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Questions tagged [solid-state-physics]

Solid-state physics studies how macroscopic properties of solids (mechanical, electrical, optical, etc.) result from their microscopic structure. It usually deals with the scale where quantum properties of the particles are substantial.

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Why repulsion between adjacent levels disappear in Poisson distribution?

In Poisson distribution $P(s)= exp(-s)$ why when spacing s between two energy level is zero P(s) is 1 means there is maximum probability that two levels are close to each other. Can I say that ...
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Can we observe the cross over between different Dyson ensemble distributions at the same time?

In random matrix theory we randomly choose matrix elements But they should follow certain symmetry properties. According to Wigner there can be 3 distributions GOE,GUE,GSE and these distributions are ...
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What is the wavelength of a longitudinal acoustic phonon in Silicon at 10 degrees Kelvin? [on hold]

I am given the longitudinal acoustic velocity, or speed of sound in the longitudinal direction for Silicon: 8970 m/s. What sort of approach would be valid for this question?
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How to generate random potential in tight binding model?

Tight binding model exhibit Anderson localization. In Anderson localization there is no interaction b/w particles. But in order to generate random potential in tight binding model if we switch on time ...
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How a particle is localized in Anderson localization?

In Anderson localization electron is localized due to constructive interference. This constructive interference take place b/w transmitted wave and the reflected wave. Does this reflection occurs from ...
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What is main theme behind Anderson localization? And how it is one-particle localization? [on hold]

I want to know what is the main theme behind Anderson localization? Can we explain it in terms of semiconductor and impurity. Secondly why we call it one particle localization?
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How can this approximate donor ionization concentration be derived?

I'm currently working about doner ionization. I've got carrier density $$ n_0 e^\frac{{\mu}-E_c}{k_bT}$$ and product of donor density and fermi distribution, $$ \frac{N_d}{1+2e^\frac{{\mu}-E_d}{k_bT}} ...
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Orbitals without overlaps in band structures of solids

We know every band in the band structure of solids is the result of overlaps of an orbital type. My question is that when there is not any overlap between a type of orbitals(which may be the lowerest ...
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2D diffraction pattern: Benzene (hexagon)

I am currently looking at 2D diffraction pattern. For starters I read: https://www.doitpoms.ac.uk/tlplib/diffraction/diffraction3.php When I have N=6 atomic scatteres in 1D just in a line, it will ...
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Fraunhofer's multiple slits versus atomic scatteres (diffraction)

I am currently busy with studying solid state physics and looking at diffraction theory. http://hyperphysics.phy-astr.gsu.edu/hbase/phyopt/mulslid.html#c3 explains Frauenhofer diffraction good. Let'...
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Obtaining real-space correlations from reciprocal space correlations

Consider a system of Ising variable $s = \pm 1$ on a rectangular lattice which has open boundary conditions on the top and bottom and periodic boundary conditions to the left and right. In other words,...
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Why are domains not formed in paramagnetic materials?

Why are domains formed in ferromagnetic materials, but not in paramagnetic ones?
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Why is it that all metals do not become superconductor by lowering the ambient temperature?

Aluminium becomes a superconductor at a temperature below $1.91$K. But I am quite certain that all metals do not exhibit superconductivity even when the temperature is lowered to nanokelvin or below. ...
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What is the phonon/lattice interaction?

To my understanding, phonons in solids are an excited state of a lattice, i.e., a lattice of atoms oscillate at a certain frequency. Phonons are quasipartices. But what should the phonon/lattice ...
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Debye Temperature for Copper

I am trying to calculate the Debye temperature, $\theta_D$, of copper using the following: $$ \theta_D = \frac{\hbar v_s}{k_B} \left( \frac{6\pi^2N}{V} \right)^{1/3} $$ I have the following values: $...
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Why does type-I superconductor behave differently than type-II as $H$ is increased?

As one increases the external magnetic field $H$ above a critical value $H_c$, a type-I superconductor abruptly changes to a normal conductor. But for type-II, the transition is not sharp but gradual ...
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1answer
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Why does the bulk of a superconducting material expel magnetic field but not that of a perfect conductor?

