Questions tagged [solar-wind]

A supersonic flow of ionized particles emanating from the sun

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32 views

Interaction of supersonic wind with static Inter-Stellar Medium (ISM)

Recently I was studying about the interaction of supersonic flow (wind) with a slowly flowing medium. In a paper by Dyson, Falle, and Perry 1980 MNRAS stated that when a supersonic wind impinged upon ...
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Do solar winds / mass ejections produce thrust on sun?

For every action there's a contrary reaction, so can those mass ejections make the sun move? Of course, the mass of the sun is immensely bigger than what's being eject but even being trillions of ...
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Does the solar wind blow *through* the moon's atmosphere/exosphere?

The Wikipedia article on "Atmosphere of moon" says: One source of the lunar atmosphere is outgassing: the release of gases such as radon and helium resulting from radioactive decay within ...
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Are switchbacks travelling Alfven waves?

My question is are the so-called Switchbacks observed in the solar wind traveling Alfven waves? If not what are the differences between them?
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Which physical variables are considered conserved in the solar wind stream?

Can anyone tell me which physical variables are considered conserved in the solar wind stream? I am also trying to know if there is a governing equation that describes them.
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How much energy per area or volume is the solar wind producing?

Would it be possible to erect essentially a giant loop of wire in interplanetary space to create an electric generator? If so, how much power can we get?
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Is the Sun losing mass and pushing the Earth further away? [duplicate]

With the sun radiating so much energy every millisecond can nuclear fusion keep up with that pace? And if it can’t keep up isn’t the sun losing energy every second and therefor losing mass? Which ...
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To define an equation of state, does the system need to be in some type of equilbrium?

Typically one assumes some sort of equilibrium to define an equation of state for a system. However, I am curious if equilibrium is actually required to define a general equation of state (with the ...
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A technique to distinguish the mean magnetic field from the fluctuations in the solar wind?

My question is: Is there a technique to distinguish the mean magnetic field from the fluctuations in the solar wind? Thanks
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Do switchbacks occur in the radial direction of the solar wind magnetic field?

My question is: When we are talking about switchbacks, do we mean switchbacks in the radial component of the magnetic field or in the total magnetic field?
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Why do we sometimes refer to the solar wind as young solar wind?

Why do we sometimes refer to the solar wind as young solar wind? What does young imply?
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Explanation of figure:turbulent magnetic field lines + spatial distribution of out-of-plane electric current density

The following graph is supposed to present turbulent magnetic field lines along with the spatial distribution of out-of-plane electric current density. However I am not sure I completely understand ...
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How does a solar wind plasmoid split when it touches the magnetosphere?

I want to try to render (computer graphics) auroras in a physical manner as realistic and realizable as possible. I'm aware that the phenomenon hasn't been completly explained yet (as far as my own ...
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How to define temperature in non-equilibrium, non-thermodynamic systems?

This question stems from an answer to the following question: What's the most fundamental definition of temperature? The issue here is how to define the temperature in a system not in thermal or ...
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Reaction of radiation with Nitrogen-14

When solar wind brings high energy neutrons into contact with Nitrogen-14, a well known process occurs yielding Carbon-14 + a proton. N14 is assumed to exist in upper atmosphere as N2 gas, but the ...
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What is happening when magnetic field lines snap or break?

In discussions of sun spots and auroras on Earth, magnetic field lines are often described as "snapping" or "breaking", with the result of releasing charged particles very ...
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Radiation and windows for building of a great project in a low Earth orbit: reference request or exercise as a ficticious need to build it

I know about the existence of certain windows for which it is more suitable to launch a probe for the exploration of a cellestial body in our Solar System (see the Wikipedia Launch window). I wondered ...
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By what mechanism does a solar flare overload electronics?

I apologize for my ignorance, but I lack the underlying knowledge to meaningfully research this myself. My knowledge of both Solar Flares and EMPs comes almost exclusively from pop-sci reading. I've ...
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Are solar flares and solar winds the same?

A solar flare contains high energy protons and particles. A solar wind is a stream of energized & charged particles primarily electrons & protons. I am confused whether both are same or not? ...
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Best numerical simulations of Sun's magnetic field

I was trying to find some simulations of the Sun's magnetic field. Which ones are the most accurate to date?
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Thermal velocity of electrons and protons in solar Corona

I would like to know how much (in eV) is the thermal velocity of electrons and protons in the lower solar corona? Thank you in advance!
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Other than magnitude what are the differences between CME's and Solar flares?

I could not understand the differences between a CME and a Solar flare, aside from the fact that they differ in magnitude.
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Energy spectrum of Solar energetic particles (SEP's)

I would like to know if we have obtained any observations regarding the energy spectrum of solar energetic particles. Something like the following histogram : And if so, what is the index of the ...
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How does the aurora brightness depend on the distance from the poles?

I checked a few sites about aurora: http://www.aurora-service.eu/aurora-school/all-about-the-kp-index/ https://www.swpc.noaa.gov/products/aurora-30-minute-forecast https://www.swpc.noaa.gov/products/3-...
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What would the effect of an antimatter star be upon a normal matter planet? (Thought experiment)

Based on the answers from this question: Would the solar wind from an antimatter star be any different from a non-antimatter star?, it seems that an antimatter Sol type star would conduct fusion ...
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Would the solar wind from an antimatter star be any different from a non-antimatter star?

