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Questions tagged [polarization]

Polarization characterizes the oscillations in time the electromagnetic field is doing in the plane perpendicular to the propagation direction of a wave

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32 views

Troubles with stimulated emission of single photons and the no cloning theorem

I think I don't understand something basic about stimulated emission: it seems to violate the no cloning theorem, and applying its arguments give me 2 different results when trying to understand a ...
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Why does the soap bubble shine with the colours of the rainbow?

Is it because of refraction of light in water? a mixture of UV rays in sunlight? polarization of reflected light? interference of light reflected from external and internal film surface? or maybe ...
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Collective dipole oscillation and specular reflection

Let's say I shine light upon a surface and observe a specular reflection. If I look with a electron microscope, I see tiny particles much smaller than the wavelength of light (~10 nm) and also closely ...
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33 views

Can circularly polarised light be observed deterministically in a fixed direction?

In classical electromagnetism, a circularly polarised electromagnetic wave is described by an electric field $\mathbf E(\mathbf r, t)=\mathbf E_0 e^{i(\mathbf k\cdot\mathbf x-\omega t)}$, where $\...
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Simple, nonmathematical argument for partial polarization by reflection

I'm teaching calculus-based electricity and magnetism with a sequence of topics in which students learn the basics of electromagnetic waves before the semester in which they get a more general ...
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Light Polarizer for Photons

This is maybe a noob question. I read that if unpolarized light is passed through a polarizer that only allows vertical polarization, then if this light is passed through a diagonal polarizer, only ...
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Do two dielectric macroscopic objects colliding with each other elastically become polarized?

Since dielectrics can become polarized when electron clouds are not centered around nuclei, I wonder if each time dielectrics knock or bounce against one another there is some lag of the nuclei or the ...
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Why won't my interference pattern go away?

Bought a double slit diaphragm, laser pointer and some linear polarizing sheets off of Amazon so I could see the double slit experiment first hand. When I place a vertically aligned polarizer in ...
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Chiral preferences of photon polarization modes

Is there any experimental evidence that both photon (circular polarization) modes do indeed couple equally to both left- and right-handed fermion currents ($j_L,j_R$) ? I know it is a basic ...
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The polarization filter does not work

I am working in Conduction phenomena Photo-conductivity Experiment. Here the experiment guide . The aim is to measure the photocurrent $I_{Ph}$ as a function of the voltage $U$ at a constant ...
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Confusion about which electric flux is correct

Okay so electric flux density $\mathbf D$ is equal to the electric field multiplied by the permittivity of free space ($\mathbf D=\epsilon_0 \mathbf E \epsilon_r$). Therefore, $\mathbf D$ integrated ...
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How can we interpret the components of a polarization four-vector?

The four components of a Dirac spinor can be interpreted in terms of left-chiral and right-chiral spin up and spin down states. How can we interpret the four components of a polarization four vector $...
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Wave function collapse of photon state transformed by beamsplitter

$\newcommand{\ket}[1]{\left|#1\right>}$I am trying to make sense of the math behind transforming the state of a photon with a beam splitter. Suppose I have a beamsplitter crystal which split by ...
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Difference between $E$ and $D$ in conservative fields

I am having a tough time visualizing the derivation of boundary conditions in Electrostatics. My main problem lies with the fact $\oint \mathbf E\cdot \text d\mathbf l = 0$ is used instead of $\oint \...
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Minimum Electric Field for Ionisation - Griffiths

Here's a problem from Electrodynamics by Griffiths, which I've solved but need more clarification in: A hydrogen atom (with the Bohr radius of half an angstrom) is situated between two metal ...
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Polarizability Tensor and Choice of Axes

An extract from Griffiths Electrodynamics: The set of nine constants $\alpha_{ij}$ constitute the polarizability tensor for the molecule. Their values depend on the orientation of the axes you use, ...
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Some digital watches display digits in black on a white background and in the dark the backlight is reversed. How is this possible? [closed]

Some digital watches display digits in black on a white background and in the dark the backlight is reversed, blue on a black background. How is this possible? Here is an example: https://images-na....
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Energy of light with angular momentum

Light can carry both spin and orbital angular momentum. When I first learned this, I assumed that the energy stored in the light's rotation must have been transferred from it linear energy (as it's ...
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1answer
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What is the difference between the structure of plane and circularly polarized light?

