Questions tagged [strong-force]

The strong force or interaction is responsible for the confinement of quarks inside hadrons and the binding of nucleons inside a nucleon, and it is described by the gauge theory of QCD. It provides most of the mass of ordinary matter, which is dominated by the nucleons, proton and neutron: over 99% of the mass of these is attributable to the strong-force field energy. Use where technical details of QCD are not warranted.

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The charge of an electron is a constant. In any case? [closed]

Since Millikan it is obvious that the charge of the electron can be measured as a result of the force exerted by an external electric field. What we get in detail is the charge from the excess of ...
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How well does the strong nuclear forces cancel out over large distances?

Motivation: I was wondering if by any chance gravity could not be a "non-force", but instead be a residual of all other forces that is generated when you put together a bunch of particles with slight ...
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How the non-existence of a color singlet gauge boson rules out $U(3)$ as a gauge group for th

On page 271 of his book Gauge Theories of the Strong, Weak and Electromagnetic Interactions, Quigg reasons that "In U(3) color gauge theory, the color-singlet gauge boson that occurs in the product $$...
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Does nuclear binding energy concern nuclear force or EM force?

From my understanding, binding energy is the energy required to separate all nucleons in a nucleus an infinite distance away from each other. I cannot tell whether this ignored the effect of one of ...
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Nuclear force and binding energy

What i read about binding energy is that it is the energy released when nucleus is formed due to the attraction of the strong nuclear force between nucleons. But even after the nucleus is formed, the ...
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Does more binding energy between nucleons in different elements as they have more nucleons mean the nuclear force between them is stronger?

My picture of fission is that the nuclear force is the centripetal force and the electrostatic is the centrifugal one and when some energy helps the electrostatic force the nucleus reacts with fission....
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How does introducing energy equal to the binding energy both overcome the strong force and increase the mass?

Let's say you have a deuterium nucleus, and you hit it with a gamma ray that has an amount of energy equal to the binding energy (2.224 MeV). That corresponds exactly to the increase in mass of the ...
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Simple “toy-model”-like explanation of quark confinement (QCD) and accompanying math

I have a qualitative understanding of quantum chromodynamics within nucleons and between nucleons, but I do not understand the math behind some of the physics like quark confinement. What is the math ...
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Equations of motion of classical chromodynamics with Yang-Mills theory

I am currently reading a paper about classical chromodynamics: https://arxiv.org/abs/hep-th/0607203 However I have problems understanding equation (2) and (4) (2): \begin{equation} F_{\mu \nu}= \...
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Why can we only measure the electromagnetism and gravitation in real life, and not the nuclear forces?

Why can we only measure the electromagnetism and gravitation in real life, and not the nuclear forces? All our senses are explained with EM forces and pressure values directly and heat transfer.
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What’s lacking in our understanding of the strong interaction?

As far as I’m aware, our understanding of the strong interaction and strong nuclear force is pretty good. We can explain how particles move and stick together with good models. But from what I can ...
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Understanding interaction between two quarks

Two protons and two electrons repel each other as they have same charge. Protons and electrons attract each other since they are oppositely charged. A single proton is made up of two up and one down ...
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Are Feynman diagrams equivalent when gluons are emitted from different quarks?

3rd year physics undergrad here. I am new to particle physics. We were asked to give the lowest order Feynman diagram of this reaction. $$K_1^+(1400) \to K^+ \pi^+\pi^- $$ Now I came up with not ...
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Understanding the Coulomb term in the semi-empirical mass formula

Here's a passage I am not understanding: The tendency to an excess of neutrons at large mass numbers is a Coulomb repulsion effect. Because a given nucleon interacts with only a small number of its ...
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Are Yukawa interaction theories still in use?

As is commonly known, the Yukawa interaction (scalar/pseudoscalar) was used to describe the old-school, pion mediated, strong force, long before the discovery of quarks. The theory has been proven to ...
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Can data be transferred using the strong force?

