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Questions tagged [solar-wind]

A supersonic flow of ionized particles emanating from the sun

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Do solar energetic particles follow the Parker spiral?

I understand that the solar wind follows the Parker spiral shape of the Sun's magnetic field, thus it is possible for solar wind from a point on the opposite side of the Sun to reach Earth. I have ...
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1answer
37 views

Creating Aurora-like phenomenon in a laboratory

Is it possible to recreate Aurora's in a laboratory experiment? Obviously, I'm not asking if it's possible to have bands of plasma thousands of kilometers long inside a lab. But rather, is it possible ...
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Stable bubbles in a vacuum

I want to make space bubbles that hold some gaseous stuff - at very low pressure - for a long time and through nothing but surface tension. I can't use soap water as the water will evaporate quickly. ...
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1answer
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How are solar sails maneuvered by sunlight? Are they pushed or pulled?

On 20 May, 2010, Japan launched IKAROS probe with primary propulsion by a solar sail. If the radiation pressure, that helps the sail to move, comes from the sun, then shouldn't it be pushed away from ...
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1answer
29 views

What is the solar wind speed as function of distance from the Sun?

Someone must have calculated at least a "zero-order approximation" of the behavior of solar wind speed, density, and pressure as a function of distance from the Sun, but the heck if I can find it. ...
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How does the energy of a solar flare propagate?

Does it radiate outward, spherically, or is it more directed? Is there some opening angle? Is it more complex than this?
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2answers
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Colors of the Aurora

I've seen several web pages that attempt to explain the colours of the aurora but they seem to gloss over or leave out certain details, so I'm still confused. For example, this page explains it in ...
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1answer
101 views

Distortion of the Earth's magnetic field due to solar winds?

Why and how do the solar winds distort the Earth's Magnetosphere to form a drop like shape facing away from the Sun?
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1answer
183 views

Speed of sound at the Sun surface [closed]

The gas velocity at the Sun's surface is subsonic and At 1 AU from the sun, the solar wind is supersonic. Like Parker wind solution. Why the velocity at the Sun's surface is subsonic? (In the ...
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can a photons energy state be altered with magnetic force?

with respect to sunlight, is there any way to use a magnet to alter the energy impact of sunlight? more or less energy, or hotter vs cooler? All spectrums considered. visable, xray, gamma. Can a ...
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188 views

Shape of Earth's magnetic field

Why earth's magnetic field is compressed on day side and extended like tail on night side, like this I know that it's due to solar wind but not how that compression and extension happens.
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65 views

What portion of the total power emitted by the Sun comes from photons?

We usually talk about luminosity, which is the total power from emitted photons. The other sources are neutrinos and the solar wind (which includes protons and other particles). I assume that most ...
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1answer
88 views

Are North aurora and South aurora produced by positive and negative particles respectively?

Are North aurora and South aurora produced by positive and negative particles respectively?
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Electric field in frame corotating with sun

I am studying this paper on the solar wind for a class on MHD, but I am perplexed by the line that precedes equation (5): " But in a perfectly conducting fluid ${\bf v}$ is parallel to ${\bf B}$ in ...
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1answer
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What's the timescale for the formation of a coronal mass ejection?

How quickly does the sun form and release a coronal mass ejection? If we were watching the right part of the sun closely, how long would it take us to go from "nothing seems to be happening" to "...
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1answer
38 views

Should there be a difference in strength or otherwise between daytime and nighttime auroras?

Or do they have exactly the same characteristics? I.e. if I observe them in a place where it’s dark 24 hours.
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2answers
98 views

What accelerates the solar wind?

The question is in the title. A bit of background info: the escape velocity at the photosphere of the Sun is ~ 620 km/s, but the mean speed of the solar plasma there (inferred from the temperature) ...
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2answers
550 views

What is the difference between bulk speed and thermal speed in solar wind plasma?

in solar wind plasma different species has different thermal speed but all having same bulk speed. why it is so? and in solar wind is the thermal speed is just the standard deviation around the bulk ...
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532 views

How would look the Aurora on earth like if there wasn't a magnetic field?

Suppose the earth wasn't surrounded by a magnetic field. How would the Aurora look like? Would we see a sky full of colored star-like lights, with the color dependent on the energies of the incident ...
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63 views

Solar Flares hitting Earth [duplicate]

When the earth is hit by solar flares, will it make the earth move faster through space when the magnetic field bends?
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1answer
48 views

Ion combination energies

This is somewhat out of my comfort zone, and therefore I may not be using the correct terminology. Basically, there are some promoters of a certain woo, that claim solar wind H+ can combine with O-. ...
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1answer
369 views

How long would it take Mars to lose its atmosphere if we gave it one?

I've read that one of the reasons Mars doesn't (any longer) have an atmosphere is that it loses more gas to the solar wind than the Earth does, because its core has solidified and it therefore lacks a ...
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11k views

Is it possible to send all nuclear waste on Earth to the Sun?

If we neglect the danger of unsuccessful lift-off of the rocket and the cost, would it be physically possible to send all nuclear waste on Earth to the Sun? Will there be an obstacle that prevents ...
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4answers
2k views

Do force fields physically exist?

Or are they just a region of space where the forces are acting around its source, for example a magnet? But if they are just regions, and not physical objects, then how can the Earth's magnetic field ...
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388 views

Solar prominence

I'm preparing for an upcoming school speech about solar flares and am wondering whether or not the "loop" in the following video is an example of "solar prominence" and what will eventually result in ...
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1answer
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How does the 11-year solar cycle alter the cosmic ray flux?

