Questions tagged [regularization]

In QFT, regularization is a method of addressing divergent expressions by introducing an arbitrary regulator, such as a minimal distance *ϵ* in space, or maximal energy *Λ*. While the physical divergent result is obtained in the limit in which the regulator goes away, *ϵ* → 0 or *Λ* → ∞, the regularized result is finite, allowing comparison and combination of results as functions of *ϵ, Λ*. Use for dimensional regularization as well.

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374 views

Gauge invariant but not gauge covariant regularization

I'm not sure if someone's already asked this before, but I was wondering, in field theory, when we say that a certain field is gauge invariant but not gauge covariant, what does this mean? In ...
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731 views

Why does analytic continuation as a regularization work at all?

The question is about why analytical continuation as a regularization scheme works at all, and whether there are some physical justifications. However, as this is a relatively general question, I ...
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131 views

Can cut-off regularisation cause a Poincaré anomaly?

Momentum cut-off regularisation leads to non-covariant results, i.e., it breaks the Poincaré covariance of the theory. Is there any guarantee that Poincaré covariance is always restored when we remove ...
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320 views

$d=2$ pole argument of quadratic divergences in Peskin & Schroeder's book

Q1: My question is, in the context of dimensional regularisation(DREG, in dimension $d$), why do they mention the absence of $d=2$ pole in the gauge theory cases[1], whereas the $d=2$ pole is not ...
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438 views

Dimensional regularization and IR divergences and scale invariance

I want to know if dimensional regularization has any issues if the theory has IR divergences or is scale invariant. Does dimensional regularization see "all" kinds of divergences? I mean - what ...
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1answer
547 views

Regulating the sum in Casimir Force

I am trying to evaluate the Casimir force using a Gaussian regulator (I know there are other much easier ways to do this, but I want to try this!) We then are reduced to evaluating the sum $$ \sum\...
6
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1answer
390 views

Quantization of free real scalar massless field in 2d

Is there a reference to literature where one explicitly constructs quantization of the free real scalar massless field in the 2-dimensional space-time? In particular, how the propagator looks like? ...
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379 views

How does the renormalization scale $\mu$ cancel in all finite observables?

In dimensional regularization, we must shift the dimensionless coupling $g$ by the renormalization scale $\mu$ (which has unit mass dimension): \begin{equation} g \rightarrow \mu^{4-d} g \tag{1} \end{...
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159 views

$D$-dimensional Schrodinger's equation with a Dirac delta potential

I know that for $D\geq 2$, there is no bound state for a Dirac potential $V=-\alpha \delta(\textbf{x})$ unless we use an ultraviolet cutoff $k_{max}=1/a$. I showed this by solving the Schrodinger's ...
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648 views

How to handle the infrared divergence of massless $\phi^4$ in scattering

For massless $\phi^4$ theory, if exterior momentums are going to zero, then this diagram will be $$\int \frac{dk^4}{k^4}$$ will suffer from infrared divergence. Because the infrared divergence, ...
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176 views

Why do people rule out zeta regularization for renormalization?

Using zeta regularization one can get a formula for regularizing the integral $ \int_{a}^{\infty}x^{m-s}\text dx $ for any $m$. However, I have not seen anywhere. For example, I do not know why in ...
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2answers
101 views

Gauge fixing, invertibility and Green's functional

consider the photon in QED and the corresponding EOM of its Green's functional in k-space: $$(k^\mu k^\nu-k^2g^{\mu\nu})\Delta_{\nu\rho}(k)=i\delta^\mu_\rho.$$ Now, I understand that $U^{\mu\nu}(k):=...
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134 views

Should the parallel propagator appear in the point-split stress-energy tensor?

The first step in Hadamard regularization of the stress-energy tensor of a free Dirac field is to write out the point-split expression $$\langle T_{\mu \nu} \rangle \equiv \frac{1}{4} \lim_{x'\to x} \...
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92 views

How does the renormalization group justify the renomalization process?

I recently learned "Renormalization" and "RG". My textbook says "RG allows us to make sense of why a renormalized quantum field theory describe Nature." To me, it sounds like "RG justifies the ...
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207 views

Mermin-Wagner and Heisenberg spin chains

The Hamiltonian for the spin 1/2 ferromagnetic Heisenberg spin chain is $H=-J\sum_i \vec \sigma_i \cdot \vec\sigma_{i+1}$ with $J>0$ and $\vec\sigma_i$ the Pauli matrices acting on ith lattice site....
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138 views

What is the propagator replacement exactly in Pauli Villars Regularization?