We send data using the electromagnetic force, mainly over the form of radio waves, though this could be and is (mostly for human viewing of images) done with visible light. However, I want to know if ...
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'Forces' enacted by hot neutrons in fusion bomb - Pauli exclusion

Are Pauli exclusion 'forces' on a neutron 100% electromagnetic (Lennard-Jones seems more acute relationship compared to electrostatic force) If so does that neutrons have two forces between them - '...
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Can strong interaction be repulsive?

I know that the repulsion between nuclei is mostly caused by electrostatic repulsion and Pauli's exclusion principle. But in the sub-nucleus level, is there a condition where the strong interaction ...
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How do gluons bind the quarks together within the hadrons and mesons?

I was trying to know about the strong nuclear force within the nucleus and the books and websites told me that it is the gluons which carry the force, and now I am curious how the gluons carry this ...
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Do Atomic Nuclei Experience an Analog of Mechanical Fatigue?

I'm wondering about the force that holds atomic nuclei together. When I bend a paperclip back and forth, eventually the paperclip weakens and breaks in half. Is it possible for the nuclear force to ...
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Does the J/$\Psi$ primarily decay into real gluons?

so apparently the this cool looking decay of the $J/\Psi$ particle is OZI suppressed, which was confusing to me, because the Particle Data Group (link) says that 64% of its decays are into 3 gluons (...
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Are there wavelengths associated with the weak field and strong field bosons?

Are there wavelengths associated with the weak field and strong field bosons? Anyone care to share their take on this?
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Is nuclear force a kind of strong interaction?

I'm trying to understand the role of Yukawa potential, and it seems to describe the nuclear force. But at the top of the article it says: This article is about the force that holds nucleons ...
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Gravitational non-linearities and Dark Matter/Energy

I had read Significance of Gravitational Nonlinearities on the Dynamics of Disk Galaxies (https://arxiv.org/abs/1909.00095), was wondering Is there good reason to think that gravitational non-...
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Does quarks always pulls each other?

Pions consist of quark and antiquark and strong force keeps them together. So color charge and anticolor charge attracts each other. But in proton we have 3 quarks and they also attract each other. It ...
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Could electric dipoles within hadrons provide an alternate explanation for strong force? [closed]

We all know that hadrons such as proton and neutrons are made up of quarks and not all of the quarks have the same charge. This would suggest that they have a positive and negative side. In the case ...
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Cold fusion with ionized hydrogen and neutron radiation

Would bombarding ionized hydrogen gas with neutron radiation cause cold fusion as the neutrons have no electrostatic repulsion to overcome therefore making it much easier to get within range of the ...
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Why is color change between quarks without consequence?

As always I will preface this question with the fact that I only have a high school education, so I may be overlooking something, or unaware of something that is inherent to the question. That being ...
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How can neutron be converted to proton and electron?

Since a neutron and a proton are made up of quarks and an electron is a lepton, how can a neutron yield an electron?
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How are quarks assigned color charge?

As always, I'll preface that I am wildly undereducated, so i may be overlooking something or be completely unaware of another relevant property. Color Confinement dictates that to "assemble" a baryon ...
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Explaining branching ratio of $J/\!\psi \!\to \Lambda \bar\Lambda$ and $J/\!\psi \!\to \Sigma^0 \bar\Sigma^0$

I am quite puzzled by the branching ratio of $J/\!\psi \!\to \Lambda \bar\Lambda$ and $J/\!\psi \!\to \Sigma^0 \bar\Sigma^0$. The ratio is measured as ~60%, whereas I expect a ratio of $1/3$. Maybe ...
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Experimental proof for isospin conservation of strong interaction

I am having a surprisingly hard time to find direct experimental results for the (approx.) conservation of isospin in strong interactions. The canonical examples seem to be $\omega \! \to 3\pi^0$ and $...
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How does meson exchange work within large nuclei?

