Questions tagged [second-quantization]

Second quantization or canonical quantization in quantum field theory and many-body systems is the collective organizing and accounting of an infinity of quantum excitations and their interactions through quantum field operators.

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14
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1answer
2k views

Schrödinger wavefunctional quantum-field eigenstates

The reason that I have this problem is that I'm trying to solve problem 14.4 of Schwartz's QFT book, which've confused me for a long time. The problem is to construct the eigenstates of a quantum ...
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In what sense is a quantum field an infinite set of harmonic oscillators?

In what sense is a quantum field an infinite set of harmonic oscillators, one at each space-time point? When is it useful to think of a quantum field this way? The book I'm reading now, QFT by ...
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What does the ordering of creation/annihilation operators mean?

When a system is expressed in terms of creation and annihilation operators for bosonic/fermionic modes, what exactly is the physical meaning of the order in which the operators act? For example, for ...
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How exactly is “normal-ordering an operator” defined?

(In this question, I'm only talking about the second-quantization version of normal ordering, not the CFT version.) Most sources (e.g. Wikipedia) very quickly define normal-ordering as "reordering ...
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What is the physical interpretation of second quantization?

One way that second quantization is motivated in an introductory text (QFT, Schwartz) is: The general solution to a Lorentz-invariant field equation is an integral over plane waves (Fourier ...
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754 views

What do the wave functions associated to the Fock states of each mode of a bound state system mean?

$\renewcommand{\ket}[1]{\left \lvert #1 \right \rangle}$ Consider a string of length $L$ under tension and clamped on each end. This system is described by the wave equation and has a set of modes. ...
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Kubo Formula for Quantum Hall Effect

I'm trying to understand the Kubo Formula for the electrical conductivity in the context of the Quantum Hall Effect. My problem is that several papers, for instance the famous TKNN (1982) paper, or ...
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4answers
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Bogoliubov transformation is not unitary transformation, correct?

To diagonalize quadratic term in the antiferromagnet Heisenberg model, we may introduce the Bogoliubov transformation:$a_k=u_k\alpha_k+v_k\beta_k^\dagger$, $b_k^\dagger=v_k\alpha_k+u_k\beta_k^\...
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Can quantum fields be viewed as superpositions of classical fields?

At the end of my undergraduate quantum mechanics class, we looked at phonons. You can let $x_i$ be the position operator of an nth quantum harmonic oscillator, and couple the harmonic oscillators with ...
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Can we “trivialize” the equivalence between canonical quantization of fields and second quantization of particles?

As Weinberg exposited in his QFT Vol1, there are two equivalent ways of arriving at the same quantum field theories: (1). Start with single-particle representations of Poincare group, and then make a ...
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The Origins of the Second Quantization

I've been studying quantum theory for a while now and have a number of closely related questions that are not giving me any peace. I am not sure if such a long format is appropriate here, but I'd like ...
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What does second quantization mean in the context of string theory?

String field theory (in which string theory undergoes "second quantization") seems to reside in the backwaters of discussions of string theory. What does second quantization mean in the context of a ...
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Why do we need $2^\text{nd}$ quantization of the Dirac equation

As a Mathematician reading about the Dirac equation on the internet, leaves me with a great deal of confusion about it. So let me start with its definition: The Dirac equation is given by, $$ i \hbar ...
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Some questions about anyons?

(1) As we know, we have theories of second quantization for both bosons and fermions. That is, let $W_N$ be the $N$ identical particle Hilbert space of bosons or fermions, then the "many particle" ...
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Bogoliubov transformation with a slight twist

Given a Hamiltonian of the form $$H=\sum_k \begin{pmatrix}a_k^\dagger & b_k^\dagger \end{pmatrix} \begin{pmatrix}\omega_0 & \Omega f_k \\ \Omega f_k^* & \omega_0\end{pmatrix} \begin{...
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The Schrödinger equation as an Euler-Lagrange equation

In the book Many-Particle Physics by Gerald D. Mahan, he points out that the Schrodinger equation in the form $$i\hbar\frac{\partial\psi}{\partial t}=\Big[-\frac{\hbar^2\nabla^2}{2m}+U(\textbf{r})\Big]...
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QM Continuity Equation: Many-Body Version for Density Operator?