It is well-known that when a superconductor (SC) is cooled below the transition temperature $T_c$, the magnetic field passing through the bulk of the SC is completely expelled. In Zee's book on ...
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How to understand the elementary excitation of spin density wave?

From Ch.4 of Interacting electrons and quantum magnetism by Auerbach, the elementary excitation of spin density wave can expressed as: $$\alpha^\dagger_{k+}=\cos\theta_kc^\dagger_{k\uparrow}+\sin\...
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What is the relationship between correlation length and charge density wave order?

Hy, i am a physics (bsc) student and for a project work i need to evaluate some RXS measurment data, we try to find CDW order in YBCO. The evaluation part is all well and done i just can't make sense ...
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120 views

Using the Debye model, show that the contribution of the zero point energy to the lattice vibrational energy is given by $𝑈=(9/8)𝑁𝑘_B𝜃_𝐷$

Using the Debye model, show that the contribution of the zero point energy to the lattice vibrational energy is given by $𝑈={9\over8}𝑁𝑘_B𝜃_𝐷$. I know that The zero point energy is $E={1\over2}\...
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Using Miller indices to determine interference from a particular plane in a crystal lattice

In terms of x-ray diffraction from crystals. I was wondering how you can use the miller indices to determine whether there will be constructive or destructive interference from a particular plane in ...
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What type of potential is suitable for ion bombardment in Molecular Dynamics?

I would like to study ion bombardment on targets with molecular dynamics, especially on oxides. So far I ran conclusive tests with Lennard-Jones potentials, but I would like to obtain better ...
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Volume in first octant

Here we are finding number of state less than energy E for particle trapped in 3D harmonic potential .For large value of E as compare to hw , we assumed energy levels as continuous.And we introduces ...
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1answer
39 views

How do electron holes have spin, and how do they interact with “real” particles / vice versa?

So, I thought I had an uneasy truce with quantum mechanics but I read something today which made spotted combat flare up in my mind again. In solid state semiconductor free electrons certainly have ...
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1answer
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Hartree-Fock approximation

The Hartree-Fock approximation is used in solving many-body quantum mechanical systems. The problems of these type of systems are the e-e repulsion term in the Hamiltonian and the single electron ...
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Non-vanishing matrix elements in QFT after discretization

In QFT, introducing the lattice size $L$ implies that the momentum of plane wave solutions is discretized as $$\vec{p}_\vec{n} = \dfrac{2\pi}{L}\vec{n}\quad,\qquad \vec{n}\in\mathbb{Z}^D$$ I would ...
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Why Photons are not affected by intracrystalline field?

I don't undestand why electrons are affected by intracrystalline field, but Photons are not affected? The Crystal Field Theory (CFT) is a model that describes the breaking of degeneracies of ...
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1answer
31 views

Destruction of Mott phase by a external magnetic field

I want to ask the underlying reason for the destruction of Mott insulating phase by an external magnetic field. I know that for a normal band insulator, the transition to a metallic phase can be ...
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Allowed k value for maximum and minimum phonon frequency in a diatomic lattice

I've got an expression for the phonon frequency in a diatomic lattice where the atoms are of mass $m$ and $5m$. The expression is $\omega^2=(12Cm\pm\sqrt{(144C^2m^2-20m^2C^2(1-\cos(ka)})))/(10m^2)$. I ...
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First Brillouin zone for a centered rectangular network

The Wigner-Seitz cell is a primitive cell constructed from planes that bisect the lines connecting a chosen point to the neighboring network points. The cell of Wigner-Seitz in the reciprocal space is ...
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How to expand this equation? $H_{1}=\frac{e^{2}}{R}+\frac{e^{2}}{R+x_{1}+x_{2}}-\frac{e^{2}}{R+x_{1}}-\frac{e^{2}}{R+x_{2}}$ [closed]

$$H_{1}=\frac{e^{2}}{R}+\frac{e^{2}}{R+x_{1}+x_{2}}-\frac{e^{2}}{R+x_{1}}-\frac{e^{2}}{R+x_{2}}$$ in the approximation $ \left |x_{1}\right |,\left |x_{2}\right |\ll R $ we expand to obtain in lowest ...
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1answer
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RF-sputtering: where comes the target self-bias voltage from?

