# Questions tagged [solar-wind]

A supersonic flow of ionized particles emanating from the sun

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### Have solar wind particles escaped the Sun's gravity or will they eventually return back?

I've read that solar wind consists of hydrogen atoms that are, near the Earth, travelling at about 450 km/s. This is only 3/4 of the Sun's escape velocity, but then the Earth is also 150 million km ...
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### Radial dependence of temperature of solar wind?

How does the temperature of the solar wind plasma depend upon radial distance from the Sun?
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### What is the definition of a plasma?

I understand that the conventional definition of a plasma is that the Debye length is much smaller than the size of the plasma, however I can't seem to find what the numerical value of this ratio ...
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### Aurora Borealis

As we know that during a solar flare, a large number of electrons and protons are ejected from the sun. Some of them get trapped in the earth’s magnetic field and move in helical paths along the field ...
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### Resultant particle distribution function for mixing of two particle species

I would like to know if there is any way to compute the resultant particle distribution for system where two kinds of particles are mixed. For me one kind is Maxwellian and another is non-thermal ...
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### How do I set up surface pressure as function of time due to atmospheric erosion by Solar wind?

It is known that highly energetic particles from the sun when striking a planet ionize the atmospheric particles and the ions may escape the planet by being guided by the solar magnetic flux that ...
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### Drift of neutral particles in plasmas

I'm learning about $\mathbf{E}\times \mathbf{B}$ drifts in plasmas. The drift speed is given by $\mathbf{v}=\mathbf{E}\times \mathbf{B}/B^2$. Chen (in Introduction to Plasma Physics and Controlled ...
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### Magnetic sunspot propulsion [closed]

Could a solar sail use the sun, its sunspots, or solar flares, in close proximity, use opposing magnetic fields, to add significant acceleration? https://www.mae.ucla.edu/nasa-selects-artur-davoyans-...
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### Interaction of supersonic wind with static Inter-Stellar Medium (ISM)

Recently I was studying about the interaction of supersonic flow (wind) with a slowly flowing medium. In a paper by Dyson, Falle, and Perry 1980 MNRAS stated that when a supersonic wind impinged upon ...
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### In plasma physics what does beam of particles mean

I often hear about a beam of particles on top of a background population in plasma physics. What does exactly beam mean? Is it a subset of particles that belong to a different distribution? What ...
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### Is the radiation on IO's surface directional?

I know that magnetospheres redirect solar radiation into the poles of a planet, but since IO is in Jupiter's magnetosphere does that mean that solar radiation is redirected across the planets surface ...
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### Do solar winds / mass ejections produce thrust on sun?

For every action there's a contrary reaction, so can those mass ejections make the sun move? Of course, the mass of the sun is immensely bigger than what's being eject but even being trillions of ...
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### Does the solar wind blow *through* the moon's atmosphere/exosphere?

The Wikipedia article on "Atmosphere of moon" says: One source of the lunar atmosphere is outgassing: the release of gases such as radon and helium resulting from radioactive decay within ...
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### Are switchbacks travelling Alfven waves?

My question is are the so-called Switchbacks observed in the solar wind traveling Alfven waves? If not what are the differences between them?
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### How much of the Sun to not evaporate is due to gravity and how much due to magnetism?

As protons and electrons on the sun 'surface' have high kinetic energy something obviously should stop them to go away.Its gravity is very high compared to planets but is this enough as magnetism also ...
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### How much energy per area or volume is the solar wind producing?

Would it be possible to erect essentially a giant loop of wire in interplanetary space to create an electric generator? If so, how much power can we get?
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### Is the Sun losing mass and pushing the Earth further away? [duplicate]

With the sun radiating so much energy every millisecond can nuclear fusion keep up with that pace? And if it can’t keep up isn’t the sun losing energy every second and therefor losing mass? Which ...
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### To define an equation of state, does the system need to be in some type of equilbrium?

Typically one assumes some sort of equilibrium to define an equation of state for a system. However, I am curious if equilibrium is actually required to define a general equation of state (with the ...
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### A technique to distinguish the mean magnetic field from the fluctuations in the solar wind?

My question is: Is there a technique to distinguish the mean magnetic field from the fluctuations in the solar wind? Thanks
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### Do switchbacks occur in the radial direction of the solar wind magnetic field?

My question is: When we are talking about switchbacks, do we mean switchbacks in the radial component of the magnetic field or in the total magnetic field?
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### Why do we sometimes refer to the solar wind as young solar wind?

Why do we sometimes refer to the solar wind as young solar wind? What does young imply?
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### Explanation of figure:turbulent magnetic field lines + spatial distribution of out-of-plane electric current density

The following graph is supposed to present turbulent magnetic field lines along with the spatial distribution of out-of-plane electric current density. However I am not sure I completely understand ...
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### How does a solar wind plasmoid split when it touches the magnetosphere?

I want to try to render (computer graphics) auroras in a physical manner as realistic and realizable as possible. I'm aware that the phenomenon hasn't been completly explained yet (as far as my own ...
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### How to define temperature in non-equilibrium, non-thermodynamic systems?

