numerical examples of covariant and contravariant tensor transformations [closed]

I've examined dozens of textbooks and searched the internet for numerical examples of a tensor transformation. I remember only seeing symbolic explanations and examples in the now standard symbolism ...
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Pseudotensors for describing physical quantities

I have been reading about tensors from Mathematical methods for Physics and Engineering, by K.F. Riley, M.P. Hobson and S.J. Bence. And there are a couple of things i am not getting. On page 949 (...
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Confused about the gauge transformation of the amplitude tensor for gravitational waves

Far away from the field sources, where the energy-momentum tensor $$T_{mn}=0 \tag{m,n=0,1,2,3}$$ The linearized EFE becomes $$\Box \bar h_{mn}=0 \tag{1}$$ where $\bar h_{mn}$ is the trace-reverse ...
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Transformation of dielctric constant tensor

I have a dielectric tensor $$K = \begin{pmatrix} 2000 & 0 & 0 \\ 0 & 2000 & 0 \\ 0 & 0 & 50 \end{pmatrix};$$ which I want to transform to a new coordinate system given by ...
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1answer
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Is there any meaning of tensor contraction?

Is there any meaning behind tensor contraction. Or is it just randomly getting rid of some components by only selecting those with same index and sum them up? For example, I know tensor is ...
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Torsion form and exterior covariant derivative

The torsion form can be defined as the exterior covariant derivative of a solder form, $\Theta=d_\omega\theta$. This derivative is always in the fundamental representation of the algebra $\mathfrak g$ ...
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Shear stress sign convention and Rotation

If one uses the Rotation matrix to do calculate the component of a Tensor (Tensor A) gets something like this: Now,one can get the same results for the stress tensor by means of equilibrium My ...
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Lorentz boost tensor notation confusion

I have been given this$$ \delta X^{\mu}=\omega_{\mu \nu}\left(M^{\mu \mu}\right)_{\sigma}^{\rho} X^{\sigma} $$ and I think it should be equal to this but I'm confused if I'm doing it correctly $$ \...
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Torsion tensor in Relativity

While reading Sean Carroll's book on general relativity, I came across something called as a 'Torsion Tensor' which is defined as, $$\Gamma{^\lambda}{_{\mu\nu}} - \Gamma{^\lambda}{_{\nu\mu}} = T{^\...
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1answer
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Relativity and components of a 1-form

I have a question regarding Misner, Charles W.; Thorne, Kip S.; Wheeler, John Archibald (1973), Gravitation ISBN 978-0-7167-0344-0. It is a book about Einstein's theory of gravitation. At page 313, ...
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Is the interval $ds^2$ NOT invariant under translation in an inhomogenous space?

In the Chapter 9 Symmetries, Section 9.1 The Killing vectors (page 101) are Killing vectors defined such that an infinitesimal translation along the vector keep the line element invariant. It means ...
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Moment of inertia- a tensor quantity [duplicate]

The moment of inertia is a tensor and the matrix contains nine elements. The off-diagonal elements are like Ixy, Ixz, Iyx and so on. Ixy = mxy. But M.I. = mass × (perpendicular distance of the ...
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Dual of an antisymmetric tensor

Consider the construction of the dual of $F_{ik}$, which is an antisymmetric tensor. The dual is given by the expression $$F^{*lm} = \frac{1}{2} \epsilon^{iklm} F_{ik}\tag{1}$$ The question I'm ...
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Ricci Curvature Tensor in a static gravitational field (non-relativistic)

Pg 171 of "Tensors, Relativity and Cosmology" The non-relativistic limit of the metric in a static gravitational field is defined as $$ds^2=\left(1+\frac{2 \phi}{c^2}\right)(dx^0)^2+g_{\alpha \beta}...
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101 views

Using symmetry of Riemann tensor to vanish components

The Riemann tensor is skew-symmetric in its first and last pair of indices, i.e., \begin{align} R_{abcd} = -R_{abdc} = -R_{bacd} \end{align} Can I simply use this to say that, for example, the ...
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60 views

Dirac Notation Tensor product

We can write a Singlet state of two $\frac{1}{2}$ spin particles like this: $$|S\rangle = \frac{1}{\sqrt{2}}\left( |+ \rangle ⊗ |-\rangle - |-\rangle ⊗|+\rangle \right) $$ is this the same as ...
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How electromagnetic energy-momentum looks like for arbitrary 4-velocity vector?

I need to expresse the electromagnetic energy-momentum tensor in a vacuum $$T^\nu_{\ \ \ \mu} = F_{\mu\alpha}F^{\nu\alpha} - \frac14 F_{\alpha\beta}F^{\alpha\beta}\delta^\nu_{\ \ \mu}$$ in terms of ...
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Action & Energy-Momentum Tensor for Matter Fields

Pg 163 of "Tensors, Relativity and Cosmology" The action integral of a given matter distribution can be written in the form $$I_K=-c\int_\Omega\frac{\rho}{\sqrt{-g}}\frac{ds}{dt}\sqrt{-g} d\Omega ...
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Raising & lowering indices of 3-pseudovectors?

Now, let space tmie metric is $$\eta_{\mu\nu}=\text{diag}(+,-,-,-)$$ now $$x_{\mu}=(x^0,-\mathbf{x})$$ and $$x^{\mu}=(x^0,\mathbf{x})$$ and $$x^{\mu}=\eta^{\mu\nu}x_{\nu}$$ also $$\partial_\mu=(\...

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