The Pauli Villars regularization involves replacing every propagator in a divergent diagram by a "subtracted propagator", where we subtract a fictitious, heavy particle propagator from the original ...
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141 views

The determinant of the Dirac operator in Euclidean signature

Suppose the Dirac operator determinant in Euclidean space-time with manifold $\mathbb R^{4}$: $$ d = \text{det}(iD), \quad iD = i\gamma^\mu (\partial_\mu +A_{\mu}) $$ The Dirac operator is elliptical, ...
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89 views

Inconsistency in regularization with parallel and perpendicular momenta

In deriving the axial anomaly Peskin and Schroeder use dimensional regularization, continuing loop momenta to $ 4 - \epsilon $ dimenstions. The loop momenta can now be split into pieces ``parallel'' ...
4
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1answer
175 views

Length path integral

Let's consider a 2-dimensional Euclidean plane. The length between two points $a$ and $b$ can be defined in the following way: $$ (ab) := \inf_{\gamma} \,\int_0^1 d\tau \,\sqrt{\delta_{ab} \,\dot{\...
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186 views

Cutoff regularization: Why not cutoff exactly at the momentum reached in an experiment?

So far I have only actually calculated dimensional regularization and I just know about the idea of cutoff regularization. From what I understand, as the name suggests, you just ignore momentum as ...
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58 views

Why are dimReg divergences power-like? Or are they?

An implicit assumption when working with dimensional regularisation is that the divergences are always of the form $\varepsilon^{-n}$ for some integer $n$ (e.g. refs.1&2). Is there any way to ...
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99 views

How can Weinberg assume that $P_b$ acts as derivative?

In QM of finitely many degrees of freedom it is well known that due to the Stone-Von Neumann theorem, the CCR $$[Q_i,P_j]=i \delta_{ij} $$ leads to a unique representation up to unitary equivalence, ...
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172 views

Is Wick rotation of loop integrals legitimate?

In Feynman diagram calculations, we seem to invariably Euclideanise loop integrals in order to exploit the resulting spherical symmetry. This Wick rotation is simply a deformation of the contour; ...
3
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2answers
251 views

Pauli- Villars regularization in the Electron Vertex Function: Evaluation

I'm studying one loop contribution for electron vertex function form Peskin and Schroeder's book " An introduction to quantum field theory " Section: 6.3. I have some troubles with Pauli- Villars ...
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63 views

Dimension regularization “v.s.” fractional diffusion equation in wordline representation?

This is a very speculative question... Instead using dimensional regularization in QFT, for instance, $d = 4 - 2\epsilon$), one may imagine, thinking to the wordline representation of QFT (associated ...
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156 views

can we PHYSCALLY (not by mathematics) justify that $ \zeta (-s)= 1+2^{s}+3^{s}+4^{s}+… $

the values $ \zeta (-1)= -1/12 $ and $ \zeta (-3)= 1/120 $ give accurate results for casimir and to evaluate the dimension in bosonic string theory so is there a physcial JUSTIFICATION to justify ...
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804 views

$\mathrm{i}\epsilon$ prescription makes a function analytical?

I've seen this everywhere where they say "Analytic continuation is obtained by the usual $\mathrm{i}\epsilon$ prescription..." but how is that? How do you analytically continue (say) $\ln x$ with ...
2
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1answer
359 views

Srednicki Eqs. (6.22) and (9.6). How to get rid of $i\epsilon$ in the interaction term?

I'm studying qft from Srednicki's book. If one writes down the full $i\epsilon$ terms, passing from Eq. (6.21) (non-perturbative definition) to Eq. (6.22) (perturbative definition) yields $$\left<0|...
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87 views

Anomalous triangle vertex: divergencies and symmetry argument

Consider triangle correlator of one axial-vector current $J_{\lambda 5}$ and two vector currents $J_{\mu}, J_{\nu}$ in a theory with a fermion with mass $m$: $$ \Gamma_{\lambda \mu\nu}(q,p,k) = F\bigg[...
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50 views

The role of the renormalization scale in the functional renormalization group

On p. 28 of Bertrand Delamotte's Introduction to the Nonperturbative Renormalization Group he writes $k$ [the renormalization scale] acts as an infrared regulator (for $k \neq 0$) somewhat similar ...
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146 views

Are there fundamental differences between finite and infinite systems?

Most sources on classical field theory introduce classical fields as a limit of a system with $N$ particles constrained in some way in a lattice where a continuum limit involving $N$, lattice size and ...
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212 views

Why does regularization work in this Bessel function integral?

