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Questions tagged [space-expansion]

The expansion of the universe is a phenomenon wherein, at scales much larger than galaxies, the distance between objects grows over time. This phenomenon is often described as "expansion of space", although there is no difference between space expanding and objects moving apart.

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Will expanding space rupture an empty box floating in outer space

Under the theory that space itself is expanding, but the space inside of atoms and molecules doesn't expand because nuclear and electromagnetic bonding forces exceed the forces that expand space, ...
mdswartz's user avatar
1 vote
2 answers
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Viable values for the $K$ parameter in the FLRW metric

The FLWR metric is sometimes given as $$c^2 d\tau^2 = c^2 dt^2 - \frac{a(t)^2}{(1-KX^2)} dX^2. $$ I am not interested in the tangential motion so I set $d \Omega = 0$ although it is of interest in ...
KDP's user avatar
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Can a light signal from Earth reach a galaxy outside the Hubble Horizon?

Is this video on the FLRW metric (timestamp 29:00 minutes) mistaken in its claim that a light signal from Earth cannot catch up with a galaxy outside the Hubble horizon, due to the horizon receding at ...
KDP's user avatar
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Friedmann Equation and a contracting universe

Consider a universe with a nonzero curvature and matter. One can write the Friedmann Equation in this universe as such: $$\frac{H(t)^2}{H_0^2} = \frac{\Omega_0}{a^3}+\frac{1-\Omega_0}{a^2}$$ Where $H(...
Polaris5744's user avatar
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Simple question about finite Universe [duplicate]

If, by Big Bang, Universe was created from initial singularity, with finite "speed" of expansion of matter, shouldnt it be finite as well?
Влад Дедков's user avatar
9 votes
4 answers
646 views

Understanding expansion of the Universe as things flying apart

Say that we have a Universe uniformly filled just with matter (let's not bring dark energy into this). And say that we fill it with very light particles (so that the gravitational interaction between ...
Negredol Nekaj's user avatar
0 votes
2 answers
111 views

Is it true that $\dot{H}(t)\sim H(t)$, and if so, why?

In the context of working with the FRW metric in Cosmology, I'm trying to reproduce the results of a paper where an expansion of the metric in terms of perturbations is performed. The author gives a ...
Wild Feather's user avatar
2 votes
1 answer
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Does gravitational redshift conserve energy?

It is claimed that redshift due to cosmological expansion doesn't conserve energy. Does this exception also apply to gravitational redshift? Why or why not?
Derek Seabrooke's user avatar
1 vote
2 answers
528 views

Please help me with this paradox [closed]

Physicists believe that some galaxies are moving away from us at faster than the speed of light. A galaxy that is moving away from us at faster than the speed of light would be moving backwards in ...
Cecilia's user avatar
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Does the expansion of the universe cause the universe reach maximum entropy faster than a non expanding universe?

I've seen Does an expanding universe cool down? So I understand an expanding universe cools down, my question is, does an expanding universe reach maximum entropy faster than a non-expanding universe? ...
scm's user avatar
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Negative Horizon distance

Consider a flat universe, here, proper distance can be given by R-W Metric: $$d_p (t_0) = c\int_{t_e}^{t_0}\frac{dt}{a(t)},$$ $t_e$ is the time when a photon is emitted from a distant galaxy, $t_0$ is ...
Polaris5744's user avatar
2 votes
2 answers
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How do we account for the 'one way' drag of moving space?

As I understand it, the rotating space outside a Kerr black hole drags radially falling particles into circular motion. Similarly the river model posits that the inward flow of space ensures particles ...
KDP's user avatar
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1 vote
1 answer
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Why is the First Law of Thermodynamic related to Fluid Equation?

In Cosmology, there is a equation called Fluid Equation: $$\dot{{\varepsilon}}+3\frac{\dot{a}}{a}(\varepsilon+P)=0.$$ It is derived by taking time derivative of the First Law of Thermodynamic: $\dot{E}...
Polaris5744's user avatar
6 votes
4 answers
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Accelerating Expansion of Universe - Why Not Caused by Radiation?

As I understand it, dark matter and dark energy are used as an 'explanation' for how universe expansion is accelerating; because without it gravity would be expected to cause a long term shrinking. ...
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Why does Hubble's Law indicate motion?

I have been trying to understand and find some justification about why Hubble's Law needs to implicate any sort of relative motion between galaxies. I can understand why and how one would explain the ...
Spongie's user avatar
1 vote
3 answers
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Does the fact that we are able to see CMBR implies that universe expanded faster than light?

Supposedly, the universe underwent rapid expansion immediately after the big bang, surpassing the speed of light. If we can detect remnants from that era, does this suggest they moved faster than ...
Mr. Spock's user avatar
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2 answers
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Could Space and Time Be Decoupled Pre- Big Bang?

