Questions tagged [representation-theory]

The systematic study of group representations, which describe abstract groups in terms of linear transformations of vector spaces, such that group elements or their generators are represented as matrices, reducing group-theoretic problems to linear-algebraic ones.

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66 views

Existence of spin-$\frac{1}{2}$ representation corresponds to $\text{SO}(3)$ having double cover?

I come across this article: https://skullsinthestars.com/2016/03/29/1975-neutrons-go-right-round-baby-right-round/ I quote here a part of this article: Spin 1/2 particles like the electron, ...
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1answer
41 views

How does an traceless symmetric tensor of rank two $S_{ij}$ transform under $SO(3)$?

The irreducible tensor representations of $SO(3)$ all have odd dimensionalities given by $2j+1$ with $j=0,1,2,3,...$ etc. The representations can be designated by their dimensionalities as ${\bf 1}, {\...
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2answers
58 views

What is a three dimensional irrep ${\bf 3}$ of $SO(3)$?

What is three dimensional irreducible representation of $SO(3)$ denoted by ${\bf 3}$? Are they vectors or antisymmetric tensors of rank two each of them has three independent components. Also when ...
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1answer
55 views

Decomposition of spherical harmonics via Clebsh-Gordan coefficients

The tensor product of two states with spin can be decomposed into irreducible representations via Clebsh-Gordan coefficients $$|j_1, m_1, j_2, m_2 \rangle = \sum C^{JM}_{j_1, m_1, j_2, m_2} |JM\...
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1answer
73 views

Quantization of the Nambu bracket

The most simple quantum mechanical system consists of a canonical pair of operators $\{P, Q\}$ satisfying $$ P Q - Q P = i \hbar. $$ It is well known that there is a unique (modulo unitary maps) ...
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1answer
32 views

Lorentz group generator in Srednicki

I'm reading through Srednicki's QFT. In Chapter 2, the author denotes an infinitesimal transformation by $$U(1+\delta \omega)=I+\frac{i}{2 \hbar}\delta \omega_{\mu \nu} M^{\mu \nu}.\tag{2.11}$$ Then ...
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1answer
49 views

Young tableau (SU(3)) computation check

Young diagram of shape (a,b) has $a$ boxes in the 1st row, $b$ boxes in the second row. Objective: decompose the following direct product of irreps, and then determine their dimensions given su(3) (...
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1answer
47 views

Generators of $su(2) \oplus su(2)$ in the $(A, B)$ representation

Let us call the generators of $su(2)$ in the spin $A$ or spin $B$ representation $J^A_i$ and $J^B_i$ respectively. What are the generators of $su(2) \oplus su(2)$ in the $(A, B)$ representation ? ...
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1answer
47 views

Highest and Lowest $SU(3)_F$ states

For the finite dimensional $(p,q)$-irreducible representation of $SU(3)_F$, we can label the states as $\mid T_3,Y\rangle$. Where $T_3$ is the third component of isospin and $Y$ is the hypercharge. ...
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46 views

Is there an easy way to compute $\exp(-i\pi J_2) |jm\rangle = (-1)^{j-m} |j,-m\rangle$

Is there an algebraic way to compute $\exp(-i\pi J_2) |jm\rangle = (-1)^{j-m} |j,-m\rangle$. I know this is basically the Wigner $d$-matrix (which I can just look up), but how is it derived in this ...
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2answers
88 views

Representation of the $\rm SU(5)$ model in GUT

In Srednicki's textbook Quantum Field Theory, section 97 discusses Grand Unification. On page 606, it states: In terms of $\rm SU(5)$, we have \begin{equation} 5 \otimes 5 = 15_{S} \oplus 10_{A} ...
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What is the spinor representation of other groups beside $SO(p, q)$?

I am studying a lecture about superconformal algebras and it claims that there is a superconformal algebra in $d=5$ where supercharges belongs to spinor representation of $F_4$ (which is an ...
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17 views

Inner product on group theoretic coherent states and anti-commutator of Lie algebra generators

This question is related to group theoretic coherent states (Gilmore, Perelomov etc.). I consider a semi-simple Lie group $G$ with Lie algebra $\mathfrak{g}$ and a unitary representation $U(g)$ acting ...
2
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1answer
49 views

Question regarding radial raising/lowering operator for isotropic harmonic oscillator

I understand the symmetry structure of the 3D isotropic harmonic oscillator $H = \frac{\mathbf{P}^2}{2\mu} + \frac{1}{2}m\omega^2\mathbf{X}^2$ as follows. The energy levels are $E_N = \hslash \omega (...
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33 views

Proof that representation of proper orthochronous Poincaré group is unitary

We have defined the action of the representation of the Lorentz group on the Fock space by $U(\Lambda)a^*(k_1)\dots a^*(k_N)\Omega = a^*(\Lambda k_1)\dots a^*(\Lambda k_N)\Omega$. I am now to proof ...
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17 views

Representation of spin in the Fock space

I understand that states of single 1/2-spin particle is just the unique (up to an isomorphism) irreducible representation of $\text{su}(2)_\mathbb{C} = \text{sl}(2,\mathbb{C})$ with dimension 2, but ...
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29 views

Connection between Group of Schrodinger equation and energy level degeneracy [duplicate]

I am recently study group theory and its application in quantum mechanics, but got stuck at a very important point that how group theory can be applied to analyze energy level degeneracy. In many ...
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32 views

How do time reversal and parity inversion act on a Majorana spinor in QFT?

