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Questions tagged [states-of-matter]

Physicists classify matter according to the state of matter, which are gas, liquid and solid. A material is either in one of these states depending on the temperature and/or pressure applied to it. One characterises the state of matter by the mechanical response of a material under pressure.

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Help me in understanding the general principles behind evaporation and condensation of a liquid

I will place my two questions infront of you guys. Let's consider the liquid is water. 1) " How and why exactly does water vapor in air condense at the surface of water? Is vapor in air condensing at ...
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gas denser than liquid [duplicate]

Theoretically, could a gas be denser than a liquid (ie of a different substance)? Does such a combination actually exist, and if so at a common temperature and pressure?
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What happens at the molecular level during evaporation?

During boiling the liquid gets its energy from the heat source so it can break the force between molecules and turn into gas while evaporation happens at the top of the liquid at any temperature. ...
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If you have a single atom in a box, what state of matter would it be in?

If the walls of the box were made of a completely inert material, what state of matter would the atom be in? Or would it not have one? I realized this is a duplicate of several other questions.
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how to keep inside and outside temperature contstant in boyle's law

as we know in boyle's law pressure is inversely proportional to the volume while keeping the temperature constant and we also know that the temperature is average kinetic energy of a molecule so when ...
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How much degenerate matter is there, compared to other states of matter?

I presume plasma is #1, while superfluid, BEC, QGP, etc, are pretty rare in nature, so the question is "how do solid, liquid, gas, and degenerate matter compare, by mass, in the known universe?"
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Artificial Plasma Creation

It is intuitive that at high temperature matter converts into plasma because of intense energy of electrons that they break away from atoms. But how can plasma be created at low pressures?
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Where does ice get the energy to lift sand adhered to its base as it melts?

Consider the following clip of ice melting on sand: I'm intrigued by the fact that the sand below the ice lifts as the ice melts and the base of each cube lifts from the surface. Where does the ...
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Neutron star matter density [duplicate]

Edit: Replaced black hole with neutron star, thanks to safesphere for his comment. We're told that tiny volumes of matter have huge mass in a neutron star. For the sake of argument, if you had a 1cm ...
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Can't we stop the time? [duplicate]

Time is called as a measurement of difference between two or more incidents. So if we stop happening incidents can't we stop the TIME? Eventhough it's impractical, I mean if we reduce the temperature ...
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Periodicity of bands in crystals

I am studying on the Ashcroft- Mermin Solid State Physics and at chap8 pag 141 it is said that for given n, the eigenstates and eigenvalues are periodic functions of k in the reciprocal lattice that ...
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What is the difference between the states of matter and the phases of matter?

What is the difference between the states of matter and the phases of matter? Should solid, liquid and gases be called states of matter or phases? How many states and phases are there? Different ...
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Definition of State of matter? [duplicate]

Within Landau theory of phase transitions the goal was to characterize all states of matter with symmetries and order parameters. However, after the emergence of topological states of matter, the ...
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What kind of matter are black holes made of?

Imagine a black hole originally formed from, for example, Rubidium atoms. On the other hand, one made from, for example, Helium atoms. Will it be there any difference between the two? Or perhaps once ...
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Describing the Sun's interior

Can the interior of the Sun be described as an ideal gas? From my knowledge, to describe a body of gas as an ideal gas, the separation between the particles must be much greater than the size of the ...
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Can we write $P = hdg$ for solid pressure?

Can we write $P=hdg$ for solid pressure too? Does the iron rod of 1 m height having density 7500 kg/m$^3$ have pressure of $1\times7500\times 10\times(hdg)$? And other way round as well, $P=F/A$ for ...
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Ice floating on water [duplicate]

Why is the hydrogen bond different from other bonds that allows ice to float in water rather tan sink. I don't want the math. I want the reason that bond is different than the rest. Why, not how.
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How come metal isn't considered a state of matter?

I know in chemistry metals are a class of elements on the periodic table, but in physics metal is more like a state of matter. All of the elements that are called metals on the periodic table are ...
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How would a Bose-Einstein condensate appear to a moving observer?

From what I understand, a Bose-Einstein condensate forms when particles move so slowly that their wavefunctions overlap and they become a singular mass of energy. My question, then, is this: If I were ...
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What is the definition of a solid?

What is the definition of a solid? What is the most general definition of a solid? Are amorphous materials (which can creep) like window glass considered solids? Are colloidal substances like proteins ...
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Matter state between liquid and gas

I know about the 3 clasical states of matter: Solid, Liquid and Gas. But I've also observed how between Solid and Liquid there are some materials that will have an "in-between" phase state: Liquids ...
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“Excitatonium” is made of electrons and the holes they leave — so how can they be bosons?

My understanding is that solid matter is made out of fermions (which are subject to the Pauli exclusion principle, which is why they're solid) and bosons (which are not subject to Pauli exclusion and ...
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Are there substances that could only exist in one state of matter or at least not all of them? [duplicate]

As an example , water can be found as a liquid, gas or solid. Are there substances that couldn't take all forms of matter? And why?
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Is there a generalized steady state state equation(s) that considers all states of matter?

The Ideal Gas Law (aka State Equation), $PV=nRT$ relates the properties of pressure, amount of matter, volume and temperature for a gaseous state of matter under steady state conditions, but is there ...
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Is there a way to determine the state of matter of ANY fluid?

