Questions tagged [signal-processing]

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Electronics book for physics undergraduates

I am going through very hard time studying electronics, I studied little electronics at high school (what is diode, transistor, etc). Now in clg now I need electronics to study, I don't understand ...
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1answer
229 views

Normalizing temperature data of CPU sensors to ambient [closed]

My scenario: I want my application to stop or take some decision based on temperature. say like if my ambient is morethan 41 i want to switch off the application and we do not have an separate ...
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1answer
75 views

Which information do we get from the phase spectrum about the wave?

Let a wave is represented by an equation $$y=f(t)=10\sin(\frac{2\pi f_1t}{T} + \pi/6)+5\cos(\frac{2\pi f_2t}{T} +\pi/3)$$. Here, let us take $f_1=10 ,f_2=5 ,T=100$ Then, from the Fourier transform ...
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0answers
39 views

Is there a Bayesian theory of deterministic signal? Prequel and motivation for my previous question

This is a prequel to my question: What's the probability distribution of a deterministic signal or how to marginalize dynamical systems? Clearly my question looks at the same time fairly ...
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0answers
164 views

What's the probability distribution of a deterministic signal or how to marginalize dynamical systems?

In many signal processing calculations, the (prior) probability distribution of the theoretical signal (not the signal + noise) is required. In random signal theory, this distribution is typically a ...
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2answers
360 views

Gravitational waves: simulations of signal

I am self-learning GR. I was wondering if there is any open source software to help learn more about the signal processing of gravitational waves. E.g. a software that injects a signal into random ...
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213 views

Phase noise measurement with an IQ mixer

I have a question regarding a measurement scheme of phase noise that I'm trying to implement. The idea is that I have two identical signal generators (I actually do) that generate a sinusoidal voltage ...
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1answer
237 views

How does a high-speed atomic force microscope (HS-AFM) form a realtime image?

Regular low speed AFM uses tapping to image a surface. How does a high-speed AFM (HS-AFM) capable of imaging a whole area in "real time"? (Ando et al., ref) Is it just improved signal processing?
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157 views

Time-domain NMR or: When is the Fourier-Transformation not appropriate?

My question has two parts: One is general and has to do with the Fourier-Transformation, one has to do with Time-Domain NMR. Both parts are interlinked, of course. I tried to find out, why people do ...
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1answer
316 views

Acoustical Design considerations for Active Noise Cancellation Project for Air vent [closed]

I am working on ''Active noise cancellation for air vent'' project. I am using NI myRIO1900, Audio Technica ATR 3350 omni directional microphones and Tevion Loudspeakers. I have done the programming ...
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1answer
48 views

Karhunen-Loeve transform of a repeating process

This question is inspired by measurements of an unsteady flow. I have some doubts about interpretation of principal component transform using Karhunen-Loeve theorem. I have (centered $\equiv$ zero ...
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0answers
87 views

Remove measured distribution from another distribution [closed]

Take a particle beam as an ensemble of many particles. Assume two independent random variables $X_\beta$ and $\delta$ that add up to the horizontal position $X$ of a particle: $$ X = X_\beta + D_x \...
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1answer
226 views

How does this RSSI vs Distance equation work?

I came across this equation in a research paper, and can't seem to make sense of it. Let me give an argument for why it doesn't make sense, and perhaps someone can tell me where my flaw is? $$ P_L(...
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3answers
223 views

About quantization of EM energy for amplitude-modulated wave

Consider an electromagnetic monochromatic plane wave at frequency $f$ and E-field amplitude $E_0$ in vacuum. From the quantum electrodynamics point of view, we could say that the energy that EM wave ...
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2answers
4k views

Do electromagnetic waves produce sound?

Preamble: At 5 AM in the morning, if I sit quietly and listen attentively, I can hear many different noises, on a very high frequency. If I try to isolate the ones that are less noisy, I can clearly ...
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2answers
264 views

Time domain representation of a waveform from an accelerating source (doppler effect)

Consider the scenario where a stationary observer observes a source moving in 3 dimensions, emitting a signal $s(t)$. I would assume only the distance between the source and the observer, $x(t)$, has ...
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1answer
72 views

Would optical signal processing still suffer from slew rate?