Dirac particles are not the same Majorana particles. However, in the simple Lorentz group (boost and rotations, but no parity or time flips), they transform the same way. Particles in QFT were defined ...
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1answer
102 views

Pions and $SU(2)$ representation

I was reading about the pion ($\pi$) SU(2) representation and stumbled upon an expression for the isospin operator, $$ I_i=\epsilon_{ijk}\int d^3x\phi_j \dot\phi_k=-i\int d^3x \dot{\phi}^T t_i \phi ,...
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1answer
37 views

Matrix representation of the CAR for the fermionic degrees of freedom

The canonical anticommutation relations (CAR) for a fermionic degree of freedom can be written as follows: $$ a^2 = \left( a^{\dagger} \right) ^2 = 0, $$ $$ a a^{\dagger} + a^{\dagger} a = 1. $$ ...
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1answer
47 views

Spinor Understanding: QFT vs pure Representation Theory

I have some questions on terminology used in QM & QFT and (pure mathematical) representation theory treating the concept of "spinor". Let us focus on Dirac spinor as described in https://en....
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2answers
42 views

Representation of $SU(2)$, i.e., spin

Let \begin{equation} X= \begin{bmatrix} 0 & 1\\ 0 & 0\\ \end{bmatrix}, \qquad Y= \begin{bmatrix} 0 & 0\\ 1 & 0\\ \end{bmatrix}, \qquad H= \begin{bmatrix} 1 & 0\\ 0 & -1\\ \end{...
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31 views

Conformal weight of a coset model, and a specific case

Given a coset model $(G\times SO(2d))/H$, what is the expression for its conformal weight (in terms of its central charge or, alternatively, in terms of the highest weights of irreducible ...
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43 views

Weight $h$ as a function of the central charge $c$ in a Unitary Highest Weight Irrep of the Virasoro algebra

A highest weight irreducible representation of the Virasoro algebra can be labelled uniquely by $(c,h)$, with $c$ the central charge and $h$ the "Witt weight" (the weight of the Witt algebra part of ...
3
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1answer
78 views

Eigenspaces of the hydrogen atom as representations of $SO(3)$

When we computing the discrete spectrum of the hamiltonian of the hydrogen atom $$H=\Big(-\frac{\hbar^2}{2m} \Delta - \frac{e^2}{r} \large),$$ by some explicit computation we get that eigenspace $...
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1answer
70 views

Relationship between boundary states and primary states of a Kazama-Suzuki model

In [1] and [2] the authors claim that the boundary states (not just the Ishibashi states) of a Kazama-Suzuki model are labelled in the same way as the primary states of the model, so that the boundary ...
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1answer
127 views

Induced representation in Zee's Group Theory

I am trying to understand the topic of Induced representation of the euclidean Group E(2) in A. Zee's Group theory in a Nutshell in Chapter IV.i3. The Lie algebra of E(2) has three elements $P_1, P_2,...
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2answers
127 views

Anticommutator of spin-1 matrices

We know that in the spin-1/2 representation the anticommutation relation of the Pauli matrices is $\{\sigma_{a},\sigma_{b}\}=2\delta_{ab}I$. Does a similar relation hold for the spin-1 representation?
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1answer
49 views

Which matrices represent unitary projective representations of ${\rm SO(3)}$?

I was reading this post which triggered the following question. The group ${\rm SO(3)}$ is real orthogonal. However, it is possible to consider representations of ${\rm SO(3)}$ on a complex vector ...
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2answers
62 views

Single sequence of angular momentum ladder in quantum mechanics? — Why there is only a

How do you prove that there is only one sequence of angular momentum eigenstates connected by the ladder operator, within the subspace where the squared modulus of the angular momentum has a given ...
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0answers
71 views

Simple/elementary explanation for $\mathbf{3} \otimes \mathbf{\bar{3}} = \mathbf{8} \oplus \mathbf{1}$? [duplicate]

I am preparing a talk on the Eightfold Way, and am attempting to explain the spectra of the light mesons/baryons via representation theory. It will be delivered to students who have never seen ...
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1answer
82 views

SUSY Loop diagrams from a categorical viewpoint

In the paper "A Prehistory of $n$-Categorical Physics" J. Baez and A. Lauda give an account of the use of category theory throughout physics. In section “Penrose (1971)” starting from page 25 they ...
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49 views

How does angular momentum get quantized? [duplicate]

We know that the magnitude and direction of angular momentum is quantized in quantum mechanics. We can explain the quantization with the help of quantum numbers. But actually who is responsible for ...
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0answers
30 views

There is a classification of matrix representations of Euclidean group $\mathrm{E}(n)$ (also called $\mathrm{ISO}(n)$)?

