Questions tagged [solar-wind]

A supersonic flow of ionized particles emanating from the sun

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To define an equation of state, does the system need to be in some type of equilbrium?

Typically one assumes some sort of equilibrium to define an equation of state for a system. However, I am curious if equilibrium is actually required to define a general equation of state (with the ...
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A technique to distinguish the mean magnetic field from the fluctuations in the solar wind?

My question is: Is there a technique to distinguish the mean magnetic field from the fluctuations in the solar wind? Thanks
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Do switchbacks occur in the radial direction of the solar wind magnetic field?

My question is: When we are talking about switchbacks, do we mean switchbacks in the radial component of the magnetic field or in the total magnetic field?
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Why do we sometimes refer to the solar wind as young solar wind?

Why do we sometimes refer to the solar wind as young solar wind? What does young imply?
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Explanation of figure:turbulent magnetic field lines + spatial distribution of out-of-plane electric current density

The following graph is supposed to present turbulent magnetic field lines along with the spatial distribution of out-of-plane electric current density. However I am not sure I completely understand ...
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How does a solar wind plasmoid split when it touches the magnetosphere?

I want to try to render (computer graphics) auroras in a physical manner as realistic and realizable as possible. I'm aware that the phenomenon hasn't been completly explained yet (as far as my own ...
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How to define temperature in non-equilibrium, non-thermodynamic systems?

This question stems from an answer to the following question: What's the most fundamental definition of temperature? The issue here is how to define the temperature in a system not in thermal or ...
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Reaction of radiation with Nitrogen-14

When solar wind brings high energy neutrons into contact with Nitrogen-14, a well known process occurs yielding Carbon-14 + a proton. N14 is assumed to exist in upper atmosphere as N2 gas, but the ...
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What is happening when magnetic field lines snap or break?

In discussions of sun spots and auroras on Earth, magnetic field lines are often described as "snapping" or "breaking", with the result of releasing charged particles very ...
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Radiation and windows for building of a great project in a low Earth orbit: reference request or exercise as a ficticious need to build it

I know about the existence of certain windows for which it is more suitable to launch a probe for the exploration of a cellestial body in our Solar System (see the Wikipedia Launch window). I wondered ...
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By what mechanism does a solar flare overload electronics?

I apologize for my ignorance, but I lack the underlying knowledge to meaningfully research this myself. My knowledge of both Solar Flares and EMPs comes almost exclusively from pop-sci reading. I've ...
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Are solar flares and solar winds the same?

A solar flare contains high energy protons and particles. A solar wind is a stream of energized & charged particles primarily electrons & protons. I am confused whether both are same or not? ...
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Measuring the Probabibility of the scattering of photons from a solar flare and the atmosphere

I'm working on a project right now where I am doing the analysis for coronal mass ejections and solar flares on the earth's atmosphere and magnetosphere. Currently I am trying to model the probability ...
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Thermal velocity of electrons and protons in solar Corona

I would like to know how much (in eV) is the thermal velocity of electrons and protons in the lower solar corona? Thank you in advance!
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Other than magnitude what are the differences between CME's and Solar flares?

I could not understand the differences between a CME and a Solar flare, aside from the fact that they differ in magnitude.
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Energy spectrum of Solar energetic particles (SEP's)

I would like to know if we have obtained any observations regarding the energy spectrum of solar energetic particles. Something like the following histogram : And if so, what is the index of the ...
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How does the aurora brightness depend on the distance from the poles?

I checked a few sites about aurora: http://www.aurora-service.eu/aurora-school/all-about-the-kp-index/ https://www.swpc.noaa.gov/products/aurora-30-minute-forecast https://www.swpc.noaa.gov/products/3-...
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What would the effect of an antimatter star be upon a normal matter planet? (Thought experiment)

Based on the answers from this question: Would the solar wind from an antimatter star be any different from a non-antimatter star?, it seems that an antimatter Sol type star would conduct fusion ...
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Would the solar wind from an antimatter star be any different from a non-antimatter star?

Antimatter is any element of matter with an opposite charge than normal matter. As such, would an antimatter sun conduct fusion normally such that it would it radiate photons, or would it radiate ...
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What causes the vertical bands of light in an aurora?

I was lucky enough to witness a medium-strength aurora recently in Iceland (KP ~3). We saw the classic rippling arc of green light, which at times seemed to consist of smaller flickering vertical ...
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Will pyrolytic carbon/graphite repel the Sun's solar wind?

Since a moving charged particle has a magnetic field, as well as an electric field, and pyrolytic carbon/graphite repels an external magnetic field, would this mean that an object made out of ...
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How does the Earth's magnetic field protect it from the solar wind?

Several sources (see linked questions at the end) say that earth's magnetic field shields us from the solar wind. The general consensus is that without earth's magnetic field, the atmosphere would be ...
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Why the geomagnetic field become stronger when solar wind is stronger?

The following description is from the webpage of Niels Bohr Institue's Former Centre for Ice and Climate The Earth reacts to the solar wind by increasing the strength of the shielding magnetic ...
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Do solar energetic particles follow the Parker spiral?