I am trying to brush up my rusty intuition on second quantization and many-particle systems and i came across the following problem: In 1-particle QM we have the continuity equation $$ \frac{\...
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Fetter & Walecka's derivation of second quantised potential term in many-particle TDSE

For the potential term in the Hamiltonian, I understand that we go through the same process as with the kinetic energy term. On the RHS of the TDSE, we get something like $\frac{1}{2}\sum_{i}\sum_{j\...
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What is the precise formal correspondance between an oscillator and a quantum field?

A common route of introduction to quantum field theory is to note a similarity between the mathematical structure of a quantum harmonic oscillator and of a quantum field "at a point". The quantised ...
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Fetter & Walecka's derivation of second quantised canonical Schrodinger equation for fermions

On page 18, before the occupation number variables for states i and j are changed $n_i \rightarrow n'_i = n_i - 1$ and $n_j \rightarrow n'_j = n_j + 1$ respectively, could we not have rewritten eq. 1....
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Is a “third quantization” possible?

Classical mechanics: $t\mapsto \vec x(t)$, the world is described by particle trajectories $\vec x(t)$ or $x^\mu(\lambda)$, i.e. the Hilbert vector is the particle coordinate function $\vec x$ (or $x^\...
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Is non-relativistic quantum field theory equivalent with quantum mechanics?

Related post Can we "trivialize" the equivalence between canonical quantization of fields and second quantization of particles? Some books of many-body physics, e.g. A.L.Fetter and J.D....
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Naive quantization of Schrödinger field

I just started learning QFT and I was wondering if one is able to quantize the Schrödinger field similar to the way one is able to quantize electromagnetic or elastic mechanical wave modes. E.g. ...
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Book recommendations for second quantization

I am trying to familiarize myself with the ideas of second quantization. However, the literature that I can find online seems only to outline the tools of this formalism of quantum mechanics. ...
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Meaning of Fock Space

In a book, it says, Fock space is defined as the direct sum of all $n$-body Hilbert Space: $$F=H^0\bigoplus H^1\bigoplus ... \bigoplus H^N$$ Does it mean that it is just "collecting"/"adding" all ...
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Quantizing a complex Klein-Gordon Field: Why are there two types of excitations?

In most references I've seen (see, for example, Peskin and Schroeder problem 2.2, or section 2.5 here), one constructs the field operator $\hat{\phi}$ for the complex Klein-Gordon field as follows: ...
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Is it possible to make statements about bosonic/fermionic systems by taking the limit $\theta\to \pi$ or $\theta\to 0$, of an anyonic system?

One might naïvely write the (anti-)commutation relations for bosonic/fermionic ladder operators as limits $$ \delta_{k,\ell} = \bigl[ \hat{b}_{k}, \hat{b}_{\ell}^\dagger \bigr] = \...
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Canonical second quantization vs canonical quantization with multisymplectic form in AQFT

First of all, I'm a mathematician that knows less than the basics of QFT, so forgive me if this question is trivial. Please, keep in my mind that my background in physics is very poor. 1) The usual ...
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Is there a natural operator that is canonically conjugate to the Hamiltonian?

As is well known, the Heisenberg uncertainty principle states that the position and momentum satisfy an uncertainty relation, which follows from the canonical commutation relation \begin{equation} [\...
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1answer
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Is it possible to construct a pure Bosonic creation operator in scalar QFT?

In a Klein-Gordon field with Lagrangian density $$\mathcal{L} = \frac{1}{2} \left[\dot{\phi}^2 - (\nabla\phi)^2 - m^2\phi^2\right]$$ the Hamiltonian is given by \begin{align} H &= \int\...
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What is the physical interpretation of a field operator

So far in our lecture we defined creation operators $a^{\dagger}_{n}$ in the following way, that we said: Somebody got you a antisymmetric or symmetric N- particle state and now $a^{\dagger}_{n}$ ...
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How to interpret a wavepacket in quantum field theory: is it one particle or a superposition of many?

In 'classical' quantum mechanics, a wave packet is a (more or less) localized particle. The wave packet can be expanded in a superposition of plane waves, each with a defined momentum and energy. This ...
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Density operator in second quantization

I would want to understand why the density operator in second quantization takes the form: $$\rho_\sigma(\mathbf{r})=\Psi_\sigma^\dagger(\mathbf{r})\Psi_\sigma(\mathbf{r})?$$ Is this a definition or ...
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2answers
496 views

Why must the Bogoliubov transform preserve anticommutation relations?