I'm wondering if someone has already done a classification of matrix representations of the Euclidean group $\mathrm{E}(n)$, more specifically I'm trying to classify $\mathrm{E}(2)$. I watched a ...
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0answers
46 views

Gamma traceless

I read this Under what conditions is a vector-spinor gamma trace free. And also read many papers about higher spin, but no one explains why irreducible spinor is gamma traceless spinor? Can anyone ...
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1answer
36 views

How to make a triplet out of 2 doublets in the $SU(2)$ representation?

In Y.Grossman and Y.Nir "The Standard Model" book in chapter 4 (non abelian symmetrys) they present the law of whom we can have a triplet and singlet out of 2 doublets name them $\phi_a$ and $\phi_b$, ...
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2answers
232 views

Is Velocity Really a Vector?

In non-relativistic physics, physical quantities $Q$ are characterized by how they transform under a Galilean transformation $g \in \mathcal{G}$. $$ Q \rightarrow Q' = D[g]Q$$ where $D[g]$ is the ...
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1answer
65 views

Why is there no state of total spin 0 for spin-1 and spin-2?

To my understanding, decomposing the tensor product of two particles with spins $s_1$ and $s_2$ works as follows: $$\mathcal{H_{s_1}}\otimes \mathcal{H_{s_2}}=\mathcal{H_{s_1+s_2}}\oplus\mathcal{H_{...
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4answers
2k views

Why Lie algebras if what we care about in physics are groups?

In physics, we want irreducible representations of the symmetry group of our system. However, one frequently sees representations of the corresponding Lie algebra being studied instead. Is it that in ...
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43 views

What does it mean to take the tensor product of two reps of the Lorentz group? [duplicate]

If I reduce the Lorentz group to the representation $\mathfrak{su}(2)\oplus \mathfrak{su}(2)$, I can write left and right-handed Weyl spinors respectively as $\left( \frac{1}{2},0 \right)$ and $\left(...
2
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1answer
71 views

Observables labelling one-particle states in Quantum Field Theory

I'm studying introductory QFT using the first volume of Weinberg's series, and i'm having problems in understanding how single particle states of the free theory are labelled, i.e. what observables ...
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4answers
451 views

Position representation of spin states and spin operators

How can we represent a spin states $ \lvert S_x:+\rangle, \lvert S_y:+\rangle,\lvert S_z:+\rangle ,\lvert S_x:-\rangle, \lvert S_y:-\rangle $ and $\lvert S_z:-\rangle$ in position representation ...
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0answers
98 views

Finite conformal transformations of fields from infinitesimal

I know that in conformal field theories conformal group acts not by pushforwards but (e.g. for scalar field $\phi$ with conformal dimension $\Delta$) $$ \phi(x) \mapsto \phi'(x') = \left| \frac{\...
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2answers
41 views

Eigenvalues of quadratic Casimirs of simple Lie groups

I want to find a generic formula for calculating eigenvalue of quadratic casimirs of Lie groups, in terms of Dynkin labels. For a simple example if we take $SU(2)$, with $[R]$ indicating the highest ...
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1answer
115 views

Setting spinors and $SU(2)$ representations on the same patch

I am sorry for the naivety of this question, I am a mathematician and I am trying to put together different ideas. I am trying to understand the vocabulary of physics, in particular, I want to know: ...
2
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1answer
39 views

Wicks contractions of stress-energy tensor and plane partitions

I am working out the number of wick contraction of a number $n$ of stress-energy tensor in 4D CFT. The strategy is as follows: For 1 stress energy tensor $T_{\alpha\beta}$, you have only one ...
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46 views

$SU(3)$ and flavor symmetry technical question

In the HW of a particle physics class I was asked about a global $SU(3)_G$ symmetry of $N$ complex scalar fields that transform as $\phi_i(3)$ with $i=1\dots N$, $i$ is the flavor index. The ...
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1answer
75 views

Representation and Lie algebra of $SO(3)$

Studyng the book Group Theory in Physics of Wu-Ki Tung, I have read: "... every representation of the [$SO(3)$] group is automatically a representation of the corresponding Lie algebra, (...) a ...
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0answers
34 views

Matrix representation in angular momentum basis

I'm trying to find a way to verify that the following expansion is valid for any potential, including noncentral ones, $$ \langle \textbf{k}' |V|\textbf{k}\rangle = \frac2\pi\sum_{lm} V_l (k', k) Y_{...
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1answer
66 views

Representations of the rotation group

(I have already done a similar question, but I did not express myself very well and the question was a bit confusing, so let me try again. If you find the question repetitive, I apologize and you can ...