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Questions tagged [polarization]

Polarization characterizes the oscillations in time the electromagnetic field is doing in the plane perpendicular to the propagation direction of a wave

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How can I determine what degree of polarization my polarized film is?

I have a piece of either circular or linear polarized film that I had laying around, however, I have no knowledge of the degree of polarization that the film has. How can I test to see what the degree ...
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Uniform Polarized Sphere - are there free charges? How to use Electric Displacement?

I'm studying EM for the first time, using Griffiths as the majority of undergraduates. So, in studying electric fields in matter, we derived equations for the volume and surface density charge of the ...
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Is it possible to manipulate the polarization of unpolarized light within a medium via Electric field?

You see this setup above. There is an unpolarized light source travelling through a transparent dielectric medium. Think of this triangular shaped medium as a capacitor. there are 3 conductive sides ...
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Is it possible to calculate force acting on water in electric field?

I know, that when water is placed in an electric field a force is acting on it because of polarization. Is it possible to calculate this force with taking the brownian rotation of the molecules as ...
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Optics for photographing degree of polarization?

It's relatively common practice in photography to use a polarizing filter to get rid of reflections from non-metallic surfaces. Usually you just put this filter in front of the lens and rotate it ...
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Why cant a polar dielectrics molecules ever completely align with an applied electric field?

In my electro statics course my professor said that the molecules in a polar dielectric cant ever fully align with an external electric field as they will want to then 'turn back on one another', so ...
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Uncertainty of $\theta$ in Malus's law

Malus's law can be rearranged to this form $$\theta = \arccos\sqrt \frac{I}{I_0}.$$ $I_0$ is constant. $I$ has a variable uncertainty while $I_0$ has an uncertainty of 1. How can I find the ...
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Polarisation of EM waves

My textbook reads 'The plane of polarisation of an electromagnetic wave is defined as the plane in which the electric field oscillates.' What exactly does this mean? I understand that an EM wave ...
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Boundary conditions for $\mathbf D$ and $\mathbf H$

I understand the derivation for the boundary conditions for $\mathbf B$ and $\mathbf E$ as it was explained to me in Griffiths, but Griffiths states the following: $$H_{\text{above}}^{\bot} - H_{\...
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Unpolarised light falls directly on a half-wave plate

Will an unpolarised light get polarised if it falls directly on a half-wave plate? If so, then what will be the state of polarisation?
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Will the refractive index of a electrolyte change when chemical reaction happens?

Since polarization is the reason of refraction, then anything that changes the structure of molecule, atom, or electron will present as a change of reflection. Thus, to my understanding, chemical ...
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Question about field quantization

I'm reading a paper by Rubin, Klyshko, Shih and Sergienko titled "Theory of two-photon entanglement in type_II optical parametric down-conversion", 1994 (link to the paper). I'm stumped by equation ...
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Polarizability of Jellium model (Bruus's many-body textbook)

I am currently reading Bruus's "Many-body quantum theory in condensed matter physics". In Chapter 9, Fourier transform of the polarizability $$\chi_e^R(\mathbf rt, \mathbf r't')=-i\theta(t-t')<[\...
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Dynamics of dielectric dipole during polarization?

When a dielectric material is placed in an exterior electric field, a process of polarization would occur. During the stretching phase, does that happen uniformly(stretch evenly)or only in a specific ...
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Net bound current with uniform magnetization

My confusion stems from the following: Can I reason the answer being (D) analogous to... for instance: If this was instead a solid cylinder with uniform polarization $\mathbf P$ pointing in the z-...
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Directional differences between $\mathbf E$ and $\mathbf D$

My confusion stems from the following exercise: Since $\mathbf E$ and $\mathbf D$ (electric displacement) are parallel (assuming we are dealing with a linear dielectric), and that given the picture ...
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Influence of a neutral dielectric on the $\mathbf D$-field

I'm confused with the answer to the following exercise: I don't see how the placement of the sphere would change the $\mathbf D$-field given this arrangement. I think of the $\mathbf D$-field as ...
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What is happening inside a non-linear medium?

I am trying to understand second-harmonic generation as explained in this video. Now we have 2 formulas in a non-linear medium: $$\mathrm{P}_{\mathrm{L}} = \epsilon_0 \chi^{(1)} \mathrm{E}$$ $$\...
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Lasers: why when a photon kicks a excited electron, the two released photons have the same polarization?

When a photon kicks a excited electron, why do the two released photons have the same polarization? I was playing with some lasers and am trying to understand the principles at play. I just read ...
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What components would produce this polarization/waveplate demo? [duplicate]

An optics demonstration that I saw many years ago involved two identical-looking transparent plastic "slides", about the size of microscope slides. Call them slides A and B. Individually, they were ...
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Why does potential decrease when a dielectric is introduced?

Here is a problem that I have encountered: A parallel-plate capacitor has the space between the plates filled with a slab of dielectric with constant $K_1$ and one with constant $K_2$, each of ...
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Is polarization matrix always diagonalizable?

In chapter 31 of Feynman lectures Vol 2, he covers polarization , polarization tensor and its diagonalisation, he proves that for a crystal, the tensor matrix is symmetric hermitian and hence ...
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Wavelength vs change in angle of polarization?

My project is on polarimetry. I am searching for a base idea. What is the relationship between Wavelength vs change in angle of polarization? Note- Please do not lin this to optical activity(even ...
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How momentum is conserved when left circularly polarized light hits a mirror?

I read that 2 light planes with same amplitude are set perpendicular to each other will create a circularly polarized light, but I am curious that when it is reflected back and is converted from left ...
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Is polarization complementary along its different axes?

