Questions tagged [space-expansion]

Space expansion is a cosmological phenomenon wherein the proper distance between two spatial points for a given inertial reference frame increases from one moment of time to another. That is, space itself expands; the added distance is not due to relative motion of points or objects.

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Newton vs. Einstein in universe evolution description

The equation for the universe evolution in the presence of a perfect homogeneous fluid, namely $$\dot{R}^2+k=\frac{8\pi G}{3}\rho R^2$$ can be obtained by solving Einstein equation with some effort. ...
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Did negative pressure cause the universe to start off expanding at the big bang?

What caused the universe to start off expanding in the first place. Was it negative pressure that drove the initial expansion or was it just something else?
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Speed of at expansion at the start of the big bang [duplicate]

If I understand the basics of the big bang correctly it starts with a very small dense point. At the moment of the big bang, less then microseconds after, the universe is already the size of our solar ...
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Number of e-folds in phase space for the inflaton field

In José Gálvez's paper "Observational constraints on Constant Roll Inflation" it's said that, using the equation of motion for the inflaton field \begin{equation} \ddot{\phi}+3H\dot{\phi}+\frac{\text{...
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Is the location of everything relative? [duplicate]

I have heard that everything in our physical reality is relative. But I wonder: Does the universe have an edge? In an expanding sphere, there would be an edge is it like that? If the above is true ...
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What is the relationship between the Cosmological Constant and the Cosmological Principle?

I believe I've misunderstood a relationship between the cosmological constant and the cosmological principle having read: Einstein introduces his cosmological constant which attributes, in the ...
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Is Dark Energy A Constant?

My understanding of dark energy is that it's like hot air bouncing around in a balloon, except the air is tiny subatomic particles that can't be seen or even detected in any way except for their ...
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Volume of dark energy in space [duplicate]

As I understand it, Dark Energy is believed to reside in empty space. As the Universe exapnds, more empty space exists inside the Universe and so the small energy per unit of empty space adds up to a ...
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The Expansion of universe [duplicate]

if the space itself is expanding at considerable rate, that means we are also expanding along with it(as we are the part of the universe). so why can't we feel ourselves expanding or detect it?
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When did matter/energy come into existence? Before or after the CMB?

First of all thank you to anyone who replies this question, I am not a physics major, but foolishly chose to take a physics for non-science majors at my local university I am going to. I am trying ...
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Does an atom or proton (cosmic ray) get stretched when traveling through expanding space?

I have read this question: Why does space expansion not expand matter? I do understand that matter inside galaxies will not get stretched because inside galaxies, gravity dominates over dark energy. ...
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Cosmological Inflation: If Photon expands, why not other matter?

I keep repeatedly reading in many Stack Exchange and Quora questions that space of universe expands but particles (matter) don't, see e.g. this Phys.SE post. The reason given is that particles are ...
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Is Hubble's Law Only Valid Nearby?

I am looking this paper by LIGO, and it claims at the very beginning, At nearby distances $(d \lesssim 50 \text{ Mpc})$ [the Hubble constant] is well approximated by the expression $$v_H = H_0d, \...
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Could one theoretically use the expansion of the universe to travel through it? At least in one direction?

Could one theoretically use the expansion of the universe to travel through it? At least In one direction? That’s it that’s my question. I’m not a physicist but I do get ideas. I also wonder if one ...
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Correction to Newton's law of Gravity for dark energy

Is there any correction to Newtons law of Gravity that takes into account the expansion of the universe?
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Is universe symmetric about a point?

We have a good amount of discussion and theories on the formation of universe. I want to ask is universe symmetric about a point? I think that the answer should depend upon the uniformity of ...
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Why don't we see galaxies going back in time?

Galaxies 4,200 megaparsecs away will travel faster than the speed of light away from each other, so why don't we see those galaxies as Going back in time up to the moment of the big bang?
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When did the radiation domination end and matter domination start?

After the inflationary era the Universe became radiation dominated. The era of radiation domination is defined as the phase during which the temperature of the Universe was so high that the kinetic ...
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How do we know that dark matter energy density scales as $\rho\propto a^{-3}$?

How do we know that dark matter energy density scales as $\rho\propto a^{-3}$?
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Is the universe be expanding at different rates depending on its temperature and density?

As I understand it, when observing different regions of the universe we get a different rate of expansion (the two Hubble constants), specifically the more distant observation seems to return a lower ...
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Does Big Bang Cosmology imply/require infinite space?

The reason I am asking this question is because if all points in space observe recession of galaxies the same as we do from Earth, the universe would have to be infinite (or a closed sphere in 4D or ...
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Existence of things outside the observable universe

I've read multiple physicists talk about stuff (e.g. galaxies, black holes, etc.) "existing" outside the observable universe, but it's unclear to me in what sense these things "exist". By definition ...
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Is space itself expanding or is it just momentum from the Big Bang carrying things apart? [duplicate]

So, we observe that galaxies are moving apart (on average) and the further away from us they are the faster they are moving away from us. If space was expanding that would explain this. However, I ...
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How does proper distance relate to the Robertson-Walker metric?

I'm sort of confused by what the Robertson-Walker metric describes. For example in the book I am reading, the author says that when our universe is assumed to be flat, then $S_k(r)=r$, and $d_p(t_0)=r$...
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What wavelength was the CMB originally?

What wavelength was the light that became the CMB after factoring out redshift? Is it safe to assume that what we're seeing in the CMB was emitted at a distance of approx: ...
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Does the expansion of the universe make time pass faster?