Looking at a flux vs. time graph of secondary cosmic rays (e.g. from a neutron station: www.nmdb.eu/nest/search.php can plot you some. I just tried for example Moscow, from 14 Oct 1951 to today, ...
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Limitations of the ideal gas law: When does it fail?

Motivation I ask this question precisely because I am looking for a fundamental, quantitative explanation of the limitations of the ideal gas law and when it should not be used. Note, I have found ...
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1answer
209 views

Under which angles does the solar wind leave the Sun and arrive at it's desination?

As the sun emits charged particles outwards, those particles will travel long distances to reach far away points in the solar system. They could be influenced by other bodies, electromagnetic fields, ...
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1answer
213 views

Solar activity and radioactive decay rates [duplicate]

I recall hearing about this quite some time ago and thought it was very strange. I recently had it pop in my head again and was curious if anyone knew what was going on with this. Variable decay ...
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2answers
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How strong is Earth's magnetic field in space?

I've been searching around Google and Youtube about the strength of Earth's magnetic field. By the help of wikipedia, I have found out that it's magnitude is 25 to 65 microtesla or 0.25 to 0.65 Gauss ...
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1answer
334 views

differences of Aurora Borealis (North) vs. Aurora Australis (South)

I was wondering about the differences between the Northern vs. Southern lights: will one pole collect the positive charges, and the other the negatives? I know that the solar wind is composed mainly ...
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1answer
86 views

Wind turbine impact on cars fuel consumption [closed]

I have question that I still can't resolve. How much cars fuel consumption rises(l/100km) if I attach 1 kW wind generator to cars body? How can I calculate that and what do I need to know? ...
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2answers
722 views

Possible Safe Areas In a Solar Flare

Which part of the earth would be the safest in case of the major solar flare? Will it be near equator or something like that?
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285 views

Does the solar wind correspond to a net electrical current?

The solar wind is a stream of ions emitted from the sun. Are there more positive than negative charges released? That is, is there any imbalance in the charge emitted from the sun in the solar wind?
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Do stars remain electrically neutral? [duplicate]

How electrically neutral do stars remain through their lifetime? As an example, I could imagine processes such as coronal mass ejections leaving the Sun in a slightly charged state. Are there such ...
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2k views

Why do charged particles follow magnetic field lines?

This may seem like a dumb question, but I can't think of the answer. The context I am curious about is the solar wind. Specifically particles flowing out of coronal holes and following the magnetic ...
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Can solar flares affect gravity?

Can a large eruption of solar flares on our sun change the effects of its gravity ever so slightly, and is it possible to measure these changes with the equipment we have today.
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1answer
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How to calculate max temperature craft needs to withstand near the Sun

The Solar Probe Plus fact-sheet states that the craft will approach to the distance of 9 solar radii to the surface of the Sun (Approx 6.26e6 km) and its heat shields must withstand 1644K of heat. I ...
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4answers
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Why doesn't the solar wind disrupt the planets?

The sun creates this heliosphere by sending a constant flow of particles and a magnetic field out into space at over 670,000 miles per hour, which is also known as solar wind. If the speed of the wind ...
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Earth's magnetic field shields us… from what threat?

This is a nice artistic picture of the magnet field of the earth, shielding us from the solar wind. (source) Wherever you look, it is stated that without our shield, life would not be possible on ...
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1answer
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What would happen to a planet at the heliosphere's termination shock?

Assuming that a planet with an atmosphere already existed which orbits at the radius of the termination shock of a star, what would happen to it over time? As a follow-up, would it be possible for a ...
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2answers
385 views

Why do electrons and protons in Van-Allen-Belt behave like this?

In a book I have read that in the Van-Allen-Belt there are the protons and electrons from the solar wind. What I do not get, is why they should behave that way illustrated in this image. Why should ...
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1answer
119 views

Passively moving air [closed]

I'm interested in channeling air into an underground condenser to generate water. Which of these approaches would be most appropriate, and is there a better approach I haven't considered? A: A wind-...
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1answer
82 views

total energy in a typical solar Hard X ray flare

The RHESSI (Reuven Ramaty High Energy Solar Spectroscopic Imager) website lists solar Hard X ray flares with energy of each flare given in a range, say, 50 - 75 keV. We presume that is the energy ...
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Is it possible to sail “close hauled” with a solar sailship?

I have not been able to find a clear or decisive answer about this. On Earth, a ship sails close hauled when the ship is, to some degree or another, facing into the wind. This is made possible with ...
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0answers
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Aurora borealis forecasting, some technical details

I have an idea to make a software tool (with some really user friendly interface) for predicting auroras on any place on Earth. I do know some physics behind the phenomenon, but only basics, like it ...
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4answers
790 views

What mechanism is responsible for the creation of these dunes on Comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko?

What mechanism is responsible for the creation of these dunes on Comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko? The following high resolution picture from ESA's Rosetta mission shows the dunes: At a distance of ...
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2answers
268 views

Radiation pressure question

If radiation pressure is a pressure exerted upon any surface exposed to electromagnetic radiation then why do planets such as the ones in our solar system maintain consistent orbits? I'm guessing the ...
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3answers
117 views

Is “atmospheric geostationary satellite” feasible with current technology?

Meaning by "atmospheric geostationary satellite" a vehicle capable of hovering 30 km above Earth surface, hence insde atmosphere, for unlimited time, making use of air propellers, solar panels and ...
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2answers
708 views

How could a solar sail be powered 'Upwind' by craft's own (laser) light source?

I've just watched a Discovery Science program - Alien Encounters featuring SETI luminaries such as Jill Tarter, Frank Drake and Nick Sagan. A serious discussion on how to interpret ET messages coupled ...