While learning for an exam, I stumbled over the following Question: According to Material Science of thin Films by Milton Ohring, "RF sputtering essentially works because the target self-biases ...
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1 Dimensional quantum chain

I had a question about the transformation of the hamiltonian of a 1 dimensional quantum chain, from real space to reciprocal space. Using the given discrete fourier transforms. $\hat{H}$ = $\sum_j$ $\...
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Does translational symmetry imply some sort of rotational symmetry? Do all crystals have at least one rotation axis?

We know that crystals (not including quasicrystals) have periodic structures. That is, they all have a translation invariant vector. My question is, do all crystals necessarily have a rotation axis? ...
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Richardson-Dushman Equation using Momentum Space

How can we derive the Richard Dushman Equation using momentum space? J=B$_0$T$^2$e$^{-(\phi/kT)}$, B$_0$=4$\pi$qmk$^2$/h$^3$ Am$^{-2}$K$^{-2}$, T=Temperature in Kelvin, $\phi$ is work function of ...
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What concept to apply in order to understand infrared reflectance of materials such as walls and trees?

I know some concepts about the optical reflectance of molecules and phonons. But at the macroscopic level, I don't know which one to use because we know for sure there is reflectance due to molecules ...
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What is the difference between phonon-infrared scattering and molecular-infrared scattering?

Are the both process same?,if not how do they differ in their mechanism,selection rules.
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Do electrons really diffuse when a temperature gradient is applied?

In many websites and books, it is generally said that the charge carriers, be it electrons or holes, diffuse through the considered material when a temperature gradient is applied. However I have ...
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1answer
48 views

Partition function of adsorbing molecules

I have the following example: A surface, having $N_0$ adsorption centers, has $N \le N_0$ gas molecules adsorbed on it. Disregarding interactions between the adsorbed molecules. An adsorption center ...
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1answer
42 views

How is Meissner effect consistent with the frozen field lines inside the superconductor?

From Meissner effect we know that the magnetic field $\vec{B}$ is zero inside the superconductor. Since $\vec{B}=0$ inside the superconductor (ignoring the tiny penetration effect for the moment), ...
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electron phonon umklapp in multivalent metals

I was wondering if there's a lower limit for the phonon-wavevector involved in an electron-phonon "umklapp"-scattering event. I took the picture below from Ziman's book and it kind of irritates me. ...
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Is infrared active phonon the reason why infrared is not passing through walls?

I did some research on why infrared is not passing through walls.I learnt about infrared active phonons which are responsible for scattering in solids.It cannot be raman scattering,rayleigh scattering,...
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Area of the filled region of free electron fermi surface

Why area of the filled region of free electron fermi surface depends on the electron concentration?
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Are there any ways to distinguish a certain bonding state in MO spectrum?

Assume we have a relatively small silicon cluster, say Si35H36, saturated with hydrogen atoms. And we can calculate the band structure of it through some ab initio packages like VASP. Here follow my ...
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Why is base centered lattice not possible in cubic system?

It still has symmetry,then why is the existence of base centered lattice not possible? Is it that it is impossible or is it that we have seen none like that in real?
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How relate doping concentration and electron concentration?

Say I have Si with the donar doping concentration $N_D=10^{14} \text{cm}^{-3}$ and a temperature $T$. How can I relate the donar doping concentration to the electron concentration? I know the ...
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Working with Reciprocial Lattice

In solid matter physics the lattice structure can equivalently be described via standard Bravais modelling but also by considering it's reciprocial lattice. Mathematically the reciprocial lattice can ...
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Heat capacity of LJ fluid vs Ideal gas

I am making my first MD simulation about a Lennard-Jones fluid: an Argon system made up of $500$ particles. I need to write e report and answer to some questions. I computed the heat capacity of the ...
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A momentum space and a reciprocal space

Is the momentum space actually the reciprocal space? Maybe I confuse those terms but those spaces must be related, but can I view them as the same in the crystallography? The reciprocal space is due ...
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Can the periodicity in k-space of the electronic band structure be understood as a result of aliasing?

Discrete sampling in the case of phonons In the case of phonons in periodic solids, the picture is quite intuitive. The motion of the atoms in the lattice is described as a continuous wave (amplitude ...