I encountered some days before an integral representation for a modified Bessel function and should differentiate it. But in this representation : $$K(\omega,a)=\int_0^{\infty} \frac{ds}{s} e^{-i\...
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352 views

Shifting the integration variable in loop integrals

We know that, in four dimensions, shifting the integration variables is valid only for convergent and logarithmically divergent integrals. If we employ a hard cutoff $\Lambda$, is it permissible to ...
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84 views

What is the exact renormalization regularization for divergent harmonic serise?

given the harmonic series $$ \sum_{n=0}^{\infty}\frac{1}{n+a} $$ what is the correct option for the regularization ? a) $ \sum_{n=0}^{\infty}\frac{1}{n+a}= -\Psi (a) $ Digamma function b) $ \...
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329 views

Anomalies in QFT books

Why in most QFT books when author discusses of non-invariance of measure of path integral (massless fermions interact with gauge fields) $$ \int D\bar{\Psi} D\Psi \to |\Psi \to U\Psi , \quad \bar{\Psi}...
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63 views

renormalization by differentiation how does it work?

i mean let be the integral $$ \int_{0}^{\infty} \frac{p^{3}}{(p^{2}+m^{2})^{2}} $$ logartihmic divergence but if a apply differentiation with respect to $ m^{2} $ i get $$ \int_{0}^{\infty} \frac{-...
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57 views

Observable which dependes on the cutoff

In arXiv:0710.4330v1 Balitsky calculate the eikonal scattering of dipole composed of quark anti-quark, $Tr(U_{x}U^{\dagger}_{y})$, to NLO accuracy. The result he found is: Where $\mu$ is the ...
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193 views

Sharp cut-off, quadratic corrections and naturalness

When introducing the fine-tuning problem, a sharp cut-off as a regulator in the calculation of the Higgs mass corrections is used. Since this regulator breaks translational and gauge invariance, up to ...
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145 views

Cancellation of the quadratic divergence in QCD

I am currently reading about QCD in QFT-Peskin&Schroeder. When calculating 1-loop diagrams for QCD and using dimensional regularization, the 3-vertex boson loop, 4-vertex boson loop and ghost loop ...
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203 views

Functional determinant approximation

Let the Hamiltonian in one dimension be $H+z$, then I would like to evaluate $\det(H+z)$. I have thought that if I know the function $Z(t) = \sum_{n>0}\exp(-tE_{n})$ I can use $$\sum_{n} (z+E_{n})...
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46 views

Wick rotation convergence. Functions in the integrand

Performing a Wick rotation over an integral is not equivalent to just a change of variable $t \to \mathrm{i}t = \tau$, after that we rotate the complex plane so that $$\mathrm{i} \int_{-\infty}^{\...
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1answer
63 views

Regularising the Green's function in 2D

The Green's function for the 2D Helmholtz equation satisfies the following equation: $$(\nabla^2+k_0^2+\mathrm{i}\eta)\,{\mathsf{G}}_{2\mathrm{D}}(\mathbf{r}-\mathbf{r}',k_o)=\delta^{(2)}(\mathbf{r}-\...
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113 views

Feynman $i\epsilon$-prescription for fermion propagator via path integrals

In Section 9.4 of S. Weinberg's book "The quantum theory of fields" it is shown how to get the Feynman $i\epsilon$-prescription in the propagator of a free scalar field using path integrals and ...
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25 views

Normal ordering in 2D thermal CFT

I am trying to understand the notion of normal ordering in thermal CFT in 2D CFT, for instance I consider a two-point function of scalar primary operator with $\Delta$ dimension at finite temperature $...
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0answers
64 views

Value of regularization scale

After regularising a transition amplitude, we end up with an expression which depends on regularisation scale. This means that our physical observables like cross section will be a function of ...
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0answers
42 views

Trouble Understanding Computation in Weinberg Quantum Theory of Fields Vol. 2 Chapter 22

In Chapter 22 (Anomalies) of Weinberg Vol. 2, the author is evaluating the anomaly function $\mathcal{A}(x) = -2[Tr(\gamma_5 t f(-(\not{D}/M)^2))\delta(x-y)]_{y\rightarrow x}$, following Fujikawa'...
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0answers
54 views

Why can we ignore infinite constant terms that come from constant terms from the Lagrangian?

This is a follow up or better an edit to my previous question that was marked as a duplicate of this other question. I think I failed to emphasize what I really wanted. The tittle of my question was, ...
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0answers
107 views

Integrals of the form $\int\frac{d^Dk}{(2\pi)^D} \frac{1}{k^{2n}}$ in $D=4-2\varepsilon$ dimensions?

In a massless theory we often get integrals of the form $$\int\frac{d^Dk}{(2\pi)^D} \frac{1}{k^{2n}} \tag{*}$$ where $D=4-2\varepsilon$. I have tried to calculate this in two ways in Minkowski space ...
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0answers
219 views

How to properly truncate an infinite-dimensional Hilbert space for quantum optics simulations?

In order to solve numerically a master equation in which the Hamiltonian and the jump operators are defined in terms of the infinite-dimensional annihilation and creation operators, we have to ...
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205 views

Renormalization and Infinite Series

In the renormalization of QED, one subtracts infinities to get finite results. This is not possible in gravity because of infinitely many divergences, and infinitely many counter terms. The general ...