The traditional view holds that both space and time emerged together from the Big Bang. However, I'm curious about the possibility that time could be eternal, with no beginning, while space began to ...
VVM's user avatar
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3 answers
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Change of variables from FRW metric to Newtonian gauge

My question arises from a physics paper, where they state that if we take the FRW metric as follows, where $t_c$ and $\vec{x}$ are the FRW comoving coordinates: $$ds^2=-dt_c^2+a^2(t_c)d\vec{x}_c^2$$ ...
Wild Feather's user avatar
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1 answer
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Friedmann fluid equation in the non-relativistic case

The Friedmann fluid equation I am referring to is: $$ a\frac{d\rho}{da} = -3(\rho+P) .$$ In the non-relativistic (low temperature) case for an ideal gas universe (representing matter), I know that the ...
Andreas Christophilopoulos's user avatar
1 vote
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How to find the relation between flow-parameters and number of e-folds?

In models of single field inflation the Friedmann equation reads $$ H(t)^2 = \frac{8\pi G}{3} \big(V(\varphi) + \frac{\dot{\varphi}^2}{2}\big) \tag{1}\label{eq1}. $$ In the slow-roll approximation one ...
ouroboros's user avatar
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Distance needed for visible light to be cosmologically redshifted to microwave

What distance will it take for visible light to become a microwave due to cosmological redshift? I'm not sure how to calculate this, as I'm never good at complex math. I tried googling but didn't find ...
X3R0's user avatar
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3 votes
2 answers
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Could a universe be expanding if its physics were scale invariant?

Imagine a universe where every field is massless and has scale-invariance. Would the expansion/contraction of the universe still be happening there? would it be detectable? Would it affect the ...
P. C. Spaniel's user avatar
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1 answer
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If space has a positive curvature, is the expansion of the universe caused by time, not "dark energy"? [closed]

Ok, I will assume that space has a positive curvature, where space is the "surface" of this sphere, and time is the radius from the center, so the universe is a 4D hypersphere. Under these ...
Rick Gennings's user avatar
1 vote
1 answer
55 views

Are comoving distances time-independent?

A comoving reference frame expands along with the universe, factoring out the effect of the Hubble expansion. Suppose a galaxy has a redshift $z = 1$ and its comoving distance DM is $11 \,\mathrm{Gly} ...
Rene Kail's user avatar
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1 answer
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Does the energy of a photon in comoving space change?

Assuming a flat FLRW universe that is expanding: In comoving space, does the energy of a photon decrease or stay constant? A physical argument for this would be nice.
Matrix23's user avatar
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7 votes
3 answers
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If we consider the spacetime of the universe to be four-dimensional, does the Big Bang lie in its center?

Apologies for the (hopefully now somewhat less) clickbait-y title. Now, of course, I know that the Big Bang did not happen at any point connected to a single point in our current $3$-dimensional ...
paulina's user avatar
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1 vote
1 answer
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Are there any observations from the beginning of the universe until the CMB?

The question that concerns my mind is that in the time period before the cosmic microwave background, did humans have any observations or not? I mean, are all the materials mentioned in physics about ...
QQQ's user avatar
  • 21
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3 answers
98 views

Does the Schwarszchild solution require the cosmological constant to stop it from expanding?

When Einstein developed his field equations for general relativity, he attempted to apply them to the entire universe. He found the universe had to expand, which at the time was believed not to be the ...
John Hobson's user avatar
1 vote
1 answer
67 views

Does dark energy work on the principle of anti-gravity, i.e. repulsive gravity?

Our universe is made up of 95% dark energy+ dark matter (of which most is dark energy), and this dark energy is considered to be the main reason for the expansion of our universe. But, anything that ...
Sambhav Khandelwal's user avatar
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0 answers
27 views

A question about Friedmann cosmological expansion equation

A recent paper, arXiv:2403.01555, gives the equations for homogeneity and isotropy of an expanding 3-space as expressed in the following distance interval as $x^i = (t, \chi, \theta, \phi)$ and $x^i + ...
jim akerlund's user avatar
1 vote
0 answers
64 views

Are there structures or systems that can have a high angular momentun that are not made by protons and/or neutrons?

Cosmic structures such as neutron stars, white dwarfs or black holes can have high amounts of angular momentum (high spin velocities). However, these are all made by protons and neutrons (black holes ...
vengaq's user avatar
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11 votes
2 answers
1k views

Redshift of the CMB

Has the $z\sim 1100$ redshift of the CMB been actually measured by comparing the fingerprint (absorption spectrum) of the CMB with the theoretical radiation pattern of a $2.725\,\mathrm{K}$ blackbody, ...
Yuan Liu's user avatar
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2 votes
0 answers
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A problem on cosmic inflation

I analyze inflation in this following scenario: Suppose that at some very early epoch, $t_1 ≤ t ≤ t_2$ (where $t_1 ≪ t_2 ≪ t_r$ and $t_r$ is the time at the recombination epoch), the universe resides ...
ASA's user avatar
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0 votes
1 answer
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Cosmological redshift and distance calculus

I am somewhat puzzled when it comes to understanding the general relationship between the cosmological redshift of a galaxy and its distance, and none of the other questions in the forum have ...
Gorga's user avatar
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1 answer
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Does the zero-point energy get less dense as space expands?

