Questions tagged [states-of-matter]

Physicists classify matter according to the state of matter, which are gas, liquid and solid. A material is either in one of these states depending on the temperature and/or pressure applied to it. One characterises the state of matter by the mechanical response of a material under pressure.

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If liquid and gas are both chaotic states of matter, what's the difference between them on the molecular level?

I'm a laywoman in physics and recently found myself pondering about the matter reflected in the title of this post. To make my question more precise from the mathematical standpoint, let's suppose ...
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Can a liquid sustain a greater vapor pressure than ambient pressure for a given amount of time?

We know that, when a liquid vapor pressure is greater than the ambient pressure, many molecules of the liquid escapes the intermolecular attraction hence boiling. Could a vapor pressure of a liquid ...
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Can a gas be compressed to a higher density than its liquid counterpart?

Given a volume of a gas (such as Hydrogen, or any other gas) At near 0 Kelvin in temperature, and near 0 barometric pressure (vacuum). Can the gas be mechanically compressed to such an extent, that ...
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New electronic state of matter

I just heard about a new state of matter, clustered electrons. I didn't know that electrons could do that. Can anyone describe the mechanism by which this is possible? https://phys.org/news/2020-02-...
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1answer
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Salt water and ice, vs. plain water and ice

A famous puzzle is whether an ice cube melts to nothing more quickly in salt water or fresh water. The answer is fresh water, because the water melting off the ice cube sinks in the plain water and ...
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2answers
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What is the adiabatic index of stiff matter?

In relativity, "stiff matter" is described by the relation $p = \rho$, where $p$ is the fluid's pressure and $\rho$ is its total energy density. The sound velocity in stiff matter equals the velocity ...
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What is quark-gluon plasma?

My question is pretty simple: what is quark-gluon plasma? I searched it on Wikipedia and I didn’t understand a single word😅! of the article on the state of matter. In physics, a state of matter is ...
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1answer
98 views

Materials intermediate in density between osmium and neutronium [closed]

The densest elements on Earth are metals. Osmium is the most dense. The densest matter in the Universe is Neutronium which is not an element but degenerate matter. If we put Osmium and Neutronium on ...
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Ice lined refrigerator(ILR)

Disclaimer: An ILR has cabinet temperature of +2 to +8 °C and at the same time they do have lining of water containers(ice tubes), fitted all around the walls and held in place by a frame. When it is ...
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There are 3 things not made of matter [closed]

When I'm teaching middle school science and I'm teaching the concept of matter I usually tell them that everything is made of matter except for 3 things. Space-Time, Energy (light, heat, kinetic, ...
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Why is it possible to raise the temperature of water over the boiling point?

For example, if we take water at a constant pressure and increase the temperature fast enough over the boiling point, the water will not boil. Why does it happens?
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Can the sound change the state of the medium?

The waves perform compression and rarefraccion in the medium where they spread, right?   when the rarefraction happens we should feel the medium in a liquid or gaseous state since the molecules ...
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1answer
75 views

Can rocks be used to propel rockets? [closed]

Can rocks and soil, or simply any other common form of matter with a mass, be vaporized in a nuclear thermal rocket at high temperatures to provide thrust for the rocket? Wouldn't that be convenient ...
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3answers
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How is the answer valid for following question? [duplicate]

A closed flask contains water in all its three states solid, liquid and vapour at 0 degree Celsius. In this situation, the average kinetic energy of water molecules will be a) the greatest ...
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2answers
116 views

Why does steam condensing release energy?

When steam changes to water the kinetic energy and temperature remain the same, however bonds are created between the molecules. Since bonds are being created, why is this not an endothermic process ...
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1answer
71 views

Why doesn't the phase diagram of water look different?

How can sublimation occur at much lower temperatures than 0 degrees celsius provided that the pressure is sufficiently low? The melting point of water is relatively unaffected by the external pressure ...
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1answer
116 views

Predicting pressure of propane gas in container based on temperature

I'm a mathematician and computer scientist, and for this particular problem I would benefit from some physics/chemistry expertise. I've already asked this question on chemistry stack exchange, but I ...
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2answers
98 views

What is the volume of liquid propane consumed when measuring gas flow at a given pressure?

We have a building with a large propane cylinder that distributes propane to different sources within the building. When the cylinder is filled, the propane is compressed to a liquid, and our bill is ...
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1answer
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How to classify your fluid is a transitioning from a liquid to gas from numerical computation

I saw at one time that if the kinetic energy/potential energy of the gas was approaching 1 then the gas is becoming a liquid. I can't find the reference where I found that though (it was on stack ...
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1answer
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Applying ideal gas law to every day problems

Three classical examples of seeing the ideal gas law in action: crumpled water bottle in cold car crumpled water bottle after your flight lands fridge door harder to open a second time after first. ...
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1answer
67 views

Minimal quantity of substance to reveal its physical state properties

What is minimal quantity of matter required to reveal its physical state properties? I.e. number of particles/atoms when their collection can be considered as liquid, solid, gas or plasma. I am aware ...
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4answers
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Why do ice crystals form from the top to the bottom of a bottle filled with supercooled water?

If I bang a bottle filled with supercooled water against a hard surface, the ice crystals form from the top to the bottom:$\hspace{50px}$$\hspace{75px}$–source. YouTube has videos showing this ...
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1answer
64 views

Molecular model of liquids

The macroscopic behavior of gasses and solids follow very intuitively from the description of matter as quasi-spherical molecules interacting with each other with attractive and repulsive forces. ...
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InterAtomic Distance between atoms of a molten metal

I was figuring out and researching on interatomic/internuclear distance of metals (particularly Aluminium), but then I started wondering on the difference between magnitudes of interatomic distances ...
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2answers
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Can a diamond pipe prevent water from freezing and bursting the pipe?

