# Questions tagged [speed-of-light]

The speed of light is a fundamental universal constant that marks the maximum speed at which energy and information can propagate. Its value is $299792458\frac{\mathrm{m}}{\mathrm{s}}$.

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### Traveling to another galaxy impossible for ever?

If galaxies are moving apart from each other faster than the speed of light, does that mean that it's impossible to travel to another galaxy, regardless of what technology get discovered? Because you ...
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### “flowing” speed of an electric field?

Consider a capacitor made of two infinite plates which are at a very large distance $d$ from each other. We place a positive charge on a plate and a negative one on the other one. Two electrical ...
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### Is it possible to slow down the speed of light in a vaccum? [duplicate]

Is it possible to slow down the speed of light in a vaccum?
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### Orientation of moving time clocks

Let's assume there's a high speed spaceship moving right relative to us, and it's carrying two light clocks. One of them is set up so that the bouncing light pulse is oriented horizontally, and in the ...
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### Can light in a medium travel faster than speed of light $c$ in vacuum?

Refractive index of medium $m$, $n_m$, is given by $$n_m = \sqrt{\mu_r\epsilon_r}$$where $\mu_r$ and $\epsilon_r$ are permittivity and permeability of the medium respectively. And, velocity of light ...
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### What is Cherenkov radiation? [duplicate]

What is Cherenkov radiation? I came across this concept when I was learning SR. Why can't particles moving at speed of excess of speed of light in the medium. Why it does not violate the limitation ...
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### Speed of waves in vacuum

All electromagnetic waves travel at speed of light in vacuum. Gravitional waves also travel at speed of light. I am having this vague notion that all waves in vacuum must travel at speed of light. Is ...
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### Why is a particle non-relativistic when its kinetic energy is small compared to its rest energy?

For example, nucleons in nucleus are in motion with kinetic energies of 10 MeV. Their rest energies are about 1000 MeV. Kinetic energy of nucleons is small compared to rest energy. They are hence ...
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### The Speed of Light and Its Medium's Density

When reviewing a refractive index chart there is a relationship to the density of the medium and the velocity of electromagnetic radiation through the medium. The lower the density the greater the ...
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### Derivation of speed of light using particle theory

The speed of light can be calculated by Maxwell's equations, which tell us that light is an electromagnetic wave. How does the particle theory of light account for the constant speed of light?
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### Speed of electromagnetic wave [closed]

On dispersion , speed of wave is inversely proportional to its wavelength . Therefore, gamma has max speed. But then in visible light , violet has least wavelength still it has least speed in visible ...
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### Does gravity sometimes get transmitted faster than the speed of light?

Consider Earth moving around the Sun. Is the force of gravity exerted by Earth onto the Sun directed towards the point where Earth is "right now", or towards the point where Earth was 8 minutes ago (...
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### If some matter slows light going through it, is actual causality also slowed? [duplicate]

tldr; If some forms of matter change the that light travels through that it (like refraction in water or glass), does that mean the speed of causality is going slower through that matter? I've heard ...
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### Velocity of a photon according to a stationary observer in Schwarzschild metric

Consider the Schwarzschild metric $$\left(1-\frac{2M}{r}\right)dt^2-\left(1-\frac{2M}{r}\right)^{-1}dr^2-r^2\left(d\theta^2+\sin^2\theta\, d\phi^2\right)$$ Final goal: calculate the observed ...
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### Does space expansion mean the escape velocity at a black hole event horizon is strictly less than $c$?

The title pretty much sums it up. I could ask this question slightly differently; does the expansion of space cause the effective event horizon to shrink below what it would be for flat space? If so,...
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### Turning on headlights near light speed [duplicate]

If i turn headlights on in a car at v = 0.99*c, will the headlight speed be 0.01*c? I know speed of light is always the same but it really confuses me? My question is, does space contract so much at ...
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### speed of freezing vs. moving [closed]

An idea came to my mind and like to discuss it. We know that out there in the space the absolute zero (aka. -273 C) is almost reached where all the particles and atoms would freeze up and stop giving ...
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### Rest mass of the photon [closed]

Why is the rest mass of the photon is taken to be zero? If rest mass of the photon is non zero, then it leads to infinite energy of the photon (by $E=mc^2$ equation) and there is a violation of ...
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### Can we differentiate Einstein mass-energy relation $E=mc^2$ with respect to position $x$ to get force?

The question is as the title. Can we differentiate Einstein mass-energy relation $E=mc^2$ with respect to position $x$ to get force? I don't know whether my question is valid and logical but just ...
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### Method to observe clocks on spaceships moving near $c$?

I have read the explanation for clocks slowing down on a spaceship moving relative to a stationary observer -- something like a beam of light between two mirrors taking longer for the observer to ...
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### How quickly is momentum transferred through an object? [duplicate]

If there was a pole, that was a light year long, out in space. (Away from all physical interference.) If we pushed one end of it, would the other end move instantly? And does it's speed depend on ...
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### Can we measure the speed of light in one direction?

I'm sorry if this is a dumb question. Recently I was learning that it's impossible for us to measure the speed of light in one direction. We can only measure it in two directions and we assume that it'...
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### Are tachyons time travelers?

If tachyons are faster than light, that means they have passed a certain point before anyone or anything can “see” them. Theories have mentioned that if anything can go faster than light, then it can ...
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### Cooling photons to a solid state

Can we cool photons so the stop moving completely? So they can behave like particles in a solid.
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### Looking back in past [closed]

Can faster than light communication give us the ability to see in the past, that is to say, if we can imagine a ultra huge highly advance telescope 60 light minutes away from earth and we want to look ...
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### When we burn a match stick it did not go at $c$ speed, why?

When we burn a match stick then mass is converting into energy then according to the relativity match stick particles should go at speed of light but it did not happen why
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### Relationship between poynting vector and radiation pressure

I know that When an electromagnetic wave is absorbed or reﬂected by a surface, the momentum of the wave is transferred to the surface. I also know that for absorption the radiation pressure is 〈S〉/c ...
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### If we know the distance of a distant light emitting object, how could we know the age without knowing how long the light has been here?

I have been contemplating the age of our observable universe and I was unsure as to how we could tell the age by only divdeing the distance by the constent with out knowing how long the light has been ...
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### Why do two moving inertial frames of reference atribute the same velocity to each other?

In both relativity and Newtonian mechanics, it is a self-evident axiom according to which two inertial observers who move relative to each other measure the same velocity of, say, $v$. I want to know ...
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### How was the value of vacuum permittivity originally found?

The vacuum permittivity appears originally in Maxwell's equations, used to describe electric fields. The permeability of vacuum was defined using Ampere's force law (itself derived from Biot-Savart ...
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### Relativity thought experiment - spaceship travelling at speed of light [closed]

I have basis knowledge in special relativity, but I haven't studied it for too long and I'm stuck in a simple thought experiment. Assume that there is a spaceship departing from the earth at speed of ...
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### Trying to understand velocity addition and time dilation [duplicate]

I'm familiar with Einstein's formulae $V=\frac{u+v}{1+ \frac{uv}{c^2}}$ and $\Delta t'=\frac{\Delta t}{\sqrt{1-\frac{v^2}{c^2}}}$, the former being velocity addition and the latter being time dilation....
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### Rule of addition of velocities in water

Is the speed of light still the same for all inertial observers in water? If not, what are the rules of addition of velocities in water according to special relativity?
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### Exceeding the speed of light [closed]

I understand that the speed of light c is derived from the self-interaction between elections/photons, and is thus the maximum speed of anything composed of electrons/photons. Suppose that there is a ...