This question stems from an answer to the following question: What's the most fundamental definition of temperature? The issue here is how to define the temperature in a system not in thermal or ...
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### Reaction of radiation with Nitrogen-14

When solar wind brings high energy neutrons into contact with Nitrogen-14, a well known process occurs yielding Carbon-14 + a proton. N14 is assumed to exist in upper atmosphere as N2 gas, but the ...
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### What is happening when magnetic field lines snap or break?

In discussions of sun spots and auroras on Earth, magnetic field lines are often described as "snapping" or "breaking", with the result of releasing charged particles very ...
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### Radiation and windows for building of a great project in a low Earth orbit: reference request or exercise as a ficticious need to build it

I know about the existence of certain windows for which it is more suitable to launch a probe for the exploration of a cellestial body in our Solar System (see the Wikipedia Launch window). I wondered ...
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### By what mechanism does a solar flare overload electronics?

I apologize for my ignorance, but I lack the underlying knowledge to meaningfully research this myself. My knowledge of both Solar Flares and EMPs comes almost exclusively from pop-sci reading. I've ...
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### Where do the gases such as hydrogen and helium end up after leaving the earths atmosphere?

I've heard that gases like hydrogen and helium leak out of the earth's gravity a little by little. but where are they going? where do they end up after leaving earth's pull? would the sun pull them ...
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### Are solar flares and solar winds the same?

A solar flare contains high energy protons and particles. A solar wind is a stream of energized & charged particles primarily electrons & protons. I am confused whether both are same or not? ...
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### Best numerical simulations of Sun's magnetic field

I was trying to find some simulations of the Sun's magnetic field. Which ones are the most accurate to date?
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### Thermal velocity of electrons and protons in solar Corona

I would like to know how much (in eV) is the thermal velocity of electrons and protons in the lower solar corona? Thank you in advance!
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### Other than magnitude what are the differences between CME's and Solar flares?

I could not understand the differences between a CME and a Solar flare, aside from the fact that they differ in magnitude.
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### Energy spectrum of Solar energetic particles (SEP's)

I would like to know if we have obtained any observations regarding the energy spectrum of solar energetic particles. Something like the following histogram : And if so, what is the index of the ...
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### What would the effect of an antimatter star be upon a normal matter planet? (Thought experiment)

Based on the answers from this question: Would the solar wind from an antimatter star be any different from a non-antimatter star?, it seems that an antimatter Sol type star would conduct fusion ...
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### Would the solar wind from an antimatter star be any different from a non-antimatter star?

Antimatter is any element of matter with an opposite charge than normal matter. As such, would an antimatter sun conduct fusion normally such that it would it radiate photons, or would it radiate ...
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### What causes the vertical bands of light in an aurora?

I was lucky enough to witness a medium-strength aurora recently in Iceland (KP ~3). We saw the classic rippling arc of green light, which at times seemed to consist of smaller flickering vertical ...
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### Will pyrolytic carbon/graphite repel the Sun's solar wind?

Since a moving charged particle has a magnetic field, as well as an electric field, and pyrolytic carbon/graphite repels an external magnetic field, would this mean that an object made out of ...
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### How does the Earth's magnetic field protect it from the solar wind?

Several sources (see linked questions at the end) say that earth's magnetic field shields us from the solar wind. The general consensus is that without earth's magnetic field, the atmosphere would be ...
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### Why the geomagnetic field become stronger when solar wind is stronger?

The following description is from the webpage of Niels Bohr Institue's Former Centre for Ice and Climate The Earth reacts to the solar wind by increasing the strength of the shielding magnetic ...
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### Do solar energetic particles follow the Parker spiral?

I understand that the solar wind follows the Parker spiral shape of the Sun's magnetic field, thus it is possible for solar wind from a point on the opposite side of the Sun to reach Earth. I have ...
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### Creating Aurora-like phenomenon in a laboratory

Is it possible to recreate Aurora's in a laboratory experiment? Obviously, I'm not asking if it's possible to have bands of plasma thousands of kilometers long inside a lab. But rather, is it possible ...
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### Stable bubbles in a vacuum

I want to make space bubbles that hold some gaseous stuff - at very low pressure - for a long time and through nothing but surface tension. I can't use soap water as the water will evaporate quickly. ...
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### How are solar sails maneuvered by sunlight? Are they pushed or pulled?

On 20 May, 2010, Japan launched IKAROS probe with primary propulsion by a solar sail. If the radiation pressure, that helps the sail to move, comes from the sun, then shouldn't it be pushed away from ...
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### What is the solar wind speed as function of distance from the Sun?

Someone must have calculated at least a "zero-order approximation" of the behavior of solar wind speed, density, and pressure as a function of distance from the Sun, but the heck if I can find it. ...
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### How does the energy of a solar flare propagate?

Does it radiate outward, spherically, or is it more directed? Is there some opening angle? Is it more complex than this?
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### Colors of the Aurora

I've seen several web pages that attempt to explain the colours of the aurora but they seem to gloss over or leave out certain details, so I'm still confused. For example, this page explains it in ...
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