I know a diamond vacuum blimp is not possible because it will implode under air pressure. Is it possible for a diamond pipe to keep from bursting with frozen water? I found nothing online except ...
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1answer
237 views

Help me in understanding the general principles behind evaporation and condensation of a liquid

I will place my two questions infront of you guys. Let's consider the liquid is water. 1) " How and why exactly does water vapor in air condense at the surface of water? Is vapor in air condensing at ...
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1answer
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gas denser than liquid [duplicate]

Theoretically, could a gas be denser than a liquid (ie of a different substance)? Does such a combination actually exist, and if so at a common temperature and pressure?
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What happens at the molecular level during evaporation?

During boiling the liquid gets its energy from the heat source so it can break the force between molecules and turn into gas while evaporation happens at the top of the liquid at any temperature. ...
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1answer
95 views

If you have a single atom in a box, what state of matter would it be in?

If the walls of the box were made of a completely inert material, what state of matter would the atom be in? Or would it not have one? I realized this is a duplicate of several other questions.
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1answer
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how to keep inside and outside temperature contstant in boyle's law

as we know in boyle's law pressure is inversely proportional to the volume while keeping the temperature constant and we also know that the temperature is average kinetic energy of a molecule so when ...
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2answers
146 views

Artificial Plasma Creation

It is intuitive that at high temperature matter converts into plasma because of intense energy of electrons that they break away from atoms. But how can plasma be created at low pressures?
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2answers
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Where does ice get the energy to lift sand adhered to its base as it melts?

Consider the following clip of ice melting on sand: I'm intrigued by the fact that the sand below the ice lifts as the ice melts and the base of each cube lifts from the surface. Where does the ...
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1answer
130 views

Neutron star matter density [duplicate]

Edit: Replaced black hole with neutron star, thanks to safesphere for his comment. We're told that tiny volumes of matter have huge mass in a neutron star. For the sake of argument, if you had a 1cm ...
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2answers
120 views

Can't we stop the time? [duplicate]

Time is called as a measurement of difference between two or more incidents. So if we stop happening incidents can't we stop the TIME? Eventhough it's impractical, I mean if we reduce the temperature ...
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Periodicity of bands in crystals

I am studying on the Ashcroft- Mermin Solid State Physics and at chap8 pag 141 it is said that for given n, the eigenstates and eigenvalues are periodic functions of k in the reciprocal lattice that ...
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2answers
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What is the difference between the states of matter and the phases of matter?

What is the difference between the states of matter and the phases of matter? Should solid, liquid and gases be called states of matter or phases? How many states and phases are there? Different ...
3
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2answers
652 views

What kind of matter are black holes made of?

Imagine a black hole originally formed from, for example, Rubidium atoms. On the other hand, one made from, for example, Helium atoms. Will it be there any difference between the two? Or perhaps once ...
2
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1answer
76 views

Describing the Sun's interior

Can the interior of the Sun be described as an ideal gas? From my knowledge, to describe a body of gas as an ideal gas, the separation between the particles must be much greater than the size of the ...
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2answers
256 views

Can we write $P = hdg$ for solid pressure?

Can we write $P=hdg$ for solid pressure too? Does the iron rod of 1 m height having density 7500 kg/m$^3$ have pressure of $1\times7500\times 10\times(hdg)$? And other way round as well, $P=F/A$ for ...
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1answer
825 views

Ice floating on water [duplicate]

Why is the hydrogen bond different from other bonds that allows ice to float in water rather tan sink. I don't want the math. I want the reason that bond is different than the rest. Why, not how.
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3answers
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How come metal isn't considered a state of matter?

I know in chemistry metals are a class of elements on the periodic table, but in physics metal is more like a state of matter. All of the elements that are called metals on the periodic table are ...
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4answers
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What is the definition of a solid?

What is the definition of a solid? What is the most general definition of a solid? Are amorphous materials (which can creep) like window glass considered solids? Are colloidal substances like proteins ...
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3answers
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Matter state between liquid and gas

I know about the 3 clasical states of matter: Solid, Liquid and Gas. But I've also observed how between Solid and Liquid there are some materials that will have an "in-between" phase state: Liquids ...
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1answer
117 views

“Excitatonium” is made of electrons and the holes they leave — so how can they be bosons?

My understanding is that solid matter is made out of fermions (which are subject to the Pauli exclusion principle, which is why they're solid) and bosons (which are not subject to Pauli exclusion and ...
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Are there substances that could only exist in one state of matter or at least not all of them? [duplicate]

As an example , water can be found as a liquid, gas or solid. Are there substances that couldn't take all forms of matter? And why?
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217 views

Is there a generalized steady state state equation(s) that considers all states of matter?

The Ideal Gas Law (aka State Equation), $PV=nRT$ relates the properties of pressure, amount of matter, volume and temperature for a gaseous state of matter under steady state conditions, but is there ...
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2answers
7k views

Why does sugar dissolve faster in hot water compared to cold water?

Why does sugar dissolve faster in hot water compared to cold water?
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1answer
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How to Calculate entropy of specific state?

What is the numeric value of entropy for ammonia with pressure p=20kPa and temperature T=-20ºC? I believe to be in reference to the thermodynamic tables and change of entropy states but can not grasp ...
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1answer
404 views

Does temperature of boiling solution stay constant?

Let us suppose we have a liquid with non-volatile solute, and the solution is raised to its boiling point by applying heat. Since the solvent is being evaporated, the concentration of solute will ...
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1answer
141 views

What explains the variety of particles we see? (Dealing with particulate nature of matter)

I'm working on a class project, and have been struggling with this question for a little while. I am in chemistry, but was hoping I'd be able to find help here as I am pretty stuck on this question. I'...