Questions tagged [solar-cells]

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What happens to the Fermi level of a metal/semiconductor under bias?

When a metal/semiconductor junction is placed under bias, the Fermi level of the semiconductor shifts horizontally up or down increasing or decreasing the potential barrier. I was wondering if this is ...
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What happens to electron, when we join two solar panel in parallel

When we add two solar panels in parallel then voltage will remain same but current will increase but what exactly happen to the electrons when current increases but voltage remains the same. Also when ...
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Why are most solar panel rated at 12 volts or 24 volts? [closed]

Most solar panel come in 12 volts or 24 volts, why?
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Convert $\rm Lux$ to $\rm W/m^2$

I use four LED matrix (UV, green, red, blue) to irradiate a solar panel with an area of S at a distance. The matrix is located at a distance l from the solar panel. I want to plot the volt-ampere ...
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Will the heat generated from solar panel electricity eventually generate wind energy?

I'm curious about limits for extracting solar energy, but I never studied this stuff so I'm going to speculate a lot. My first question deals with the things like wind energy. I assume this energy is ...
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Does a UV flashlight work to excite a solar panel to generate current in the same way natural sunlight would?

So I wanted to show some young kids solar panels. In the sunlight they work great, but obviously inside they won't work. I wanted to ask if I bought an UV flashlight from amazon like here would this ...
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Tilted bifacial solar panels vs. flat monofacials in cloudy weather

Many articles on the internet hail the bifacials for their productivity during cloudy weather. But are they really any better than a flat monofacial solar panel? FWIW, my setup is made of a 20° sloped ...
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What is the ideal amount of shade for a house with air conditioning and solar cells on the roof? [closed]

Considering a mid latitude (e.g. in Virginia), south facing, single family house with two stories, AC cooling and solar power on the roof: What would be the ideal level / amount of shade for the house ...
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Possibility of combining photovoltaics and solar thermal energy

In a private setting, photovoltaics and solar thermal energy are often harvested on the home's roof and roof area is limited. So, I thought about combining both, i.e. mounting solar collectors ...
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What method of collecting concentrated solar energy is most suitable for a Dyson swarm?

A Dyson swarm is a collection of solar collector satellites around a star, capturing the majority of its light. Each solar collector is essentially a mirror. Each group of solar collector satellites - ...
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Maximum solar power on moon [closed]

What is the maximum power that could be generated by covering the moon in solar panels? Assume the entire lunar surface is covered and that the currently most efficient solar panels are used.
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Bimolecular recombination: How can it be non-radiative for $e$-$p$ pair?

I have understood that the bimolecular recombination of electrons and holes can be radiative when they meet each other, However, I also heard that there are defect sites that can accept electrons and ...
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Physicality of the square root of the modulation frequency bandwidth in NEP

The NEP or noise - equivalent - power describes the ratio of electron counts that are displaced for a given unit number of photon incident at an area in which these electrons "resides". ...
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How do anti-reflection coatings in solar cells make light stay inside a solar cell?

We know that silicon is too shiny to absorb incoming light that's why anti-reflection coating is needed to make the incoming light stay inside the cell. However, the problem is, even though the cell ...
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1 vote
2 answers
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Best latitude to harness solar power during June?

What is the best latitude at which to place a solar panel during the month of June? Assume for simplicity that any any given latitude there is a place without clouds or large mountains to obstruct the ...
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3 answers
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What is different in the morning sunlight so it doesn't produce as much electricity as at noon?

Consider I have a solar panel setup as in the above picture. The top sketch is sketching sun rays in the early morning around 6 AM in a clear bright sky. The bottom sketch is sketching the sun ray ...
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Light-driven Carnot engine

Based on the definition of the Carnot engine, it is reversible, runs in a cycle, and is frictionless, which would result in the conclusion that the Carnot engine is the most efficient engine. The ...
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Thermodynamic efficiency limit of solar cells instead of Shockley–Queisser limit

I am considering the efficiency limit of solar cells, at first, it occurs to me that there should be a thermodynamic efficiency limit and try to reduce the entropy production as much as possible, just ...
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Is a photovoltaic powered air conditioner neutral to global warming?

