# Questions tagged [refraction]

Change in the direction of propagation of a wave when its transmitting medium changes.

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### Do mirages really occur due to total internal reflection?

Mirages occur in areas such as deserts due to difference in the refractive indices of layers of air. As the light ray travels from denser to rarer layers of air, slowly bending, it approaches the ...
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### Path of sound in ocean where sound speed varies linearly with depth

In an ocean, described with $x-y$ Cartesian coordinates where $y=0$ on the sea bed, the sound speed varies linearly with $y$: $$v(y)=c+by$$ A textbook says that, if sound wave is emitted on the sea ...
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### Does light travel faster in between Casimir plates?

Speed of light is in general $c/n$ where $n$ is a refractive index. But for example introducing two parallel plates with very small spatial separation will perturb the energy density of vacuum ...
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### Radio wave behaviour in reflection, Refraction and Diffraction

I am trying to understand how radio waves behave when reflected, refracted and diffracted. I have put together a list based on light which I think will be the same. Can anyone tell me the behaviour of ...
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### How is horizontal atmospheric refraction explained?

I can understand vertical atmospheric refraction due to a gradual change in the refractive index of air. The distances measured in this model are often great. Sun moon planets etc.. now the question I ...
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### Help understanding the speed of light in media with refractive index < 1

I have read the standard explanations on this, but I still have trouble with convincing myself that information is not propagating at faster than the speed c in media of refractive index less then ...
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### Reflection coefficient as a function of frequency

I am trying to relate the equation for reflection coefficient in oblique mediums to the frequency but can't figure out how the frequency affects the reflection of light. $n_1$= intrinsic impedance of ...
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### Examples of mediums which are not linear, homogeneous and isotropic

In electromagnetics we are taught that mediums can be linear/nonlinear,isotropic/anisotropic,homogeneous/non-homogeneous...we also learn their definitions. Now we are told that if nothing is specified ...