As the title says, we know that the universe is expanding, with it I am assuming that all the related quantum fields are also expanding so that we have the "same" conditions everywhere in ...
phantom-byte's user avatar
0 votes
1 answer
64 views

Horizon problem, what if our observable universe is roughly equal to the whole universe, especially in early times?

How do we know that at a time of 380.000 years, when CMB got free, the observable universe was not equal to the actual universe? Maybe they were roughly the same and couldn't that explain the horizon ...
God's user avatar
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3 votes
2 answers
151 views

Does neglecting dark matter solve the Hubble tension?

If the total mass of the universe is smaller than estimated by neglecting the gravitational pull of dark matter, the estimated expansion rate should be greater. Does this consideration in the CMB ...
Manuel's user avatar
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1 vote
1 answer
78 views

Solutions for nonrelativistic-matter perturbations

I'm studying the nonrelativistic-matter perturbations if the expansion of the Universe is driven by a combination of components. I'm currently Following this document (The growth of density ...
merlinbluepickle's user avatar
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0 answers
42 views

Up-tunneling of vacuum with high-energy events?

I was reading these papers by Sean Carroll (https://arxiv.org/abs/1405.0298 ; https://arxiv.org/abs/1505.02780) in which, among other things, he argues against vacuum up-tunneling occurring in the ...
vengaq's user avatar
  • 2,466
0 votes
0 answers
33 views

Turnaround radius being increased in fast collapsing regions?

In the context of formation of large-scale structures, there would be a turnaround radius where expanding matter would detach from the Hubble flow and start to collapse (https://www.aanda.org/articles/...
vengaq's user avatar
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1 vote
1 answer
190 views

Why are physicists not more concerned that there are too many explanations for redshift in the universe?

There are speculative explanations for red shift such as the tired light theory, but I am not referring to those. There are three mainstream explanations Red shift due the expansion of the universe ...
John Hobson's user avatar
1 vote
0 answers
34 views

Does expansion with dark energy drive Universe to increasing flatness?

One of the successes of theory of inflation is its explanation for the flatness of the Universe at the start of the Big Bang. Simply stated, in the Friedmann equation, the inflation field energy ...
Raghavan Jay Jayakumar's user avatar
1 vote
2 answers
199 views

Is time inflating proportionally to space?

We know space is expanding at a rate of roughly 432 miles/light-year/year. Since Einstein showed that time was intrinsically linked into the 4 dimensional structure of spacetime one would logically ...
The Burger King's user avatar
-2 votes
1 answer
84 views

Why is it mysterious that space is apparently expanding at different rates everywhere? [closed]

New-ish measurements from Hubble + Webb say that the Universe is expanding at different rates everywhere: https://www.livescience.com/space/cosmology/james-webb-telescope-confirms-there-is-something-...
Prototypist's user avatar
1 vote
2 answers
117 views

Curvature of space from approaching gravity sources affecting observations of expansion

Since gravity curves space, I wonder how the locally increasing density of matter and energy due to the current galactic mergers with the Milky Way affects our perception of the universe. Basically, ...
Eric Heitzman's user avatar
-1 votes
1 answer
126 views

Big Bang Escape Velocity

When our entire section of the universe was in a single hot dark dense state, right before our big bang, what was the escape velocity?
user avatar
5 votes
1 answer
607 views

Another universe due to a rogue wave fluctuation

Let us consider our Universe at its heat death state, and the rogue wave phenomenon that is due to improbable superposition of small waves. Is it possible that a rogue wave-like quantum fluctuation ...
Hulkster's user avatar
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0 votes
0 answers
46 views

Growing Hubble sphere

For the past few days I've been going through Baumann's notes on cosmology, more specifically I'm currently busy with chapter 2 Inflation. I don't get how he comes to the following equation involving ...
luki luk's user avatar
0 votes
1 answer
57 views

Why do successive redshifts multiply rather than add?

I understand the argument presented in the answer to this question on how successive redshifts combine, such that $$1+z = (1+z_1)(1+z_2) = 1 + z_1 + z_2 + z_1z_2 \\ \therefore z = z_1 + z_2 + z_1z_2.$$...
Josh's user avatar
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0 answers
52 views

Was "flow of time" equally fast during the life of universe? Is Doppler Effect the only interpretation of "shift to red"? [duplicate]

I'm an IT developer and recently I created a project where I tried to send signals between two threads in a slowing down environment. I simulated two points with their own clocks and tried to send a ...
aerion's user avatar
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