Is my assumption correct, that Power generated by photovoltaic solar panels reduces heat energy from the sun (according to the PV cell efficiency of around 20%) on the area they cover An A/C ...
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Why does the voltage of a solar panel change as the tilt angle changes?

I performed an experiment where I linked a solar panel to a constant resistance, and took readings of the voltage and current every 10 minutes between 11:00 and 18:00. I performed this for 0, π/6, ...
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Does a 1m2 solar panel really provide more power than 1l/s of water falling 1m?

I'm trying to develop an intuition for small scale power, in the context of off-grid power. Are these sums correct? A 10% efficient solar panel, of one square meter, with incident 1kW sunlight, will ...
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Why does higher temperature lead to lesser efficiency of photovoltaic cells?

I have understood that band gap decreases but why does that decrease lead to lower efficiency?
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How can quantum dots beat shockley-queisser limit? (Particularly PbSe/S)

What is the main reason that we use QDs for solar cells? As the title says I am more interested in PbSe or PbS. To my thinking, the reason for using QDs is that creating quantum confinement effects ...
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Why are polycrystalline solar cells shinier than monocrystalline solar cells?

Being shiny reduces the efficiency of the solar cells. Additional to the grain boundaries that polycrystalline solar cells have that gives resistance to the current flowing in them, they are shinier ...
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4 answers
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Is silicon a semiconductor or insulator?

I have read that pure crystalline silicon is an insulator because it has a such covalent bond that very tight and no free electrons available for conduction bands. They all are bonded with other ...
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Does open-circuit voltage decrease when resistance increases in a solar cell?

In a solar cell, if resistance were to somehow increase (maybe heating up the panel), would that contribute in any meaningful way in decreasing the open-circuit voltage?
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1 answer
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Why are monocrystalline solar cells more efficient than polycrystalline solar cells?

What causes monocrystalline silicon to be more efficient than polycrystalline silicon in the production of a solar cell? I have read this answer on Reddit: In general, single crystal is always better ...
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2 answers
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Why do solar cells need to be square-shaped? [closed]

There were circular solar cells 30 years ago. Why do we have square-shaped solar cells now? Why square? Furthermore, Why do monocrystalline solar cells have rounded/cropped edges? Taken from: https://...
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1 answer
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How do solar panels lose efficiency and die over time?

Why do solar panels have a limited amount of lifespan? What goes wrong in them by the time passes? What changes happen in them that causes it to lose efficiency? What are the factors? It seems to me ...
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1 answer
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In a solar farm why isn't there a single gigantic solar panel across all the farm surface, rather than small individual separate panels? [closed]

Why don't we just cover all the farm surface with one solar panel? Why is there a necessity for making separate but multiple panels rather than one large panel that covers the whole necessary space?
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1 vote
2 answers
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What is the physical explanation behind the decrease of open circuit voltage as temperature increases in an amorphous solar PV cell?

I have researched and looked at several papers describing the effect of temperature on the $I_{sc}$ and $V_{OC}$, and seen many numerical explanations as to why the voltage drops, with reference to I-...
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1 vote
3 answers
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Why does solar panel output vary across the day?

I have seen engineering projects where they build a solar panel to track the sun such as this one However, I don't understand their rationale fully. They argue that at one point in the day, the sun is ...
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How do photovoltaic panels obey the law of conservation of energy?

The sun shines on a photovoltaic panel and it makes electrical energy, presumably by absorbing the photons in the incident light. But where does the energy transferred into electricity come from? Does ...
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Does the albedo of a photovoltaic cell correlate with its load?