$\mathbf{Background}$: In my research I am studying the Ising model, expressed in terms of Jordan-Wigner fermions: $$ H = \sum_{j=1}^n(c_j - c_j^\dagger)(c_{j+1} + c_{j+1}^\dagger) + \lambda c_jc_j^\...
5
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1answer
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Non-hermiticity of Dirac Lagrangian: null momentum?

The usual Dirac Lagrangian is $L(\psi,\bar\psi)=\bar\psi(i\not\partial-m)\psi$. The canonical momenta are $$ \pi=\frac{\partial L}{\partial \psi_{,0}}=i\psi^\dagger \\ \bar \pi=\frac{\partial L}{\...
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How to understand the entanglement in a lattice fermion system?

Topological insulator is a fermion system with only short-ranged entanglement, what does the entanglement mean here? For example, the Hilbert space $V_s$ of a lattice $N$ spin-1/2 system is $V_s=V_1\...
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1answer
405 views

Klein Gordon Field Quantization: why this is the correct way to express the field?

I'm reading a book in QFT and the first thing tackled is the quantization of the Klein Gordon Field. The classical Klein Gordon field satisfies the partial differential equation $$(\partial^\mu\...
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1answer
347 views

What are the spins of Goldstone bosons in Condensed matter systems

Acoustic phonons, magnons etc are quanta of the Goldstone modes. What is the spin of these particles? Has it been measured in experiments?
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1answer
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Can the mass term be responsible for creation and destruction of particles?

In an interacting quantum field theory, for example, QED, the Dirac mass $m\bar{\psi}\psi$ is a piece of the free Dirac Lagrangian. On the other hand, the interaction term $j^\mu A_\mu=e\bar{\psi}\...
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1answer
101 views

Dispersion relation in tight binding model with even indices only

Given a tight binding model with Hamiltonian $H= \sum_{i(even)}t[c_{i+1}^\dagger c_i+h.c]$ containing even indices only, how can we find out the dispersion relation? Attempt: My guess is that the ...
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First quantization vs second quantization

What is the difference between first quantization and second quantization and where does the name second quantization come from?
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Second Quantization in Condensed Matter and Quantum Field Theory

There appears to be an apparent dichotomy between the interpretation of second quantized operators in condensed matter and quantum field theory proper. For example, if we look at Peskin and Schroeder, ...
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Fock Subspaces and Weight Vectors

This is my first time taking a physics course (I'm a mathematics major), so I'm encountering a lot of new things, which I'm kind of expected to know. In particular, how to work with Bosons. I've got ...
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1answer
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What is a single-phonon?

From what I understood from wikipedia, as well as some other resources, each phonon corresponds to a normal mode oscillation, and the creation operator to create a phonon of wavevector $k$ is: $$ a^{\...
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Time ordering and Fermions

Having time ordering operator for fermions, should it reverse sign if it swaps operators with opposite spin variable? In other words should $T[c_{t_1,\uparrow}c_{t_2,\downarrow}^\dagger]$ return $T[...
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1answer
397 views

Single particle operator in second quantization

I want to understand why we write in the formalism of second quantization for a single particle operator \begin{equation} \hat H=\sum_i \varepsilon_i \hat a_i^{\dagger} \hat a_i \end{equation} where ...
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2answers
564 views

Annihilation and Creation Operators in QFT

I have following question about creation and annihilation operators in QFT: The Klein-Gordon field is introduced as continuous interference of plane waves $\mathrm{e}^{i(\omega_kt-\vec{k}\cdot\vec{x})...
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A question regarding to the one-body operators in N-particle Hilbert space

Recently, I've started studying the book "condensed matter field theory" by Alexander Altland and Ben Simons. At second chapter when he's trying to rationalize the one-body operators in Fock space, I ...
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2answers
335 views

How will the (anti)commutation relation between two different fermion fields look like?

The anti-commutation relation between the components of a fermion field $\psi$ is given by $$[\psi _\alpha(x),\psi_\beta^\dagger(y)]_+=\delta_{\alpha\beta}\delta^{(3)}(\textbf{x}-\textbf{y}).$$ In ...
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1answer
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Expansion coefficients in the solution of the Dirac equation for a free particle

So my question is why do we need to write the coefficients $b$ (that after the second quantization are going to be promoted as the antiparticle creation operators) as complex conjugate? I mean, why ...