Is there a way to determine the state of matter of a fluid for a program I'm making, using values like temperature, pressure, fugacity, enthalpy, etc? This would all be theoretical calculations, so ...
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Why does sugar dissolve faster in hot water compared to cold water?

Why does sugar dissolve faster in hot water compared to cold water?
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How to Calculate entropy of specific state?

What is the numeric value of entropy for ammonia with pressure p=20kPa and temperature T=-20ºC? I believe to be in reference to the thermodynamic tables and change of entropy states but can not grasp ...
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Does temperature of boiling solution stay constant?

Let us suppose we have a liquid with non-volatile solute, and the solution is raised to its boiling point by applying heat. Since the solvent is being evaporated, the concentration of solute will ...
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What explains the variety of particles we see? (Dealing with particulate nature of matter)

I'm working on a class project, and have been struggling with this question for a little while. I am in chemistry, but was hoping I'd be able to find help here as I am pretty stuck on this question. I'...
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Photoelectric effect as proof of the particle-like nature of photons

Why is the photoelectric effect cited as an example of a particle-like nature of photons? The photon's not physically knocking off the electron, right? It's supplying energy to break the bond, hence ...
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If a liquid and a solid are at the same temperature, do they have the same kinetic energy?

If you have two different materials at the same temperature but are at different states of matter, do they have the same amount of kinetic energy? (I'm rephrasing a question I previously deleted.)
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Burning vs Melting - when applied to cooking chocolate

I'm aware melting is simply heat causing molecules to go from solid to liquid, and burning is a chemical reaction, normally with oxygen; but I don't understand how this applies to cooking chocolate. ...
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401 views

Gas at absolute zero

According to Charles's Law, the volume of gas is proportional to temperate at constant pressure. So, the volume of a gas decreases as temperature decreases. Then, in theory, as the temperature ...
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Gas turns into a vapour liquid mixture when it is adiabatically expands

Why does gas turn into a vapour liquid mixture when it is adiabatically expanded in a refrigerator?
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Can degenerate matter be in the form of a liquid?

This title probably makes no sense, and that's the problem I'm having. As far as I know, degenerate matter is an entirely different phase of matter altogether — it may have fluidic properties, but it'...
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On a molecular level, what is the difference between a liquid and a powder?

Both are made up of small particles. Perhaps the particles in a powder are larger than those of a liquid (multiple molecules vs. a single molecule?); but it does not seem generally possible to grind a ...
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Does water vapor affect humidity? Or only when it condensed?

The fact says that water vapor is invisible and absolutely in a gaseous state. Does this state of water actually vary the humidity?
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Can ice melt in a perfectly closed container?

If I have an ice cube of, let's say, for example (15$\times$15$\times$15 cm), it was put inside a container of internal dimensions (15$\times$15$\times$15 cm), and the container is strong so ...
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Clarification of wording in matter phases

I read on the internet a sentence that went: The reactions can be done in the gaseous phase dispersed in liquids. Does this mean that the reactions can occur to the participants while they are in ...
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Does water inside a vessel in another vessel boil?

What if there are two metal containers filled with water .One floats in another.The system is heated above 100 deg celsius. What will happen?
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Why does vaporization require more energy, compared to melting?

For example, let us say we are measuring water. The energy gained during vaporization requires 2260 Joules/gram, while the energy gained during melting is only 334 Joules/gram. Is this because the ...
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Non-glassy amorphous solids

According to Wikipedia: A glass is any "solid that possesses a non-crystalline (that is, amorphous) structure at the atomic scale and that exhibits a glass transition when heated towards the liquid ...
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Does fire have mass and weight? [duplicate]

What exactly is fire, why isn't it defined by the three states of matter, and does it have mass, weight?
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Freeze water in red-hot container

While reading Edgar Allan Poe's short story The thousand-and-second tale of Scheherazade (about a fantastic journey to the present of 1850) I once stumbled on the following footnote to the phrase "...
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Will a solid mix with a different solid?

I apologize at first if this question is naive since I am not a physics major student... In my understanding, the basic building block of matter is the atom, and according to my knowledge from basic ...
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Is everything solid at 0 K?

Are there any materials that are not solid at 0 K? When thinking of the internal energy of a system of particles, I suppose the system will simply converge to the closest minimum of potential of the ...
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Does any substance melt or evaporate when cooled at constant pressure?

Is there any substance with segments of its phase change diagram lines going in a negative direction? To explain: Generally, as phase change diagrams go, with heat increasing, and pressure constant, ...
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Proper interpretation of $\rho_\textrm{rad} \, a^4$ in cosmology

Radiation fluid is usually represented by the equation of state $p = \frac{1}{3} \, \rho$, where $p$ is the pressure and $\rho$ is the energy density. The local conservation of energy states that \...
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Why does solid turn to liquid deep in the Earth? [duplicate]

Usually pressure decreases inter-molecular movement thereby keeping the substance in solid state. Given this, why do the earth's crust and mantle, which are both solid, turn into a liquid outer core, ...
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Why are phase transitions discrete?

It seems like there is no "in-between" for the phases of matter; it can be "solid" or "liquid", but what about the in-between? Why is there no spectrum of matter between the phases (e.g. a range of ...