I read the Wikipedia page on Mesons and it mentioned that there both charged and uncharged Mesons that decay into neutrino/electrons and photons, respectively. Unfortunately it didn't elaborate on ...
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Hadronization in a collider

Say, in a collision, do the quarks need to first hadronize to pions? Or is there a probability that they can hadronize directly to heavier particles like the charm quarks.(quark-anti-quark pair) The ...
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Can a magnet rip protons from a nucleus?

Pretty self explanatory. I’m wondering if the strong nuclear force could be overcome by a strong enough magnet?
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Confusions with gluons. How many of them are there?

Gluons are bicolored objects. They are made out of one color and one anticolor. Therefore, there seems to be nine possible states $r\bar{r},r\bar{b},r\bar{g},b\bar{r},b\bar{b},b\bar{g},g\bar{r},g\bar{...
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Role of the Yukawa potential

What is the Yukawa potential converging to zero? Afaik the strong potential rises with the distance between quarks, hence, it should rise accordingly.
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Asymptotic freedom and momentum exchange

Why is the momentum exchange very high for low distances? For sufficiently short distances or large exchanges of momentum https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Asymptotic_freedom While I think about ...
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Asymmetry in p-p, n-n and n-p interactions

Why does the asymmetry exist between the proton-proton, neutron-neutron and neutron-proton strong interactions in the nucleus (which results in nuclei preferring equal numbers of neutrons and protons)?...
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Is there a radiation equivalent in the strong and weak forces?

I know that light is electromagnetic radiation (sourced by accelerating charge) and gravitational waves are gravitational radiation (sourced by accelerating mass). Is there equivalent radiation for ...
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How are length and time scales for the different kinds of interactions (strong, weak, electroweak) determined?

I was recently asked what the length scale of the strong interaction is and found my self a bit lost at the question. A quick Google search revealed a result of $10^{-15}\,\text{m}\approx 1\,\text{GeV}...
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Why don't green and anti-green gluons immediately annihilate each other?

I can't believe I haven't found an answer elsewhere..... I have read repeatedly about blue/anti-blue gluons, etc., but no reason as to why they don't destroy each other immediately..... Or maybe ...
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Strangeness Conservation

I am stuck as to how to prove that strangeness is conserved in electromagnetic and strong interactions, while it is not conserved in weak interactions. I know that this can be shown by studying the ...
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How does the strong interaction “create” the nuclear force?

I’ve recently read that the strong interaction, that holds the quarks together to form protons and neutrons, also creates a residual force called the nuclear force, which holds the neutrons and ...
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Why do we think of a nucleus as nucleons held together by a strong force rather than a cluster of quarks? [duplicate]

The implication of this point of view is that protons and neutrons retain their structure in a nucleus. That is the 3 quarks making up nucleons still closely interact and interactions with quarks from ...
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What is meant by “Since the exchange of (mesons) occurs frequently, the nuclear force is stronger than the electromagnetic force”?

This is from a book written by Y. Nambu. What role does the mass of mesons (versus mass of photons) have in making the strong force strong? How does this relate to "frequent exchanges" of mesons? ...
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Why does charmonium (and phi mesons) not decay via quark and antiquark annihilation?

The decay of heavy quark/antiquark pairs (say $c\bar{c}$, $s\bar{s}$) is supposedly 'suppressed because of the Zweig/OZI rule', see for instance Phi meson. And they certainly have a longer lifetime ...
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Yukawa force vs Nuclear force

I have read these questions: Are Neutrons and anti-Neutrons attracted to each other over distance? Where John Rennie says: Neutrons and anti-neutrons repel each other with a Yukawa force ...
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Binding energy and strong force

If binding energy is responsible for holding nucleons together than what is meaning of strong force?
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Why is the decay $\rho ^+ \rightarrow \rho ^0 \pi^+$ allowed by parity conservation and angular momentum conservation?

In the following decay: $$\rho ^+ \rightarrow \rho ^0 \pi^+$$ where $\rho^+$ and $\rho^0$has $J^P = 1^-$ and $\pi^+$ has $J^P = 0^-$ The parity conservation $P$ entails that $L$ (orbital angular ...

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