Afaik. mass slows down time, while expansion means that the universe will be less dense in mass. Does that mean that time will go faster everywhere?
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What can I see if I hold a ruler that stretches into a distant receding galaxy? [closed]

If my clones were to form a line along that metric ruler that bridges Milky Way galaxy and a still red shifting galaxy far far away, would any of me notice anything about the scale of the ruler? Now ...
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What makes it more likely that the universe expands instead of saying the non-expanding parts actually contract?

I have always wondered why we consider that galaxies are drifting away and not just contracting at a particle level so that locally there is no visible contraction. I mean, if gravity consumes energy, ...
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Dark energy and virtual particles

If space time is accelerating away from itself everywhere due to dark energy, could this acceleration be the cause of virtual particles, essentially Unruh radiation?
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Do we really need a new physics? [closed]

I have heard many times in news that a new discovery has taken place, and we need a new physics. It has recently been announced in scientific news that the world is apparently expanding faster. And ...
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What's the definition of repulsive gravity?

After asking this question, I got confused. I always thought that repulsive gravity was a consequence of dark energy, the Nature of which is unknown. Many theories are flying around about its Nature. ...
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Is there a relationship between Black Holes and the Big Bang?

As the question mentions, is there a relationship between the Big Bang and Black Holes? It appears the Big Bang is a ‘tacked on’ theory that doesn’t align with current theories (since we don’t know or ...
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What is the current most accurate measurement of the cosmological transition redshift

Does anyone know what the current most accurate measurement of the redshift for when the Universe's expansion changed from decelerating to accelerating (with a reference)?
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Scale factor at surface of last scattering

Is there an exact theoretical scale factor associated with the CMB? More specifically, since the CMB is associated with a temperature of around 3000K (as I understand), is there an exact thermodynamic ...
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Olber's paradox with Rational Numbers [closed]

Does Olber's paradox claim that in an infinite universe (both in space and in time) light should be able to reach you from any direction? Consider the thought experiment of placing an infinite number ...
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General covariance and a running cosmological constant

A running cosmological constant $\Lambda(t)$ can always be included in the perfect fluid source tensor. By the transformation properties of tensors Einstein's field equation is still independent of ...
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Accelerating expansion of the universe in numbers

The Earth's acceleration in numbers is $9.8\ \mathrm{m/s^2}$ and it stays constant in time. How much is the acceleration of the Universe expansion in numbers? I noticed that the Hubble constant (...
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Particle decoupling, universe expansion and QFT

A particle (say neutrino) decouples from the plasma in the early universe when its interaction rate $\Gamma$, with the plasma, is slower than the expansion rate $=H = \frac{\dot{a}}{a}$, i.e. $\Gamma &...
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Is the Hubble parameter affected by 'peculiar velocity'?

Are there any direct observations showing the effect of peculiar velocity on the Hubble parameter. If the Hubble parameter is measured in the direction of our motion caused by our rotation in the ...
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According to Hubble's Law, how can the expansion of the Universe be accelerating?

Scientists today think the expansion of the universe is accelerating. According to Hubble's law, objects further away are moving faster than objects closer to us. The further away an object is, the ...
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Can anyone explain the unit for rate of expansion of universe?

If you google for 'what is rate of expansion of universe' you get Space itself is pulling apart at the seams, expanding at a rate of 74.3 plus or minus 2.1 kilometers (46.2 plus or minus 1.3 miles) ...
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If the universe is expanding, then the distance between the atoms must increase, which should result in decrease in density of everything [duplicate]

In the expansion of universe theory, it is already written that the scale of universe is itself expanding, which means the consequence for expansion of universe is not that atoms are growing in size, ...
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Could the spatially flat universe start small?

The global space has been measured flat within a small margin of error. According to FLRW, the flat universe has always been infinite. At the time of the Big Bang the universe was infinitely large ...
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Can expanding space stretch the wavelength of GWs? [duplicate]

I have read this question: Redshifting of Light and the expansion of the universe Now analogously, we could talk about GWs traveling in the empty voids of space, where the expansion of space is ...
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Where is the work done of adiabatically expanding universe going into?

According to this Wikipedia article, the universe is expanding adiabatically. However, any system that is expanding adiabatically must be losing energy $\left(\mathrm{d}E = -p\,\mathrm{d}V\right) .$ ...
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How do you explain cosmological red shifting in terms of gravitons?

We know that the photons from the big bang are continually being red shifted and losing more and more energy. In terms of the graviton view, how would you explain that? Where is the energy going? Are ...
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How does cosmological principle imply an expanding space?

My understanding of cosmological principle is this: Space looks same in all directions and is homogeneous. But this principle was under heading of Observational Evidence for expansion of space in this ...
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Friedmann vacuum solution linear rather than exponential?

Does the Friedmann vacuum equation have a linear solution rather than an exponential one? Using natural units one can write Friedmann's equation for the vacuum as $$ \begin{eqnarray} \left(\frac{\dot ...
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How much did the universe expand since recombination time? [closed]

Assuming adiabatic expansion, and a temperature at recombination time of $2700^{\circ} C$, how much has the universe expanded if the temperature today is $2.7K$? My idea is to use $\frac{dQ}{dt}=A\...
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Why did the universe not collapse to a black hole shortly after the big bang?

Wasn't the density of the universe at the moment after the Big Bang so great as to create a black hole? If the answer is that the universe/space-time can expand anyway what does it imply about what ...