Antimatter is any element of matter with an opposite charge than normal matter. As such, would an antimatter sun conduct fusion normally such that it would it radiate photons, or would it radiate ...
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What causes the vertical bands of light in an aurora?

I was lucky enough to witness a medium-strength aurora recently in Iceland (KP ~3). We saw the classic rippling arc of green light, which at times seemed to consist of smaller flickering vertical ...
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Will pyrolytic carbon/graphite repel the Sun's solar wind?

Since a moving charged particle has a magnetic field, as well as an electric field, and pyrolytic carbon/graphite repels an external magnetic field, would this mean that an object made out of ...
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How does the Earth's magnetic field protect it from the solar wind?

Several sources (see linked questions at the end) say that earth's magnetic field shields us from the solar wind. The general consensus is that without earth's magnetic field, the atmosphere would be ...
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Why the geomagnetic field become stronger when solar wind is stronger?

The following description is from the webpage of Niels Bohr Institue's Former Centre for Ice and Climate The Earth reacts to the solar wind by increasing the strength of the shielding magnetic ...
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Do solar energetic particles follow the Parker spiral?

I understand that the solar wind follows the Parker spiral shape of the Sun's magnetic field, thus it is possible for solar wind from a point on the opposite side of the Sun to reach Earth. I have ...
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Creating Aurora-like phenomenon in a laboratory

Is it possible to recreate Aurora's in a laboratory experiment? Obviously, I'm not asking if it's possible to have bands of plasma thousands of kilometers long inside a lab. But rather, is it possible ...
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Stable bubbles in a vacuum

I want to make space bubbles that hold some gaseous stuff - at very low pressure - for a long time and through nothing but surface tension. I can't use soap water as the water will evaporate quickly. ...
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How are solar sails maneuvered by sunlight? Are they pushed or pulled?

On 20 May, 2010, Japan launched IKAROS probe with primary propulsion by a solar sail. If the radiation pressure, that helps the sail to move, comes from the sun, then shouldn't it be pushed away from ...
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What is the solar wind speed as function of distance from the Sun?

Someone must have calculated at least a "zero-order approximation" of the behavior of solar wind speed, density, and pressure as a function of distance from the Sun, but the heck if I can find it. ...
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How does the energy of a solar flare propagate?

Does it radiate outward, spherically, or is it more directed? Is there some opening angle? Is it more complex than this?
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Colors of the Aurora

I've seen several web pages that attempt to explain the colours of the aurora but they seem to gloss over or leave out certain details, so I'm still confused. For example, this page explains it in ...
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Distortion of the Earth's magnetic field due to solar winds?

Why and how do the solar winds distort the Earth's Magnetosphere to form a drop like shape facing away from the Sun?
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Speed of sound at the Sun surface [closed]

The gas velocity at the Sun's surface is subsonic and At 1 AU from the sun, the solar wind is supersonic. Like Parker wind solution. Why the velocity at the Sun's surface is subsonic? (In the ...
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can a photons energy state be altered with magnetic force?

with respect to sunlight, is there any way to use a magnet to alter the energy impact of sunlight? more or less energy, or hotter vs cooler? All spectrums considered. visable, xray, gamma. Can a ...
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Shape of Earth's magnetic field

Why earth's magnetic field is compressed on day side and extended like tail on night side, like this I know that it's due to solar wind but not how that compression and extension happens.
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What portion of the total power emitted by the Sun comes from photons?

We usually talk about luminosity, which is the total power from emitted photons. The other sources are neutrinos and the solar wind (which includes protons and other particles). I assume that most ...
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Are North aurora and South aurora produced by positive and negative particles respectively?

Are North aurora and South aurora produced by positive and negative particles respectively?
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Electric field in frame corotating with sun

I am studying this paper on the solar wind for a class on MHD, but I am perplexed by the line that precedes equation (5): " But in a perfectly conducting fluid ${\bf v}$ is parallel to ${\bf B}$ in ...
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What's the timescale for the formation of a coronal mass ejection?

How quickly does the sun form and release a coronal mass ejection? If we were watching the right part of the sun closely, how long would it take us to go from "nothing seems to be happening" to "...
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Should there be a difference in strength or otherwise between daytime and nighttime auroras?

Or do they have exactly the same characteristics? I.e. if I observe them in a place where it’s dark 24 hours.
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What accelerates the solar wind?

The question is in the title. A bit of background info: the escape velocity at the photosphere of the Sun is ~ 620 km/s, but the mean speed of the solar plasma there (inferred from the temperature) ...
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What is the difference between bulk speed and thermal speed in solar wind plasma?

in solar wind plasma different species has different thermal speed but all having same bulk speed. why it is so? and in solar wind is the thermal speed is just the standard deviation around the bulk ...
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How would the Aurora light on Earth look like if there wasn't a magnetic field?

Here are some pictures of the aurora light. The beautiful phenomenon of Aurora is a well-known one, seen in the northern (Aurora Borealis) and southern parts (Aurora Australis) of the globe. Here is ...
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Solar Flares hitting Earth [duplicate]

When the earth is hit by solar flares, will it make the earth move faster through space when the magnetic field bends?