I understand that the solar wind follows the Parker spiral shape of the Sun's magnetic field, thus it is possible for solar wind from a point on the opposite side of the Sun to reach Earth. I have ...
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Creating Aurora-like phenomenon in a laboratory

Is it possible to recreate Aurora's in a laboratory experiment? Obviously, I'm not asking if it's possible to have bands of plasma thousands of kilometers long inside a lab. But rather, is it possible ...
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Stable bubbles in a vacuum

I want to make space bubbles that hold some gaseous stuff - at very low pressure - for a long time and through nothing but surface tension. I can't use soap water as the water will evaporate quickly. ...
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How are solar sails maneuvered by sunlight? Are they pushed or pulled?

On 20 May, 2010, Japan launched IKAROS probe with primary propulsion by a solar sail. If the radiation pressure, that helps the sail to move, comes from the sun, then shouldn't it be pushed away from ...
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What is the solar wind speed as function of distance from the Sun?

Someone must have calculated at least a "zero-order approximation" of the behavior of solar wind speed, density, and pressure as a function of distance from the Sun, but the heck if I can find it. ...
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How does the energy of a solar flare propagate?

Does it radiate outward, spherically, or is it more directed? Is there some opening angle? Is it more complex than this?
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Colors of the Aurora

I've seen several web pages that attempt to explain the colours of the aurora but they seem to gloss over or leave out certain details, so I'm still confused. For example, this page explains it in ...
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Distortion of the Earth's magnetic field due to solar winds?

Why and how do the solar winds distort the Earth's Magnetosphere to form a drop like shape facing away from the Sun?
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Speed of sound at the Sun surface [closed]

The gas velocity at the Sun's surface is subsonic and At 1 AU from the sun, the solar wind is supersonic. Like Parker wind solution. Why the velocity at the Sun's surface is subsonic? (In the ...
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can a photons energy state be altered with magnetic force?

with respect to sunlight, is there any way to use a magnet to alter the energy impact of sunlight? more or less energy, or hotter vs cooler? All spectrums considered. visable, xray, gamma. Can a ...
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Shape of Earth's magnetic field

Why earth's magnetic field is compressed on day side and extended like tail on night side, like this I know that it's due to solar wind but not how that compression and extension happens.
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What portion of the total power emitted by the Sun comes from photons?

We usually talk about luminosity, which is the total power from emitted photons. The other sources are neutrinos and the solar wind (which includes protons and other particles). I assume that most ...
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Are North aurora and South aurora produced by positive and negative particles respectively?

Are North aurora and South aurora produced by positive and negative particles respectively?
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Electric field in frame corotating with sun

I am studying this paper on the solar wind for a class on MHD, but I am perplexed by the line that precedes equation (5): " But in a perfectly conducting fluid ${\bf v}$ is parallel to ${\bf B}$ in ...
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What's the timescale for the formation of a coronal mass ejection?

How quickly does the sun form and release a coronal mass ejection? If we were watching the right part of the sun closely, how long would it take us to go from "nothing seems to be happening" to "...
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Should there be a difference in strength or otherwise between daytime and nighttime auroras?

Or do they have exactly the same characteristics? I.e. if I observe them in a place where it’s dark 24 hours.
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What accelerates the solar wind?

The question is in the title. A bit of background info: the escape velocity at the photosphere of the Sun is ~ 620 km/s, but the mean speed of the solar plasma there (inferred from the temperature) ...
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763 views

What is the difference between bulk speed and thermal speed in solar wind plasma?

in solar wind plasma different species has different thermal speed but all having same bulk speed. why it is so? and in solar wind is the thermal speed is just the standard deviation around the bulk ...
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765 views

How would the Aurora light on Earth look like if there wasn't a magnetic field?

Here are some pictures of the aurora light. The beautiful phenomenon of Aurora is a well-known one, seen in the northern (Aurora Borealis) and southern parts (Aurora Australis) of the globe. Here is ...
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Solar Flares hitting Earth [duplicate]

When the earth is hit by solar flares, will it make the earth move faster through space when the magnetic field bends?
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Ion combination energies

This is somewhat out of my comfort zone, and therefore I may not be using the correct terminology. Basically, there are some promoters of a certain woo, that claim solar wind H+ can combine with O-. ...
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How long would it take Mars to lose its atmosphere if we gave it one?

I've read that one of the reasons Mars doesn't (any longer) have an atmosphere is that it loses more gas to the solar wind than the Earth does, because its core has solidified and it therefore lacks a ...
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Is it possible to send all nuclear waste on Earth to the Sun?

If we neglect the danger of unsuccessful lift-off of the rocket and the cost, would it be physically possible to send all nuclear waste on Earth to the Sun? Will there be an obstacle that prevents ...
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Do force fields physically exist?

Or are they just a region of space where the forces are acting around its source, for example a magnet? But if they are just regions, and not physical objects, then how can the Earth's magnetic field ...
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424 views

Solar prominence

I'm preparing for an upcoming school speech about solar flares and am wondering whether or not the "loop" in the following video is an example of "solar prominence" and what will eventually result in ...
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How does the 11-year solar cycle alter the cosmic ray flux?

Looking at a flux vs. time graph of secondary cosmic rays (e.g. from a neutron station: www.nmdb.eu/nest/search.php can plot you some. I just tried for example Moscow, from 14 Oct 1951 to today, ...
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Limitations of the ideal gas law: When does it fail?

Motivation I ask this question precisely because I am looking for a fundamental, quantitative explanation of the limitations of the ideal gas law and when it should not be used. Note, I have found ...