# Questions tagged [refraction]

Change in the direction of propagation of a wave when its transmitting medium changes.

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### Condition for constructive interference of light question

The question was asking me to find an expression for the constructive interference between light which follows the paths $PQ$ and $PRS$, once the light has reached the air outside of the two glass ...
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### Why can't $ε_r<1$ (at low frequencies)?

I've heard it said that the vacuum permittivity is the lowest possible permittivity for any substance, that no substance can have $ε_r<1$. Is this true? If so, why is this different from ...
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### Can relative permittivity be less than 1?

Relative permittivity shows that force of interaction in some media is 3 times less than in vacuum ($\varepsilon = 3$) for example. When looking tables of permittivity I never saw a value less than 1. ...
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### Mirages under water?

In Polynesian shallow water, the temperature difference from short place to place is so high that one can see the same trouble refraction that exist in air above fire or metal sheet in summer. So I'm ...
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### Predictions followed from Fermat's Principle, according to Feynman

In his book Lectures on Physics, Feynman mentions two predictions followed from Fermat's Principle (chapter 26-4). 1) Given three media air (1), water (2) and glass (3) with indices measured against ...
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### Stellar aberration in a water-filled telescope

I read that when the stellar aberration of light is measured with the help of a telescope filled with water, the value of the aberration is equal as in the case of a telescope filled with air. Just ...
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### Difference between scattering and refraction?

I while back I learnt that when light is incident on a dipole the dipole will scatter the light, and when it is incident on a material of a different refractive index then the light refracts. From the ...
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### Different Refractive indices in Anisotropic medium

In an anisotropic medium, if we consider the dielectric tensor to be diagonal and medium is isotropic in $\mu$ or ($\mu = \mu_0$). Then from fresnel equation we get a quadratic equation in 'n' (...
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### TIRF mycroscopy with intermediate layer of different refraction index

I`m currently experimenting with through the lens TIRF microscopy in which an additional layer is used between the glass and the sample. This 10-30 μm layer has a higher refraction index than my ...
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### Refraction of light with destructive interference

The wavelength of light determines it's refraction in a prism. But, what if two beams of light destructively interfere as they pass through a small prism, so there is no apparent wave or wavelength ...
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### Is the refractive index neglected in the standard Michelson interferometer equation: $\lambda=2d/N$

Hoping someone can help with this. It's a simple question, but I can't seem to find the answer anywhere: I'm looking at the basic Michelson interferometer experiment, where you measure the wavelength ...
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### Formation of a second image due to reflection at a boundary

To determine the refractive index of a transparent plate of glass, a microscope is first focused on a tiny scratch in the upper surface, and the barrel position is recorded. Upon further lowering ...
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### The Speed of Light and Its Medium's Density

When reviewing a refractive index chart there is a relationship to the density of the medium and the velocity of electromagnetic radiation through the medium. The lower the density the greater the ...
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### Where does Light go if it is in a glass prism and why?

I know that photons/light bends or bounces when it hits glass so if it was in a glass prism where would it go. I know that light/photons hit the glass at different angles and if it hits at almost a ...
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### Does TIR obeys laws of reflection?

After reaching the critical angle, do Snell's laws and laws of reflection hold good?
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### Geometric optics multiple lenses

I am confused on how light rays behaved in this figure, specifically when it passed through the diverging lens. Why would the light rays converge when it passed through the diverging lens, when it ...
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### Amplitude of wave

Does amplitude of wave changes during refraction of wave If it will changes,why? I have been searched for internet but still cannot find a complete answer
If you consider waves in a metal, you can write the index of refraction for the metal as, $$n^2 = 1 - \frac{\omega_p^2}{\omega^2}$$ I am interested in what will happen if the index is perturbed by ...