According to https://www.azooptics.com/Article.aspx?ArticleID=65 "If the polarization of all the electromagnetic waves in a light beam can be made so that each of the electric or magnetic field ...
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1answer
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Optical Logic Gates using Polarisers [closed]

I am trying to build an optical logic circuit using the horizontal or vertical orientations of light as the two binary states and laser as the source. Before I ask you my question I wanted to first ...
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21 views

Is my thinking about polarization signal right?

I saw this mathematical formula in this paper about communication Polarization signal is different from the temporal signal, it is the two-dimensional vector, that is, horizontal polarized component $...
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1answer
49 views

How Gupta-Bleuler condition implies $(a_p^3-a_p^0)| \phi \rangle=0$?

Gupta-Bleuler condition is $$\partial^\mu A_\mu^+ | \phi \rangle=0\tag{6.54}$$ where $$A_\mu^+= \int\frac{d^3\mathbf p}{(2\pi)^3 \sqrt{2|\mathbf p|}} \sum_{\lambda=0}^3 \epsilon^\lambda_\mu a_p^\...
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Non-uniform Polarization Vector in dielectrics

In Feynman's Lectures on Physics Volume 2, Chapter 10; Dielectrics, we calculate the Capacitance of a condenser when a dielectric is placed in-between, whose polarization vector is non-uniform. ...
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Dipole moment for dielectric shell with specific boundary conditions (different charge densities)

To find the dipole moment in a dielectric sphere, I normally use the bound charges density which helps me to find the potential differences and then negative gradient of that potential can give me the ...
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1answer
29 views

How to derive the macroscopic dielectric function?

I'm following Matteo Gatti's slides to repeat the derivation of macroscopic dielectric function $\epsilon_M$: $$\epsilon_M=\dfrac{1}{\epsilon^{-1}_{\vec{G}=0,\vec{G}'=0}(\vec{q},\omega)}.$$ On page ...
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If two beams with orthogonal polarization states are superimposed, then how to evaluate the phase distribution of final beam?

Let the two input beams have different phase fronts and have orthogonal polarization states (say linearly polarized along x and y direction respectively). If these beams are superimposed, then the ...
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1answer
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How do LCDs vary light intensity?

What exactly happens when an electric field is applied? Say we're dealing with a TN LCD, in a 'normally white' mode. With no voltage applied, the orthogonal grated plates cause the director of the LC ...
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37 views

Will 2 polarizing filters at 90° with the distance of the wavelength of the light between them let it through?

So what I have been taught is, that if you have a polarizing filter which is just 1 vertical slit, you will only get light which is travelling at that angle, turning a 3-dimensional beam of light into ...
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1answer
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Does the effect at Brewster's angle apply for all angles greater, or only at that angle?

Came across Brewster's angle while studying radio frequency propagation. something I'm unclear about is whether or not the polarizing effect only happens at Brewster's angle, or if it continues for ...
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Dielectric properties of polarizing beam splitter

Are all polarizing beam splitters made up of dielectric materials?If so, what kind of dielectric materials are actually used to make them?
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From the general decomposition of electric field to one polarized along $\hat{\textbf{x}}$

In the gauge $A^0=\nabla\cdot\textbf{A}=0$, starting from the Fourier decomposition of $\textbf{A}(\textbf{x},t)$, the electric field $\textbf{E}(\textbf{x},t)$ is obtained as $$\textbf{E}(\textbf{x},...
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Polarizing Beam splitter

What could be the effect of aging in Polarizing Beam Splitters? Is it possible that the Axes for s-polarization and p-polarization change due to some environmental effects on a polarizing beam ...
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Optics - Polarization's Effect in a Blazed Reflective Diffraction Grating

I'm doing an undergraduate research project, part of which requires me to build an extended cavity diode laser (ECDL). The new diode mounts take receive the diode in a 90 degree rotation of the old ...
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1answer
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Longitudinal polarization of gluons in loop

I have a short question about the possible gluon polarization in loop diagrams. For external gluons, we only want the 2 transverse polarizations. In Peskin-Schroeder it is explained that in Feynman-...
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1answer
42 views

How flux density increases in the dielectric medium?