In electronics, analog signal processing/computation suffers from parasitic capacitance which leads to slew rate—which is the maximum change of voltage allowed, so handling super-high frequency ...
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2answers
4k views

Calculate energy of a signal

I have trouble with calculating the Energy of the following simple signal $x(t) = e^\left(j\left(t+\pi/2\right)\right)$ Shouldn't it have $A=1=|x(t)|$, So $$E_{x}=\lim_{T\to\infty}\int_{-T/2}^{T/2}|x(...
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3answers
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What would a blackbody sound like?

If a blackbody has a temperature such that its peak frequency was well within our audible range, for example $1\ \mathrm{kHz}$, what would that sound like if we used Planck's law to plot its spectral ...
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1answer
179 views

How can one change the virtual position of a sound source with a fixed array of speakers?

I have a question about signal processing: How to make a person, sitting between array of two loudspeakers (one from the left and one from his right), hear the sound that came from both loudspeakers, ...
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0answers
98 views

Discrete Fourier transform for periodic signal?

From the Signal and System textbook, by Oppenheim, I learned that the discrete-time Fourier transform can be written as $$ x[n]=\frac{1}{2\pi}\int_{2\pi}X(e^{j\omega})e^{j\omega n}d\omega $$ $$ X(e^{...
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1answer
791 views

Whether there is any relationship between the frequency of an input signal and the frequency of it's fourier transform?

Whether there is any relationship between the frequency of an input signal and the frequency of it's fourier transform? For example, suppose I gave a 100Hz signal, whether my FFT frquency will also be ...
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2answers
611 views

Why is a sine wave considered the fundamental building block of any signal? Why not some other function? [closed]

It is mathematically possible to express a given signal as a sum of functions other than sines and cosines. With that in mind, why does signal processing always revolve around breaking down the signal ...
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2answers
145 views

How do phase carries structural information about the function? [closed]

Suppose you are on a railway platform and you hear the sound of train coming towards you. Now, Using Fourier transformation we can convert the time domain function (here take sound as a function) ...
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0answers
51 views

Deconvoluting Raman spectras from different wavelengths

I am using a laser source that is wider than typical laser source for Raman spectroscopy. This mean that the full width at half maximum (FWHM) of the laser is about 5-10 nm, compared to the normal 1-3 ...
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1answer
2k views

White Noise Generator Through Low Pass Filter - Autocorrelation of normalized data dropping below 0 (showing negative correlation)

I am doing the following experiment: http://physlab.lums.edu.pk/images/a/ab/Correlation.pdf It is basically a white noise generator running through a low pass filter. Sample voltages are taken and ...
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0answers
47 views

How does impulse lose energy in rotation?

I have this kind of empirical signal in Electronics where the signal is 1D current measurement (AD current coming from dynamic processes) such that the wire rotates in a big volume of water/mud: ...
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0answers
86 views

Can anybody explain about phase shift and phase spectrum terms in case of multidimensional signal?

I know about phase of a 1D signal, but when I move into higher dimensions like 2D or 3D etc, it becomes headache to grasp the concept. What do the terms "phase shift" and "phase spectrum" mean in ...
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1answer
70 views

How to compute phases of the signals?

Let us take 4 signals which are sinusoidal and periodic. Suppose you are given a phase spectrum or (/and) equation of the (main) signal only and you are said that the given (main) signal is formed of ...
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2answers
2k views

What is the significance of the Fourier coefficients?

Let us take an example, a white ray (which is composed of bunch of frequency components) is passed through a prism, the ray gets split (decomposed) into its elementary vibgyor colours (i.e.different ...
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1answer
478 views

Have some queries about Fourier transform [closed]

I have some queries about the Fourier transform In most of the cases, the Fourier transform of a signal is symmetric with respect to positive and negative frequency. I think the computational ...
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3answers
268 views

Whether the job of Fourier Transform is just to convert signals from time domain to frequency domain only or more than it?

I am a beginner . We convert a signal in time domain to frequency domain by applying Fourier transform on the signal to obtain frequency and phase spectrum. So,whether the job of Fourier transform ...
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1answer
476 views

Significance of higher harmonics

I am analyzing a noise signal and have identified the fundamental frequency of a tone and it's higher harmonics. Say for example given the signal below, The fundamental frequency has a sound pressure ...
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0answers
72 views

What is the concept of phase congruency?