Is polarization complementary along its different axes -- much like the spin of a particle is -- thus implying that the uncertainty principle holds for polarization measurements on these different ...
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Integrand discontinuity of surface integral of electric field of dielectrics

I am reading an article here on dielectrics Equation $(4.10)$ is: $$\Phi(\mathbf{r})=\dfrac{1}{4\pi \epsilon_0}\int_{V} \dfrac{d^3r'}{|\mathbf{r}-\mathbf{r'}|} [\rho (\mathbf{r'})\ -\nabla'.\mathbf{...
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Polarization depending phase shift of EM waves on reflection off denser medium

I've seen this video: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=JjGep0W8ZHI, There it is explained that an electromagnetic (here radio) wave has a phase shift if it was radiated in horizontal polarization, but ...
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Cylindrical Light Waves and how the wave equation changes

My homework asks "Suppose the source was a long thin filament so that cylindrical waves were generated. Describe how your equations would change for this situation." The equations we have that they ...
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As for polarization, what's the relation between 'fast \ slow axis' and 'P \ S polarization'

In a polarized laser source or fiber, there is a mark called 'slow axis' or 'fast axis'. But on a polarized beam splitter, there is P-polarization and S-polarization. What's the relation?
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Polarization lost upon 2nd reflection?

Why does it seem that linearly polarized light does not always stay linearly polarized after reflecting off a mirror or beamsplitters set at different angles? What is this phenomenon? I have a ...
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Why gravitational wave stretches on $x$-axis would necessarily compress on the $y$-axis?

I read gravitational wave is a traverse wave, usually produced by inspiraling neutron stars or black holes, and laser interferometer such as LIGO is commonly used to detect them, since the setup of ...
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Polarization states of a massive graviton

How could I reconcile the fact that there are 6 polarization states for a gravitational wave (3 transverse and 3 with longitudinal components) with the fact that the spin-2 graviton should allow a ...
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What is the difference between linear and plane polarization?

What is the difference between linear and plane polarization?
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Considering nontrivial $\mathbf \nabla \times \mathbf P$

For the following image: I am told that this solid cylinder is essentially a bar electret, which has a uniformly distributed $\mathbf P$ throughout its volume. There are no free charges, I will posit....
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Why can an ultrasound receiver and transmitter not be used to demonstrate polarization?

How come microwaves can be used to demonstrate polarization effects but an ultrasound receiver and transmitter cannot?
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Polarisation inside neutron

What happens to a neutron when it is placed in an electric field? Does polarisation take place inside the neutron (As it consists of charged quarks) in a similar way as that of neutral atom?
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Light polarization and AC

Is it possible to induce skin currents in electrical conductors under an intense linearly polarized beam of sunlight? What I mean by intense is a focused light with a large lens to increase the ...
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Similarities and analogies between the $E, P$ and $D$ fields with the $B, M$ and $H$ fields and their limitations

In the course of my learning electromagnetism, I’ve noticed there are a striking amount of symmetries in electrostatics and magnetostatics, almost down to replacing divergence operators with curl ...
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I am studying polarization of EM waves. Where does this general form come from?

This is a snapshot from The Physics of Waves by Georgi. I am wondering if anyone could explain where this general form of polarization vector comes from? Thank you very much.
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Why do we ignore magnetic field vector during polarization?

Most light sources in nature emit unpolarized light. Natural light sources consist of very large number of randomly oriented atomic emitter, which emit polarized light randomly. A linear polarizer is ...
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Energy momentum tensor in polarizable media

I am trying to follow Soper's derivation of the energy-momentum tensor for polarizable media in his book 'Classical field theory'. Given a Lagrangian density $\mathcal{L} = \mathcal{L}(\phi_A, \...
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Is the Lorentz transform of a bound current - a bound current?

The bound (magnetization) current is $\mathbf{J}_\mathrm{M} = \nabla \times \mathbf{M}$. The charge density of a moving magnet that is electrically neutral in its own rest frame satisfies the ...
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Depolarization factors of a drude metal plasmonic spheroid

A practice question asks for the depolarization factors $ L_{i=x,y,z} $ of a plasmonic spheroid made of a drude metal having the same resonance as the SPP resonance frequency. The answer turns out to ...
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Stokes vectors and fractional polarisation

I am struggling to be able to write this problem as a Stoke's vector. I understand how to set it up, but am not sure if you need two separate vectors that you combine or just one. Any help would be ...
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Polarization on a spherical electromagnetic wave in free space using classical electromagnetism

The polarization of a plane wave traveling in free space is well defined and traverse to the direction of propagation from classical electromagnetic theory. Spherical waves are another type of ...
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Polarization ellipse for an EM wave [duplicate]

In Chapter 7 of Jackson's book on Classical Electrodynamics, there's the following statement: Introducing the complex orthogonal unit vectors: $$\epsilon_{\pm}=\frac{1}{\sqrt{2}}(\epsilon_1\pm\...
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Question on oscillation of Electric field vector

I was reading Feynman Lectures on Physics in which he explains the direction of oscillation of electric field vector. If you see figure 33-2 g , you will find that $E_x = \cos \omega t$ $E_y = \sin \...
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How to determine the axis of a polaroid?

I have found a polaroid from an old LCD device. It is rectangular in shape and does not have any markings on it. I wanted to somehow determine its axis, maybe not exact. I have tried to use it in ...
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Can we choose polarization vectors freely in any given gauge theory?

When quantizing a gauge theory, we obtain spin-1 particles propagating in space-time. When we want to count the degrees of freedom of the theory or, equivalently, when we are trying to decompose the ...
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Does a polarizer affect both entangled photons or only one?

Suppose you have two polarization-entangled photons A and B in the following state: \begin{equation} \Phi=\frac{1}{\sqrt{2}}\bigl(\left|H_{A},H_{B}\right\rangle + \left| V_{A},V_{B}\right\rangle\bigr)...