The above figure shows a polar dielectric medium in an external electric field which is normal to it's surface. From the equation of D(electric flux density) we see that flux density increases but ...
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Direction of electric field in the following cases?

In the above figure if applied electric field is at angle(but not normal) to the surface and is limited only to a specific region as shown, I believe the Electric field due to the induced charges ...
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Why total positive bound charges of polar dielectric exist only on surface and negative charges in volume when exposed to external electric field?

The above image describes the potential due to Polar dielectric material when placed in an external electric field. In that I don't understand why only total bound positive charge exists on the ...
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Photon bunching and polarizers

I'm trying to understand how polarizers affect bunched photons. Or, more generally, how a projection operator affects a two-photon state corresponding to photon bunching. Toy example: Imagine you ...
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244 views

Question about polarisation in dielectrics

I was going over my elecro statics course and in a textbook it gave an explanation on how molecules in a dielectric are polarised when placed in an external electric field. Diagram: They seem to be ...
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How can I determine what degree of polarization my polarized film is?

I have a piece of either circular or linear polarized film that I had laying around, however, I have no knowledge of the degree of polarization that the film has. How can I test to see what the degree ...
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126 views

Uniform Polarized Sphere - are there free charges? How to use Electric Displacement?

I'm studying EM for the first time, using Griffiths as the majority of undergraduates. So, in studying electric fields in matter, we derived equations for the volume and surface density charge of the ...
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Is it possible to manipulate the polarization of unpolarized light within a medium via Electric field?

You see this setup above. There is an unpolarized light source travelling through a transparent dielectric medium. Think of this triangular shaped medium as a capacitor. there are 3 conductive sides ...
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Is it possible to calculate force acting on water in electric field?

I know, that when water is placed in an electric field a force is acting on it because of polarization. Is it possible to calculate this force with taking the brownian rotation of the molecules as ...
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Optics for photographing degree of polarization?

It's relatively common practice in photography to use a polarizing filter to get rid of reflections from non-metallic surfaces. Usually you just put this filter in front of the lens and rotate it ...
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1answer
160 views

Why cant a polar dielectrics molecules ever completely align with an applied electric field?

In my electro statics course my professor said that the molecules in a polar dielectric cant ever fully align with an external electric field as they will want to then 'turn back on one another', so ...
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Uncertainty of $\theta$ in Malus's law

Malus's law can be rearranged to this form $$\theta = \arccos\sqrt \frac{I}{I_0}.$$ $I_0$ is constant. $I$ has a variable uncertainty while $I_0$ has an uncertainty of 1. How can I find the ...
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70 views

Polarisation of EM waves

My textbook reads 'The plane of polarisation of an electromagnetic wave is defined as the plane in which the electric field oscillates.' What exactly does this mean? I understand that an EM wave ...
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51 views

Boundary conditions for $\mathbf D$ and $\mathbf H$

I understand the derivation for the boundary conditions for $\mathbf B$ and $\mathbf E$ as it was explained to me in Griffiths, but Griffiths states the following: $$H_{\text{above}}^{\bot} - H_{\...
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1answer
86 views

Unpolarised light falls directly on a half-wave plate

Will an unpolarised light get polarised if it falls directly on a half-wave plate? If so, then what will be the state of polarisation?
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Will the refractive index of a electrolyte change when chemical reaction happens?

Since polarization is the reason of refraction, then anything that changes the structure of molecule, atom, or electron will present as a change of reflection. Thus, to my understanding, chemical ...