Exactly what the title says. Since solar panels convert (to my understanding) visible light into electricity, will a solar panel under load appear visually darker compared to a solar panel under no ...
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Solar panel voltage reducing by adding cellophane

For a physics report, I am aiming to answer the question How does the power output of a solar cell vary with the thickness of cling wrap laid over it? I got a negative relationship between voltage and ...
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Can waste heat in specific environments be collected into photons and converted to electricity? [closed]

Crossposted on Engineering SE Here and here show possibility to combine photons of lower energy to one higher. Thinking of an application, it could be used to dissipate heat from laptop. Liquid ...
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In a solar cell when an electron is freed due to light in the depletion layer, why does it move to N-type layer even though it is negatively charged?

Even though in a solar cell the N-type layer is negatively charged why do the electrons from the depletion layer get attracted to it?
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1 answer
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Why do Photo diodes in Computer Mouses don't generate electricity when receiving light? [closed]

I had been researching about photovoltaic cells recently for a science project. In my researches,I stumbled upon photovoltaic cells,silicons,solar cells,and photodiodes. Photodiodes and Solar panels ...
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Work done by a Photovoltaic cell

Is the electrical work done a Photovoltaic cell equal to the energy of the photon incident upon the cell? (Assuming energy is not lost/gained due to other interactions) If we do not discard other ...
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1 answer
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Physics behind Long-distance Wireless Power

I have been looking into Solar Based Solar Power (SBSP) satellites to utilize the radiated energy of the Sun and utilize for use back here at Earth. The idea is that these satellites contain solar ...
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1 vote
1 answer
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Photon replaced by gas atoms in solar panels systems [closed]

Could be replaced photon in solar energy systems by the pressured non-ideal gas? Have gas atoms enough energy to hit electrons out in the material in solar panel?
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To grow one $\rm m^2$ of crop plants, how many $\rm m^2$ of solar panels do you need?

In vertical farms you need to use LEDs to make plants grow, which in turn have to be powered e.g. by solar panels. If solar panels had the same efficiency as plants, then you would need the same ...
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How are the layers of a solar cell stacked together?

Do manufacturers of solar cell use an adhesive to bind the n-type and p-type layers of a solar cell?? Or do they simply rely on the smoothness of the surfaces of the individual layers to contact each ...
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2 votes
1 answer
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Why is exciton diffusion a problem in organic photovoltaics and not in inorganic photovoltaics?

On page 2 of this paper: "When the incident photon hits electrons at the ground state, inorganic semiconductors generate free carriers. However, in organic semiconductors, excited electrons ...
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1 vote
1 answer
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Why clear days are not alike: What's the atmospherical science of a clear day? [closed]

I was hoping for an ideal clear day (synoptically clear sky) to see the maximum power output for my solar setup at my latitude (43.5804° N, 7.1251° E). Simple enough I thought weeks ago. Well over the ...
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Lab Construction of LED

If given a semiconductor with known bandgap, how might someone construct an experimental LED within a lab? It seems common to prepare solar cells using FTO glass plates with a paste of semiconductor ...
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Why shift current doesnt depend on applied voltage?

I am currently reading about the Bulk photovoltaic effect in Weyl semi-metal. Shift current is one of the major sources of current in the Bulk Photovoltaic effect. They originate in non-...
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Why does solar cell performance use short-circuit current per unit area and open-circuit voltage without reference to the cell area? [closed]

Here on this slide on page 54: Only the short-circuit current ($J_{SC}$) is given with respect to area, whereas the voltage stands without relation to area. One could calculate it, because the area ...
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What is the relation between the short-circuit current and the band gap energy in solar cells?

For the VOC it is: VOC = E_g - something, where something is positive and depends on the Urbach energy. Otherwise it should be linear: https://aip.scitation.org/doi/pdf/10.1063/1.49397 For the ISC I ...
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1 vote
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How many hot electrons are in solar cells that do not thermalize?

When an electron in a solar cell is excited beyond the conduction band edge, it will most likely thermalize which can only be counted as a heat loss. But in a few cases the electron will directly ...
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