I am beginner in signal processing. I am studying the importance of phase in signals. I want to know about Phase Congruency, but there is very little information available on internet. So can anybody ...
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1answer
280 views

Is this a frequency domain plot for audio? [closed]

I have a program "spectrum" that draws an chart for an audio file (a short .wav with an human voice recorded on it). I believe it is a frequency domain chart. The ...
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1answer
339 views

Energy and power of a signal via Fourier [closed]

It is asked to evaluate the energy and power of the signal $$x(t)=10\cos(100t+30°)-5\sin(220t-50°)$$ Since it is periodic, I need to find $$\int _{-\infty}^\infty |x(t)| dt\quad \text{ and }\quad \...
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1answer
1k views

Dialing emergency numbers with no network available. How? [closed]

When the network is not available on my phone, it says "emergency calls only". It means that even if I'm in the middle of the desert, with no towers in the vicinity, I can dial the emergency number. ...
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0answers
216 views

Measuring typical distance between patches using 2D Fourier Transform

I need to extract information about the typical distance between the black patches in an image like the one I attached here. I tried to perform 2D FFT on it (using OpenCF fdt function in Python), but ...
4
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1answer
128 views

What is the interpretatation of individual contributions to the Shannon entropy?

If $X=\{ x_1,x_2,\dots,x_n\}$ are assigned probabilities $p(x_i)$, then the entropy is defined as $\sum_{i=1}^n\ p(x_i)\,\cdot\left(-\log p(x_i)\right).$ One may call $I(x_i)=-\log p(x_i)$ the ...
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1answer
164 views

Two superimposed sounds traveling through low- and high-density matter: is separation possible?

Two superimposed sounds (at source: $s(t) = s_1(t) + s_2(t)$; the two sound components overlap completely in time, partially in spectra) travel through low- and high-density matter and are recorded ...
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2answers
695 views

Does a rotating DC motor near a TV affects the signals coming in the TV?

In my TV cable the signals were quite noisy so i cut the wire and hanged both the wire parallel to each other. Then the signals became very clear and everything was going alright. Once I was ...
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1answer
57 views

What should the cross-correlation of two signals look like if their difference is non-significant?

I have some signal data from my lab that I want to present but I want to be able to say whether the signals I have are significantly different or not. I thought I could use cross-correlation. I ...
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2answers
896 views

Why need for 96kHz, 192kHz audio? [closed]

Human can hear 20-20,000 Hz waves, so by Nyquist theorem it's sufficient to sample audio with 40 kHz. Indeed, 44.1 kHz widely used. But what do we need higher sample rates for? 96 kHz, 192 kHz are ...
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2answers
142 views

Energy of a signal

"The energy" of a signal $x(t)$ is defined as : $$E_s = \int_{-\infty}^{\infty}|x(t)|^2$$ Why is it called energy if it's not homogeneous to energy ? What does it actually represent ? Parseval's ...
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1answer
207 views

If halving signal strength is only a 3db drop, why can't cell phones be much lower powered?

My phone can receive a signal that's -90dBm. That's roughly one-billionth of a milliwatt. Cutting a signal's strength in half only drops the signal by 3dBm. Apart from slightly higher range, is there ...
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0answers
53 views

Why can't we use the Neyman-Pearson likelihood ratio directly?

If you have a bunch of events and would like to choose a cut to distinguish background and signal, you can take the likelihood ratio $$ \lambda(\vec x) = \frac{f(\vec x| s)}{f(\vec x| b)} $$ and the ...
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2answers
873 views

What does it mean to have two phase coherent signals at different frequencies?

Just as the title states, I don't understand what it means to have two different signals that are phase coherent but are at different frequencies. I am attempting to implement a MSK modulator in ...
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1answer
143 views

Optical signal filters

Are there any optical filters which filter the signal's frequency and not based on the wavelength of the light? So what I mean is, if I have a modulated/pulsating light signal riding on a large DC ...
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2answers
2k views

What are some good resources for learning photonics?

Including the generation, transmission, modulation, signal processing, amplification, and detection/sensing of light, I am interested in getting a good understanding of photonics. Does anyone have any ...
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1answer
1k views

Bandwidth of telephone wire

Internet providers try to sell us the more and faster "fast internet" - 15Mb, 40Mb, 100Mb, and so on. But it's well known that the bandwidth the channel (in the most cases it's the telephone wire) ...