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# Questions tagged [refraction]

Change in the direction of propagation of a wave when its transmitting medium changes.

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### Equations of Fermat's principle/Snell's law in a gradient lens (sugar aquarium)

I'm trying to animate a beam of light inside a substance with gradient index of refraction as a function of y. A good example of that is a syrup inside an aquarium like here https://www.youtube.com/...
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### Are there any real-world examples of refraction of light by magnetic permeability?

The question Fresnel Transmission Coefficient for Magnetic Field is interesting. Thinking about it led me to reflect upon what little I know of the history of optics, with refraction by lenses and ...
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### Dielectric constant change in the atmosphere?

I'm curious about the refractive index changing in the atmosphere. As I understand it (and I may very well be wrong/naive) when a ray of light enters from one medium into another, the electric field ...
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### What do individual rainbow-forming droplets look like?

Suppose we took a photo of a rainbow, but in such a huge resolution and sharp focus as to be able to see each droplet in good detail. What would the droplets look like? Would they be nearly uniformly ...
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### Phase shift for reflection and transmission on absorptive medium with complex refractive index

I am trying to come with a hand-waving explanation as to why the reflection and transmission peaks of a metal-coated Fabry-Perot cavity are shifted in frequency (see the paper by Monzon & al). ...
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### Thickness and refractive index of silica gel layer between fused silica and water interface

I learned that when fused silica contact with water, a layer of silica gel will be formed. However, I cannot find any reference about the thickness and the refractive index of the silica gel. Can ...
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### Critical angle equations - air and not air

When the first medium is air, then $\sin(c) = 1/n$ where $c$ is the critical angle and $n$ is the refractive index of $n_2/n_1$ (where $n_2$ is second medium and $n_1$ is in air). So, $1/(n_2/n_1)$ ...
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### Snell's law and Fermat's principle

I have read this sentence on a book about the Snell's law of refraction, referring on a ray that passes from air ($n_1=1$) to glass ($n_2=1.55$): "Snell's equation can be derived from Fermat's ...
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### Bending a Laser Beam [closed]

We can bend a Laser beam by varying the refraction coefficient of the air. We can bend a Laser beam by dispersing into the air small particles that have the same effect on the Laser Beam and small ...
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### Is there a formula to calculate the deviated angle of a ray passing through a prism?

I'm assuming the angle of incidence to be the number of degrees from a perpendicular line on the side of a prism the ray starts passing through... I'm trying to figure out the angle the ray would be ...
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### Why the image is being formed at the surface?

Last week I encountered a very cool optical phenomenon. A photo was sandwiched between the two glass plate to make the paperweight. The cool part is the picture seems to have been pasted on the top ...
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### Would you see a rainbow from refraction when the sun is in front of you?

I know how rainbows are formed, and why. Usually it is said that the Sun must be behind the observer, in order for its light to be totally reflected inside the droplet and then reach the observer. ...
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### Curved Light stream?

I was wondering, a while ago, i asked if there is a way to bend light someway, which I got the answer is index of refraction. Which is when light passes through a material it refracts to a certain ...
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### Refractive index variation with wavelength of light

In my book it is written that $$\text{refractive index} = c/v =\sqrt{\text{permeability} \times \text{permittivity}}$$ The dielectric constant medium is dependent on the frequency of the field....
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### Why does violet light bend the most? [duplicate]

When white light passes through a prism, refraction occurs and it splits into its seven constituent colours. If the spectrum is obtained on a screen violet light appears much more bent than red light. ...
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### Correlation between the refractive index and the density

The $v$ propagation speed of light in a transparent medium is related to the $c$ speed of light in vacuum through the relationship, $$\boxed{n=c/v}$$ The constant $n$ is a pure number called ...
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### Do gravitational waves disperse/refract (like EM waves in a prism)?

I have read this question: What is the relationship between a gravitational wave and a graviton? where kingledion says: Gravitational waves were theorized a century ago and recently ...
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### Angles of Refraction,Internal reflection and incidence

First ill ask my question in brief and then ill elaborate it below... Theoretically is it that internal reflection occurs within a solid sphere(which is considered to be the denser medium) if and ...
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### Feynman Lecture 33: Are Fresnel coefficients real?

In the Section 33-6 Feynman says: It is possible to go on with arguments of this nature and deduce that $b$ is real. To prove this, one must consider a case where light is coming from both ...
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### Refraction: Swimming goggles, short-sightedness, and underwater vision

I have thought of this question due to personal experience. I am short-sighted, and over the last three years my short-sightedness has worsened. Taking a lifeguard certificate again now that I did ...
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### How does the white color inside/below a rainbow arise?

Inside the rainbow all the colors of the rainbow are joint together to form white light. But how are all these different color cones formed? We see only the outside bands of the rainbow colors but ...
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### Determining the refractive index of a glass slab using a travelling microscope

In this practical video of finding the refractive index, the reading is being taken by placing the travelling microscope perpendicular to the slab. But I've learned in another video(Frame Shot) if you ...
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### Calculated focus of an asymmetric bi-convex lens

So I've been working on modeling an optical system using ray tracing. I've finally gotten to the point where I am testing things however I've come across something I'm not entirely sure of. I'm ...
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### The Refractive Index of Water after Several Heating and Cooling Cycles

If the refractive index of water under a certain temperature, say 20 degreeC, is 1.33334. Will it return to exact the same value after one or several heating and cooling cycles? Or will it shift a ...
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### Reverse of diffraction

Can we arrange a practical in such a way that the dark and bright bands in diffraction grating be allowed to pass through the same slit to get the original light (i.e the incident light before ...
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### (7) Will a nearsighted person who wears corrective lenses in her glasses be able to see clearly underwater when wearing those glasses? [closed]

Will a nearsighted person who wears corrective lenses in her glasses be able to see clearly underwater when wearing those glasses?
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### Why don't light beams refract when they hit a curved surface [closed]

I saw a diagram that showed a light beam hitting a curved glass block (half circle) and nothing happened until it hit the flat surface, in which it refracted. Why doesn't it also refract when it hit ...
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### Polishing Spherical Refracting surface vs Lens

My text book states that When we polish a spherical refracting surface (sphere) it doesn't behave as spherical surface and mirror .It still behaves as spherical surface. The polished side is just ...